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Ethics

Dispute Resolution and Arbitration

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Employment Arbitration Agreements: The Case For Ethical Standards For Dispute Resolution System Designers, Michael L. Russell Apr 2021

Employment Arbitration Agreements: The Case For Ethical Standards For Dispute Resolution System Designers, Michael L. Russell

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Dispute resolution design is an emerging field, both academically and professionally. Attorneys, mediators, and arbitrators, the other roles in the alternative dispute resolution process, have codes of ethics which guide their conduct. Dispute resolution designers, however, have no such guidelines. This article uses the example of mandatory arbitration agreements in the employment context to illustrate why this lack of ethical guidelines for dispute resolutions designers is problematic. In recent years, mandatory arbitration agreements significantly impacted employment law and litigation. The two most problematic provisions that often appear in mandatory arbitration agreements in the workplace context are cost sharing provisions and ...


International Arbitration And Attorney-Client Privilege — A Conflict Of Laws Approach, Susan Franck Dec 2019

International Arbitration And Attorney-Client Privilege — A Conflict Of Laws Approach, Susan Franck

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Privilege determinations in international arbitration are currently the equivalent of the “wild west,” with minimal predictability and massive pockets of tribunal discretion. Yet protecting privilege in international arbitration — when the same document or communications with lawyers that is protected by United States law may receive no protection under another law — is fundamental to safeguarding attorney-client relationships within a global environment, incentivizing procedural integrity of dispute resolution, and ensuring that justice is done. As it is not clear what law applies to privilege and client confidentiality (let alone how the law is determine), this Essay begins to bridge the divide by ...


Old Ethics In New Wineskins? Examining The Ethical Difficulties In Court Online Dispute Resolution, Dorcas Quek Anderson May 2019

Old Ethics In New Wineskins? Examining The Ethical Difficulties In Court Online Dispute Resolution, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

This post is based on a presentation made at the National Mediation Conference, Canberra, April 2019. The presentation has been drawn from two articles, Ethical Concerns in Court-Connected Online Dispute Resolution (2018) 1-2 International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution 20, and The Convergence of ADR and ODR within the Courts: The Impact on Access to Justice (2019) 38(1) Civil Justice Quarterly 126.


Ethical Concerns In Court-Connected Online Dispute Resolution, Dorcas Quek Anderson Apr 2019

Ethical Concerns In Court-Connected Online Dispute Resolution, Dorcas Quek Anderson

Research Collection School Of Law

This article examines the burgeoning trend of creating court ODR systems, focusing on the design aspects that are likely to raise ethical challenges. It discusses four salient questions to be considered when designing a court ODR system, and the resulting ethical tensions that are brought to the fore. As a fourth party, the ODR system not only replaces existing court functions, but enlarges the scope of the courts’ intervention in disputes and increases the courts’ interface with the user. Furthermore, certain ethical principles such as transparency, accountability, impartiality and fairness take on greater significance in the court context than in ...


Musings On Mediation, Kleenex, And (Smudged) White Hats, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Musings On Mediation, Kleenex, And (Smudged) White Hats, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

This Essay speculates on the global future of mediation. It anticipates that mediation’s popularity will continue to grow both in the U.S. and abroad particularly as courts continue to encourage and institutionalize the process. Meanwhile, the Essay acknowledges the existence and continuing development of a relatively small cadre of elite lawyers and retired judges who serve as private mediators in large, complex matters.

The Essay also raises concerns, though, regarding the current lack of clarity in the goals and procedural characteristics that define mediation. The Essay asserts that such lack of clarity invites abuse of the mediation privilege ...


Bolstering The Foundation Of Fundamental Fairness: The Ninth Circuit Declares Equitable Tolling Now Applies To The Federal Arbitration Act, Matthew E. Selmasska Aug 2017

Bolstering The Foundation Of Fundamental Fairness: The Ninth Circuit Declares Equitable Tolling Now Applies To The Federal Arbitration Act, Matthew E. Selmasska

Arbitration Law Review

No abstract provided.


When Bad Guys Are Wearing White Hats, Catherine A. Rogers Apr 2016

When Bad Guys Are Wearing White Hats, Catherine A. Rogers

Catherine Rogers

Allegations of ethical misconduct by lawyers have all but completely overshadowed the substantive claims in the Chevron case. While both sides have been accused of flagrant wrongdoing, the charges against plaintiffs’ counsel appear to have captured more headlines and garnered more attention. The primary reason why the focus seems lopsided is that plaintiffs’ counsel were presumed to be the ones wearing white hats in this epic drama. This essay postulates that this seeming irony is not simply an example of personal ethical lapse, but in part tied to larger reasons why ethical violations are an occupational hazard for plaintiffs’ counsel ...


Lawyers Without Borders, Catherine A. Rogers Apr 2016

Lawyers Without Borders, Catherine A. Rogers

Catherine Rogers

Professional regulation of attorneys is still attempting to catch up with the burgeoning international legal profession, which until recently has been wholly unregulated. The primary effort has been through revisions to Model Rule 8.5 to extend the reach of the Rule to international cases and professional activities in foreign countries. Because Rule 8.5 was drafted for domestic multi-jurisdiction practice, however, it is based on assumptions about territoriality and the historical relationship between the jurisdiction of tribunals and the licensing of attorneys that are simply inapposite in international settings. As a result, applying Rule 8.5 to international tribunals ...


Regulating International Arbitrators: A Functional Approach To Developing Standards Of Conduct, Catherine A. Rogers Apr 2016

Regulating International Arbitrators: A Functional Approach To Developing Standards Of Conduct, Catherine A. Rogers

Catherine Rogers

Some scholars have protested that arbitrators are subject to less exacting regulation than barbers and taxidermists. The real problem with international arbitrators, however, is not that they are subject to less regulation, but that no one agrees about how they should be regulated. The primary reason for judicial and scholarly disagreement is that, instead of a coherent theory, analysis of arbitrator conduct erroneously relies on a misleading judicial referent and a methodologic failure to separate conduct standards (meaning those norms or rules that guide arbitrators' professional conduct) from enforcement standards (meaning those narrow grounds under which an arbitral award can ...


The Vocation Of International Arbitrators, Catherine A. Rogers Apr 2016

The Vocation Of International Arbitrators, Catherine A. Rogers

Catherine Rogers

This Essay examines the vocation of the international arbitrator. I begin by evaluating, under sociological frameworks developed in literature on Weberian theories of the professions, how the arbitration community is organized and regulated. Arbitrators operate in a largely private and unregulated market for services, access to which is essentially controlled by what might be considered a governing cartel of the most elite arbitrators. I conclude my description with an account of how recently international arbitrators have begun to display a professional impulse, meaning efforts to present themselves as a profession to obtain the benefits of professionalization. Professional status is often ...


Fit And Function In Legal Ethics: Developing A Code Of Conduct For International Arbitration, Catherine A. Rogers Apr 2016

Fit And Function In Legal Ethics: Developing A Code Of Conduct For International Arbitration, Catherine A. Rogers

Catherine Rogers

In this Article, I develop a methodology for prescribing the normative content of a code of ethics for international arbitration, and in a forthcoming companion article, I propose integrated mechanisms for making those norms both binding and enforceable. In making these proposals, I reject the classical conception of legal ethics as a purely deontological product derived from first principles. I argue, instead, that ethics derive from the interrelational functional role of advocates in an adjudicatory system, and that ethical regulation must correlate with the structural operations of the system. The fit between ethics and function, I will demonstrate, not only ...


Context And Institutional Structure In Attorney Regulation: Constructing An Enforcement Regime For International Arbitration, Catherine A. Rogers Apr 2016

Context And Institutional Structure In Attorney Regulation: Constructing An Enforcement Regime For International Arbitration, Catherine A. Rogers

Catherine Rogers

The question that looms large over the future of international arbitration is: How much should states yield to the international arbitration system? This Article attempts to answer the question as it applies to the specific context of regulating attorney conduct.


The Glucose Model Of Mediation: Physiological Bases Of Willpower As Important Explanations For Common Mediation Behavior, Roy F. Baumeister, W. Scott Simpson, Stephen J. Ware, Daniel S. Weber Feb 2016

The Glucose Model Of Mediation: Physiological Bases Of Willpower As Important Explanations For Common Mediation Behavior, Roy F. Baumeister, W. Scott Simpson, Stephen J. Ware, Daniel S. Weber

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Success in life requires the ability to resist urges and control behavior. This ability is commonly called “willpower,” the capacity to overcome impulses and engage in conscious acts of self-control. Social psychologists believe willpower is a finite resource dependent on physiological bases including glucose (from food and drink), sleep and other forms of rest, and the absence of stress. In short, people who are hungry, exhausted, or highly stressed tend to have less willpower than those who are well-fed, well-rested, and relatively stress-free. In addition, a person who exerts self-control (uses willpower) tends to reduce temporarily the amount of willpower ...


The Role Of Language Interpretation In Providing A Quality Mediation Process, Alexandra Carter, Shawn Watts Jan 2016

The Role Of Language Interpretation In Providing A Quality Mediation Process, Alexandra Carter, Shawn Watts

Faculty Scholarship

This paper focuses on the role of language in mediation and the challenges multiple language fluencies bring to the practice. Beginning with a discussion of the process and ethics of mediation as a form of alternative dispute resolution, as distinct from other forms of dispute resolution including arbitration, the paper shifts to consider the importance of language. Language, and more specifically interpretation, plays a central role in the integrity of the mediation process and the quality of its outcomes. Each stage of mediation requires the participants and the mediator understand one another to ensure effective communication and a quality process ...


Equality Of Arms In Arbitration: Cost And Benefits, William Park Oct 2015

Equality Of Arms In Arbitration: Cost And Benefits, William Park

Faculty Scholarship

Depending on context and content, a regulatory framework can either help or hinder efforts to enhance aggregate social and economic welfare. Lively debate has arisen with respect to the net effects of two recent sets of directives for lawyer comportment in cross-border arbitration, the first being Guidelines adopted by the International Bar Association, the second contained in new arbitration rules promulgated by the London Court of International Arbitration. Each instrument aims to promote a more level playing field on matters where legal cultures differ, such as document production and counsel independence. Each has caused thoughtful commentators to question the need ...


Was Machiavelli Right? Lying In Negotiation And The Art Of Defensive Self-Help, Peter Reilly Jul 2015

Was Machiavelli Right? Lying In Negotiation And The Art Of Defensive Self-Help, Peter Reilly

Peter R. Reilly

The majority of law review articles addressing lying and deception in negotiation have argued, in one form or another, that liars and deceivers could be successfully reined in and controlled if only the applicable ethics rules were strengthened, and if corresponding enforcement powers were sufficiently beefed up and effectively executed. This article takes a different approach, arguing that the applicable ethics rules will likely never be strengthened, and, furthermore, that even if they were, they would be difficult to enforce in any meaningful way, at least in the context of negotiation. The article concludes that lawyers, businesspeople, and everyone else ...


Awareness And Ethics In Dispute Resolution And Law: Why Mindfulness Tends To Foster Ethical Behavior, Leonard Riskin May 2015

Awareness And Ethics In Dispute Resolution And Law: Why Mindfulness Tends To Foster Ethical Behavior, Leonard Riskin

Leonard L Riskin

This paper is an extended version of a luncheon presentation given at the Symposium, Ethics in the Expanding World of ADR: Considerations, Conundrums, and Conflicts, sponsored by South Texas College of Law in Houston, Texas, on Nov. 2, 2007.


The Health Of International Arbitration: Counterpoise And Common Sense, William Park Apr 2015

The Health Of International Arbitration: Counterpoise And Common Sense, William Park

Shorter Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Beyond Fairness: The Place Of Moral Foundations Theory In Mediation And Negotiation, Jonathan M. Hyman Mar 2015

Beyond Fairness: The Place Of Moral Foundations Theory In Mediation And Negotiation, Jonathan M. Hyman

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Harmonizing Third-Party Litigation Funding Regulation, Victoria A. Shannon Jan 2015

Harmonizing Third-Party Litigation Funding Regulation, Victoria A. Shannon

Victoria Shannon Sahani

Third-party litigation funding is no longer a new phenomenon, but rather is a mainstay in global commerce and dispute resolution. Yet, many observers still consider the third-party litigation funding industry as a "wild west" due to a lack of regulation in many countries. Some of the countries that have regulations suffer from a lack of uniformity and an array of conflicting laws at the sub-national level (i.e., the laws of states, provinces, territories, etc.). For example, the United States has a confusing patchwork of state laws on third-party litigation funding. This article proposes harmonizing the regulatory framework for third-party ...


The Moral Lawyer And The Machiavellian Nature Of Law Practice, David Barnhizer Jan 2015

The Moral Lawyer And The Machiavellian Nature Of Law Practice, David Barnhizer

David Barnhizer

In Western culture the name Niccolo Machiavelli has become Machiavellianism, a pejorative signifying the willingness to do anything to achieve desired ends. American lawyers do have limits, however, and are expected to operate according to an ethical code that is at least intended to prevent the worst abuses. The effectiveness of this ethical code has often been questioned, as have the questionable efforts of the organized bar to enforce its rules, but on the surface it differentiates law practice from hand-to-hand combat and military struggles. Even though I have sometimes used the concepts of the warrior lawyer, the general and ...


Uniform Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Answer To Preventing Unscrupulous Agent Activity, Scott Kestenbaum Sep 2014

Uniform Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Answer To Preventing Unscrupulous Agent Activity, Scott Kestenbaum

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This Note addresses whether there should be an arbitration and mediation section added to both the Uniform Athlete Agent Act (UAAA), and Sports Agent Responsibility and Trust Act (SPARTA) to establish a uniform dispute resolution process for dealing with unscrupulous acts of athlete agents. This issue is distinctive because while all four professional sports leagues’ players associations have specific arbitration procedures in their athlete agent regulations, the two statutes governing athlete agent conduct do not adopt a uniform policy relating to arbitration procedures. This Note addresses the prior history of state and federal legislation pertaining to an athlete agent, including ...


Stop! In The Name Of Ethics, Before You Break My Bank Account: The "Conflicting" Rights Guaranteed To Parties In International Arbitration By Hrvatska V. Slovenia And Rompetrol V. Romania, And Their Potential As Tactical Weapons, Misbah Farid May 2013

Stop! In The Name Of Ethics, Before You Break My Bank Account: The "Conflicting" Rights Guaranteed To Parties In International Arbitration By Hrvatska V. Slovenia And Rompetrol V. Romania, And Their Potential As Tactical Weapons, Misbah Farid

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

International arbitration offers many rights, such as the right to counsel of choice and the right to an independent and impartial arbitration panel and proceeding. However, these guarantees, while they ensure the rights of parties and allow international arbitration to be a viable dispute resolution forum, can also be used as weapons. The viability of these rights as weapons is what reconciles the seemingly conflicting cases of Hrvatska v. Slovenia and Rompetrol v. Romania. Hrvatska sets forth an arbitration tribunal's inherent right to ensure and regulate the proceedings so as to guarantee the rights offered by international arbitration, while ...


When Bad Guys Are Wearing White Hats, Catherine A. Rogers Jan 2013

When Bad Guys Are Wearing White Hats, Catherine A. Rogers

Journal Articles

Allegations of ethical misconduct by lawyers have all but completely overshadowed the substantive claims in the Chevron case. While both sides have been accused of flagrant wrongdoing, the charges against plaintiffs’ counsel appear to have captured more headlines and garnered more attention. The primary reason why the focus seems lopsided is that plaintiffs’ counsel were presumed to be the ones wearing white hats in this epic drama. This essay postulates that this seeming irony is not simply an example of personal ethical lapse, but in part tied to larger reasons why ethical violations are an occupational hazard for plaintiffs’ counsel ...


Let's Put Ourselves Out Of Business: On Respect, Responsibility, And Dialogue In Dispute Resolution, Jonathan R. Cohen May 2012

Let's Put Ourselves Out Of Business: On Respect, Responsibility, And Dialogue In Dispute Resolution, Jonathan R. Cohen

Jonathan R. Cohen

This Essay works in two steps. I want to daydream with you about the future, or what I hope will someday be the future, of our dispute resolution movement. I want to then use these imaginings to reflect upon where we are today. I want to suggest something that may at first seem odd: Our ultimate goal should be to put ourselves, or virtually put ourselves, out of business. Eventually, I hope the time will come when we live in a society where the expert services of dispute resolution professionals, including not only lawyers and judges but also mediators and ...


The Culture Of Legal Denial, Jonathan R. Cohen May 2012

The Culture Of Legal Denial, Jonathan R. Cohen

Jonathan R. Cohen

The goals of this essay are twofold. The first is to examine critically the practice of lawyers assisting clients in denying harms they commit and suggest some ways of changing that practice. Lawyers commonly presume that their clients' interests are best served by denial. Yet such a presumption is not warranted. Given the moral, psychological, relational, and sometimes even economic risks of denial to the injurer, lawyers should consider discussing responsibility taking more often with clients. The second is to explore several structural or systemic factors that may reinforce the practice of denial seen day in and day out within ...


When People Are The Means: Negotiating With Respect, Jonathan R. Cohen May 2012

When People Are The Means: Negotiating With Respect, Jonathan R. Cohen

Jonathan R. Cohen

Most scholarship on negotiation ethics has focused on the topics of deception and disclosure. In this Article, I argue for considering a related, but distinct, ethical domain within negotiation ethics. That domain is the ethics of orientation. In contrast to most forms of human interaction, a clear purpose of negotiation is to get the other party to take an action on one's behalf, or at least to explore that possibility. This gives rise to a core ethical tension in negotiation that I call the object-subject tension: how does one reconcile the fact that the other party is a potential ...


Legislating Apology: The Pros And Cons, Jonathan R. Cohen May 2012

Legislating Apology: The Pros And Cons, Jonathan R. Cohen

Jonathan R. Cohen

Should apologies be admissible into evidence as proof of fault in civil cases? While this question is a simple one, its potential ramifications are great, and legislative and scholarly interest in the admissibility of apologies has exploded. Shortly after the idea of excluding apologies from admissibility into evidence was raised in academic circles three years ago, it rapidly spread to the policy arena. For example, California and Florida enacted laws in 2000 and 2001 respectively excluding from admissibility apologetic expressions of sympathy ("I'm sorry that you are hurt") but not fault-admitting apologies ("I'm sorrythat I injured you") after ...


Apology And Organizations: Exploring An Example From Medical Practice, Jonathan R. Cohen May 2012

Apology And Organizations: Exploring An Example From Medical Practice, Jonathan R. Cohen

Jonathan R. Cohen

In this Article, I focus on injuries committed by members of organizations, such as corporations, and examine distinct issues raised by apology in the organizational setting. In particular, I consider: (i) the process of learning to prevent future errors; (ii) the divergent interests stemming from principal-agent tensions in employment, risk preferences and sources of insurance; (iii) the non-pecuniary benefits to corporate morale, productivity and reputation; (iv) the standing and scope of apologies; and (v) the articulation of policies toward injuries to others.


The Immorality Of Denial, Jonathan R. Cohen May 2012

The Immorality Of Denial, Jonathan R. Cohen

Jonathan R. Cohen

This article is the first of a two-part series critically examining the role of lawyers in assisting clients in denying responsibility for harms they have caused. If a person injures another, the moral response is for the injurer actively to take responsibility for what he has done. In contrast, the common practice within our legal culture is for injurers to deny responsibility for harms they commit. The immoral, in other words, has become the legally normal. In this Article, Professor Cohen analyzes the moral foundations of responsibility-taking. He also explores the moral, psychological, and spiritual risks to injurers who knowingly ...