Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Fairness

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 368

Full-Text Articles in Law

I Hope The Final Judgment’S Fair: Alternative Jurisprudences, Legal Decision-Making, And Justice, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2024

I Hope The Final Judgment’S Fair: Alternative Jurisprudences, Legal Decision-Making, And Justice, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

At the core of any legal decision is an assumption that the decision will be “fair,” yet this is an elusive term. A close study of cases involving criminal defendants with mental disabilities shows that many (perhaps most) of the decisions involving this cohort are not “fair” in the contexts of due process and justice. If legal decisions reflect principles such as procedural justice, restorative justice, and therapeutic jurisprudence, the chances of such fairness will be significantly enhanced. This chapter explains why this goal of fairness, in the context of these cases, can never be met absent a consideration of …


The Role Of Ethical Principles In Ai Startups, James Bessen, Stephen Michael Impink, Robert Seamans Mar 2023

The Role Of Ethical Principles In Ai Startups, James Bessen, Stephen Michael Impink, Robert Seamans

Faculty Scholarship

Do high-tech startups benefit from developing more ethical AI? AI startups implement policies and take actions to manage ethical issues associated with data collection, storage, and usage and adapt to the norms of their industry. This paper describes these startups' ethics-related actions, including ethical AI policy adoption, and examines how these actions relate to startup performance. We find that merely adopting an ethical AI policy (i.e., a less costly signal) does not relate to increased performance. However, there is evidence that investors reward startups that take more costly preventative pro-ethics actions, like seeking expert guidance, training employees about unconscious bias, …


A Scientific Method For International Taxation?, Luiza Leite De Queiroz Jan 2023

A Scientific Method For International Taxation?, Luiza Leite De Queiroz

Emory International Law Review Recent Developments

Fractioning and fairly distributing parts of a whole is never quite straightforward. Whether we speak of justly portioning and dividing scrambled eggs between siblings or jurisdictional claims over the ocean space between nations, reckoning with the dilemmas of sharing is an integral part of the human experience. Acknowledging that, this essay contends that contemporary discussions on fairness in international taxation ought to be situated within this broader context. It is centrally argued that justly allocating taxing entitlements over cross-border wealth is a task contingent on the same subjective predicaments seen in the division process of any given valuable whole. The …


Proceduralism: Delaware’S Legacy, Dalia Tsuk Mitchell Jan 2023

Proceduralism: Delaware’S Legacy, Dalia Tsuk Mitchell

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This article examines the Delaware courts’ 1980s shift from managerialism to a theory I label proceduralism. I argue that managerialism, which justified corporate law’s deference to directors in the preceding fifty years, was corporate law’s response to social, political, and cultural concerns outside corporations. At the turn of the twentieth century, corporations and their managers were empowered to fight socialism by protecting the interests of workers, while in the midcentury, corporations became the first line of defense against the threats of totalitarianism and later the Cold War. Corporate directors were viewed as heroes and their power justified as necessary for …


Developments In Contract Law: The 2020-2021 Term – Appeals To Fairness, Marcus Moore Aug 2022

Developments In Contract Law: The 2020-2021 Term – Appeals To Fairness, Marcus Moore

All Faculty Publications

This article analyzes important developments in Contract Law stemming from consideration by the Supreme Court of Canada in 2020-2021. Due to the large number of Contracts cases during this period, the article focuses on prominent appeals occupied with issues of fairness in Canadian Contract Law. Fairness in contracts emerges as an important concern of the SCC at this juncture. This appropriately reflects the constellation of some long-unsolved problems (e.g., control of unfair terms in standard form contracts), confusion around key concepts associated with protection of contractual fairness (e.g., unconscionability and good faith), and judicial disagreement over the merits of general …


Algorithm Vs. Algorithm, Cary Coglianese, Alicia Lai Jan 2022

Algorithm Vs. Algorithm, Cary Coglianese, Alicia Lai

All Faculty Scholarship

Critics raise alarm bells about governmental use of digital algorithms, charging that they are too complex, inscrutable, and prone to bias. A realistic assessment of digital algorithms, though, must acknowledge that government is already driven by algorithms of arguably greater complexity and potential for abuse: the algorithms implicit in human decision-making. The human brain operates algorithmically through complex neural networks. And when humans make collective decisions, they operate via algorithms too—those reflected in legislative, judicial, and administrative processes. Yet these human algorithms undeniably fail and are far from transparent. On an individual level, human decision-making suffers from memory limitations, fatigue, …


From Contacts To Relatedness: Invigorating The Promise Of "Fair Play And Substantial Justice" In Personal Jurisdiction Doctrine, Richard Freer Jan 2022

From Contacts To Relatedness: Invigorating The Promise Of "Fair Play And Substantial Justice" In Personal Jurisdiction Doctrine, Richard Freer

Faculty Articles

Personal jurisdiction is integral to access to justice. Without a convenient court, plaintiffs’ efforts to vindicate claims (and society’s interest in private enforcement of law) may be thwarted. After considerable engagement in between 1977 and 1990, the Supreme Court did not decide a personal jurisdiction case between 1990 and 2011. This Symposium addresses what the Court has done regarding personal jurisdiction in the “new era” that started in 2011. That year brought a specific jurisdiction decision, J. McIntyre Machinery, Ltd. v. Nicastro, and a general jurisdiction decision, Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations, S.A. v. Brown. The former broke no …


Money And Betrayal: Perceptions Of Alimony Fairness In Relation To Infidelity, Jessica Wery, Michael Kothakota Jan 2022

Money And Betrayal: Perceptions Of Alimony Fairness In Relation To Infidelity, Jessica Wery, Michael Kothakota

Journal of Financial Therapy

Alimony is a contentious topic often argued over during a divorce. Individuals getting divorced seek fairness in an alimony settlement, but due to how laws are written this can seem arbitrary. Public policy suggests laws should reflect the suggestions of the people it affects. Thus, public perception of alimony fairness is an important component in the discussion of what is fair for spouses. In addition, infidelity in marriage might change how the public views what is fair. This study collected data from 1,285 individual United States participants. Participants were randomly assigned a vignette condition related to a hypothetical alimony scenario …


Controlling Fairness In Standard Form Contracts: What Can Courts Do, And What Should They Do?, Marcus Moore Jan 2022

Controlling Fairness In Standard Form Contracts: What Can Courts Do, And What Should They Do?, Marcus Moore

All Faculty Publications

Unfair terms in standard form contracts are one of Contract Law's most notorious and enduring problems. The vast transnational literature on this, now a century old, has long worked out its contours, even as it still searches for more effective solutions. The central problem can be simply stated: A form drafter's ability to dictate terms-characteristically unknown and unbargained by the parties who are form recipients-allows, in the absence of any other legal control, for the incorporation of one-sided terms favouring the drafting party. The implications are significant: The exhaustive list of terms typical of such contracts, combined with the pervasiveness …


Law School News: The Honorable Edward C. Clifton: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-17-2021, Michael M. Bowden May 2021

Law School News: The Honorable Edward C. Clifton: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-17-2021, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Takings Localism, Nestor M. Davisdson, Timothy M. Mulvaney Mar 2021

Takings Localism, Nestor M. Davisdson, Timothy M. Mulvaney

Faculty Scholarship

Conflicts over “sanctuary” cities, minimum wage laws, and gender-neutral bathrooms have brought the problematic landscape of contemporary state preemption of local governance to national attention. This Article contends that more covert, although equally robust, state interference can be found in property, with significant consequences for our understanding of takings law.

Takings jurisprudence looks to the states to mediate most tensions between individual property rights and community needs, as the takings federalism literature recognizes. Takings challenges, however, often involve local governments. If the doctrine privileges the democratic process to resolve most takings claims, then, that critical process is a largely local …


Pricing Drugs Fairly, Govind Persad Feb 2021

Pricing Drugs Fairly, Govind Persad

William & Mary Law Review

Dissatisfaction with drug prices has prompted a flurry of recent legislation and academic research. But while pharmaceutical policy often regards fair pricing as a goal, the concept of fairness itself frequently goes undefined. Legal scholarship—even work ostensibly focused on fairness—has not defined and defended an account of fair pricing. Recent legislative proposals in the House and Senate have similarly avoided a determinate position on fairness. This Article explains and defends an account of what makes a price for a drug fair (identifying fair price with social value), argues for implementing fair pricing through a price ceiling grounded in social value, …


The Wolf We Feed: Democracy, Caste, And Legitimacy, Benjamin Justice, Tracey L. Meares Jan 2021

The Wolf We Feed: Democracy, Caste, And Legitimacy, Benjamin Justice, Tracey L. Meares

Michigan Law Review Online

Procedure is central to American public legal discourse. From the soaring rhetoric of the Declaration of Independence to the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the American legal tradition rests on the principle that law must be both derived and applied according to fair process. Consider that in the 2020 election the Trump Administration resorted to fervent and false allegations of widespread voter fraud—that the election process was fundamentally unfair—in order to weaponize Republican voters’ ostensible commitments to fairness against what was, objectively, one of the least procedurally unfair elections in history. Yet the four-year period of the Trump …


Trust In The Jury System: A Comparison Of Australian And U.S. Samples, Monica K. Miller, Jeffrey Pfeifer, Brian H. Bornstein, Tatyana Kaplan Jan 2021

Trust In The Jury System: A Comparison Of Australian And U.S. Samples, Monica K. Miller, Jeffrey Pfeifer, Brian H. Bornstein, Tatyana Kaplan

Department of Psychology: Faculty Publications

Public trust in the criminal justice system, including the jury system, is important for maintaining a democracy that is fair for all citizens. However, there is little research on trust in the jury system generally and even less cross-country comparison research specifically. Trust in the jury system might relate to other legal attitude measures (e.g., authoritarianism). This study identified the degree to which trust in the jury system relates to legal attitudes and compared perceptions of trust between the U.S. and Australia. Community members completed a survey that included measures of trust in the jury system and legal attitudes. The …


Don't Change The Subject: How State Election Laws Can Nullify Ballot Questions, Cole Gordner Jan 2021

Don't Change The Subject: How State Election Laws Can Nullify Ballot Questions, Cole Gordner

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Procedural election laws regulate the conduct of state elections and provide for greater transparency and fairness in statewide ballots. These laws ensure that the public votes separately on incongruous bills and protects the electorate from uncertainties contained in omnibus packages. As demonstrated by a slew of recent court cases, however, interest groups that are opposed to the objective of a ballot question are utilizing these election laws with greater frequency either to prevent a state electorate from voting on an initiative or to overturn a ballot question that was already decided in the initiative’s favor. This practice is subverting the …


Pricing Drugs Fairly, Govind C. Persad Jan 2021

Pricing Drugs Fairly, Govind C. Persad

Sturm College of Law: Faculty Scholarship

Dissatisfaction with drug prices has prompted a flurry of recent legislation and academic research. But while pharmaceutical policy often regards fair pricing as a goal, the concept of fairness itself frequently goes undefined. Legal scholarship—even work ostensibly focused on fairness—has not defined and defended an account of fair pricing. Recent legislative proposals passed by the House and proposed by Sens. Ron Wyden and Chuck Grassley have similarly avoided a determinate position on fairness. This Article explains and defends an account of what makes a price for a drug fair that identifies fair price with social value, argues for implementing fair …


Facial Recognition And The Fourth Amendment, Andrew Ferguson Jan 2021

Facial Recognition And The Fourth Amendment, Andrew Ferguson

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Facial recognition offers a totalizing new surveillance power. Police now have the capability to monitor, track, and identify faces through networked surveillance cameras and datasets of billions of images. Whether identifying a particular suspect from a still photo, or identifying every person who walks past a digital camera, the privacy and security impacts of facial recognition are profound and troubling.

This Article explores the constitutional design problem at the heart of facial recognition surveillance systems. One might hope that the Fourth Amendment – designed to restrain police power and enacted to limit governmental overreach – would have something to say …


Equal Protection Under Algorithms: A New Statistical And Legal Framework, Crystal S. Yang, Will Dobbie Nov 2020

Equal Protection Under Algorithms: A New Statistical And Legal Framework, Crystal S. Yang, Will Dobbie

Michigan Law Review

In this Article, we provide a new statistical and legal framework to understand the legality and fairness of predictive algorithms under the Equal Protection Clause. We begin by reviewing the main legal concerns regarding the use of protected characteristics such as race and the correlates of protected characteristics such as criminal history. The use of race and nonrace correlates in predictive algorithms generates direct and proxy effects of race, respectively, that can lead to racial disparities that many view as unwarranted and discriminatory. These effects have led to the mainstream legal consensus that the use of race and nonrace correlates …


Fixing The Problem Of Incompetent Defense Counsel Before The International Criminal Court, Matthew Catallo Jun 2020

Fixing The Problem Of Incompetent Defense Counsel Before The International Criminal Court, Matthew Catallo

Michigan Journal of International Law

Throughout the latter half of the twentieth-century, defense counsel arguing before international criminal tribunals provided notoriously ineffective assistance. This note examines whether defense counsel similarly fail to provide competent assistance at the International Criminal Court––and if they do so for similar reasons. In examining the ICC’s procedural and regulatory framework, this note highlights the systemic inequities at the Court that favor the prosecution and devalue the defense, thereby hindering the acquisition of competent defense counsel and promoting the retention of incompetent defense counsel.

To address these iniquities, this note promotes various administrative reforms, all of which could be implemented without …


Sentencing Disparities And The Dangerous Perpetuation Of Racial Bias, Jelani Jefferson Exum May 2020

Sentencing Disparities And The Dangerous Perpetuation Of Racial Bias, Jelani Jefferson Exum

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Article addresses the role that racial disparities—specifically sentencing disparities—play in perpetuating the racial bias that increases the daily danger of living as a Black American in the United States. As documented in the news and by sometimes humorous internet memes, White people have called the police many times to report Black people who were simply living as any other American. This trend highlights the manner in which the U.S. criminal justice system’s racial inequities feed into biased beliefs about Black criminality. This Article argues that instead of tackling implicit bias as a means to fight sentencing and other criminal …


Law School News: Olin W. Thompson, Iii: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-08-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2020

Law School News: Olin W. Thompson, Iii: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-08-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Making Employment Arbitration Fair And Accessible, Theodore J. St. Antoine May 2020

Making Employment Arbitration Fair And Accessible, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Articles

Mandatory arbitration agreements require employees, as a condition of employment, to agree to arbitrate all employment disputes instead of filing court suits. The Supreme Court has approved such agreements but many labor experts oppose them. The U.S. House of Representatives has passed a bill to prohibit pre-dispute agreements, the common form for mandatory arbitrations. This article argues that the House bill would have the practical effect of virtually eliminating employment arbitration. Instead, proposals are presented for either legislative or judicial steps to ensure that employment arbitration is fair and accessible. Requirements would include: (1) voluntary agreements on the part of …


How Nondiscrimination Takes Root: An Examination Of Methods To Implement Statewide Nondiscrimination Legislation In Kentucky., Blake Nona Gould May 2020

How Nondiscrimination Takes Root: An Examination Of Methods To Implement Statewide Nondiscrimination Legislation In Kentucky., Blake Nona Gould

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the numerous fairness ordinances in Kentucky’s cities for repeated trends, patterns, and practices in their language. Through the use of a cumulative case study, cases were selected from the ordinances as well as state and federal law, judicial actions, and other relevant factors from within the state. Each of the ordinances were examined for generalizability and their ability to be applied to a single, unified state nondiscrimination law that conforms with existing state and federal law. It was found that significant similarities exist between the various ordinances, though discrepancies would also need to be addressed. In the …


Equity In American And Jewish Law, Itzchak E. Kornfeld , Ph.D. Jan 2020

Equity In American And Jewish Law, Itzchak E. Kornfeld , Ph.D.

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Sentencing Disparities And The Dangerous Perpetuation Of Racial Bias, Jelani Jefferson Exum Jan 2020

Sentencing Disparities And The Dangerous Perpetuation Of Racial Bias, Jelani Jefferson Exum

Faculty Publications

This Article addresses the role that racial disparities— specifically sentencing disparities—play in perpetuating the racial bias that increases the daily danger of living as a Black American in the United States. As documented in the news and by sometimes humorous internet memes, White people have called the police many times to report Black people who were simply living as any other American. This trend highlights the manner in which the U.S. criminal justice system’s racial inequities feed into biased beliefs about Black criminality. This Article argues that instead of tackling implicit bias as a means to fight sentencing and other …


The Need For A Central Panel Approach To Administrative Adjudication: Pros, Cons, And Selected Practices, Malcolm C. Rich, Alison C. Goldstein Nov 2019

The Need For A Central Panel Approach To Administrative Adjudication: Pros, Cons, And Selected Practices, Malcolm C. Rich, Alison C. Goldstein

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

The goal of this report is to document the growth of the central panel movement that has now emerged in a majority of states. This research is designed to provide data-informed recommendations to states and municipalities considering the adoption of a central panel system or the enlargement of the jurisdiction encompassed by an existing central panel as well as to states considering the adoption of a more final decision-making authority for their central panel ALJs. The work is also intended to inform the debate over whether the central panel approach is something that the federal government should consider. This research …


What (If Anything) Can Economics Say About Equity?, Daniel A. Farber Aug 2019

What (If Anything) Can Economics Say About Equity?, Daniel A. Farber

Daniel A Farber

Does economics have anything to teach us about the meaning of fairness? The leading practitioners of law and economics disagree. Judge Richard Posner argues that economics is largely irrelevant to distributive issues. Posner maintains that the most useful economic measure of social welfare is cost-benefit analysis (which he calls wealth maximization). But, he observes, this economic measure "ratifies and perfects an essentially arbitrary distribution of wealth." Given an ethically acceptable initial assignment of wealth, rules based on economic efficiency may have some claim to be considered fair. On the critical issue of distributional equity, however, Posner apparently believes that economics …


Law School News: Millennial Law 08-21-2019, Dick Dahl Aug 2019

Law School News: Millennial Law 08-21-2019, Dick Dahl

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


A Tale Of Two Copyrights, Glynn Lunney Jul 2019

A Tale Of Two Copyrights, Glynn Lunney

Faculty Scholarship

This essay explores two possible copyright regimes. The first uses costless and perfect price discrimination to enable copyright owners to capture the full market or exchange value of their work. The second also uses costless and perfect price discrimination, but allows copyright owners to capture only the persuasion cost for authoring and distributing a work. We can call the first regime, costless copyright maximalism, and the second, costless copyright minimalism. The choice between these two regimes is primarily distributional: Should we design copyright to allocate the surplus associated with copyrighted works to copyright owners or to copyright consumers? This essay …


Clean Energy Equity, Felix Mormann May 2019

Clean Energy Equity, Felix Mormann

Faculty Scholarship

Solar, wind, and other clean, renewable sources of energy promise to mitigate climate change, enhance energy security, and foster economic growth. But many of the policies in place to promote clean energy today are marred by an uneven distribution of economic opportunities and associated financial burdens. Tax incentives for renewables cost American taxpayers billions of dollars every year, yet the tax code effectively precludes all but the largest banks and most profitable corporations from reaping the benefits of these tax breaks. Other policies, such as renewable portfolio standards that set minimum quota to create demand for renewable electricity require such …