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Full-Text Articles in Law

Silencing Jorge Luis Borges The Wrongful Suppression Of The Di Giovanni Translations, Wes Henricksen Jan 2024

Silencing Jorge Luis Borges The Wrongful Suppression Of The Di Giovanni Translations, Wes Henricksen

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Proposing A Model Antilapse Clause, Raymond C. O'Brien Jun 2023

Proposing A Model Antilapse Clause, Raymond C. O'Brien

ACTEC Law Journal

The complexity of state antilapse statutes exacerbates the task of many estate planners seeking to give prudent expression to the postmortem wishes of a client. These statutes vary as to which predeceasing beneficiaries they should apply, who should be the substitute takers to benefit instead of these lapsed beneficiaries, and how to treat beneficiaries who are treated as predeceasing because of renunciation agreements, final decrees of divorce, or, when the beneficiary kills, exploits, or abuses the one from whom the beneficiary would take. Within the modern statutory framework, there exists an abundant array of testamentary devices by which a transferor …


Without A Will, There Is Still A Way: A Statutory Solution To Increase The Value Of A Small Estate And Aid In Reducing The Racial Equity Gap In Wisconsin, Isabella V. Avila Perez Jan 2023

Without A Will, There Is Still A Way: A Statutory Solution To Increase The Value Of A Small Estate And Aid In Reducing The Racial Equity Gap In Wisconsin, Isabella V. Avila Perez

Marquette Benefits and Social Welfare Law Review

For generations, communities of color have struggled to increase their generational wealth. Lack of access to estate planning tools leaves minority groups and low-income families compromised and more likely to die intestate. While the current probate system creates a safety net for those that die intestate, this comment aims to address the need for a statutory solution to aid in combatting Wisconsin's racial equity gap. More specifically, this Comment suggests how increasing and indexing Wisconsin's summary settlement and summary assignment small estate values to include estates of $100,000 or less will allow for more minority and low-income families to qualify …


A Defense Of Perpetual Trusts, Danny Fein Jun 2022

A Defense Of Perpetual Trusts, Danny Fein

ACTEC Law Journal

This essay emphatically defends perpetual trusts and recent state-level repeals of the Rule Against Perpetuities. The scholarly debate over the category of perpetual trusts has focused exclusively on one type—the Dynasty Trust—which is designed to perpetuate wealth within families by exploiting a tax loophole. The unsavory nature of both Dynasty Trusts and the legal reform movement that spawned them has blinded critics to a universe of perpetual trusts that are socially beneficial. Previously, new types of trusts that required perpetuity could only achieve it through statutory exemption. Private Foundations and Stewardship Trusts were each granted perpetuity by legislatures. Now that …


Married, With Children At Death, Emily S. Taylor Poppe Jun 2022

Married, With Children At Death, Emily S. Taylor Poppe

ACTEC Law Journal

Despite modern trends in family formation, married individuals with children remain prevalent in the adult population in the United States. To the extent that these individuals forego estate planning, their probate property is distributed at death according to the laws of intestacy of their state of domicile. These laws are motivated by assumptions about probable intent, and on that basis typically prioritize the surviving spouse and children over other potential heirs. However, there is wild jurisdictional variation in the relative interests of the spouse and descendants of married parent decedents under these laws. Historical evidence suggested that most decedents who …


Estate Planning For Cannabis Business Owners: An Introduction, Bridget J. Crawford, Jonathan G. Blattmachr Oct 2021

Estate Planning For Cannabis Business Owners: An Introduction, Bridget J. Crawford, Jonathan G. Blattmachr

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

As more states legalize cannabis sales, estate planners may increasingly be called upon to advise clients with interests in cannabis-related businesses. This essay seeks to assist estate planners in two ways. First, it aims to raise general awareness of cannabis business owners' unique concerns. Second, the essay provides an overview of some of the fundamental issues about which cannabis business owners are likely to seek estate planning advice: business formation matters, wealth transfers, the ability of trusts to own cannabis-related businesses, and gift, estate, and income tax considerations.

In most states that permit legal cannabis sales, there is limited (or …


Perpetual Dynasty Trusts: One Of The Most Powerful Tools In The Estate Planner's Arsenal, Brian Layman Aug 2021

Perpetual Dynasty Trusts: One Of The Most Powerful Tools In The Estate Planner's Arsenal, Brian Layman

Akron Law Review

One of the most effective tools to accomplish the goal of preserving family wealth is a perpetual dynasty trust. Such a trust permits discretionary distributions of income and principal for as many generations (in terms of years) as the state's law allows. Alaska, Arizona, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Maryland, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin have abolished, or provided trust settlors with the ability to opt out of their respective Rules Against Perpetuities. This means that a trust established in one of these jurisdictions could last forever. The essence of such a trust is that, if properly drafted and funded, to be …


Incentivizing Wills Through Tax, Margaret Ryznar Jun 2021

Incentivizing Wills Through Tax, Margaret Ryznar

ACTEC Law Journal

There have been recent calls to loosen will formalities in order to allow more people to execute wills, the importance of which has been highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The reduction of necessary will formalities can be successful in expanding the use of wills, as can potential tax incentives for creation of wills, such as a tax credit. However, there are numerous advantages to using tax to initiate change, as considered in this Article.


Alkaline Hydrolysis, Victoria J. Haneman Jun 2021

Alkaline Hydrolysis, Victoria J. Haneman

ACTEC Law Journal

Hollywood has developed its own villainous death disposition trope that is often a link in a nefarious narrative chain—disposition of human remains through some form of chemical dissolution. Spanning decades and genre, popular cinema and television have warmly embraced liquification of the dead, including but not limited to The Wizard of Oz, House on Haunted Hill, Thief, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Point of No Return, Palmetto, Walker, Texas Ranger, NCIS, Bones, The Wire, Breaking Bad, Dexter, Blacklist, Homeland, Elementary, 10 Cloverfield Lane, Ozark, Rick and Morty. The specifics vary dramatically from one work of fiction to the next but the …


Balancing The Carrot And The Stick: Achieving Social Goals Through Real Property Tax Programs, Ryan F. Bender Apr 2021

Balancing The Carrot And The Stick: Achieving Social Goals Through Real Property Tax Programs, Ryan F. Bender

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

The sharp and growing wealth divide in the United States has elicited significant media and public attention over the past decade, with loud calls for achieving social goals through tax system change. While wealth preservation loopholes in the Internal Revenue Code can contribute to wealth inequalities, tax policies that incentivize socially responsible, tax efficient investment offer an attractive tool for estate planning professionals while also promoting social impact programs. Additionally, while direct government investments into low-income community development, land preservation, and food security are important drivers of change, tax policies that push private capital into these causes are equally important …


Wealth Transfer Tax Planning After The Tax Cuts And Jobs Act, Jeffrey A. Maine, John A. Miller Jan 2021

Wealth Transfer Tax Planning After The Tax Cuts And Jobs Act, Jeffrey A. Maine, John A. Miller

Faculty Publications

On December 17, 2017, Congress passed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA). Among its many impacts, the TCJA increased the inflation-adjusted estate tax basic exclusion amount to $10,000,000 on a temporary basis. This has dramatic implications for many existing and future estate plans, including a major crossover impact on income tax planning. In this Article, we explain the operation of the federal wealth transfer taxes (the estate tax, the gift tax, and the generation skipping transfer tax) in the wake of the TCJA and dissect the basic tax planning techniques for wealth transmission. The overall design of this Article …


Maintaining Client Privacy In An Increasingly Public World, Anne-Marie E. Rhodes, Mel M. Justak Jan 2021

Maintaining Client Privacy In An Increasingly Public World, Anne-Marie E. Rhodes, Mel M. Justak

Faculty Publications & Other Works

Individuals have long been interested in protecting their private family and financial matters from broad public disclosure. Motives vary, of course, but can range from safety concerns to saving certain family members from public embarrassment that could jeopardize future busi­ ness and social opportunities. 1 While motives may have changed little over time, the urgency to protect privacy is more pronounced in today's world.2 For example, 100 years ago the primary vehicle for wide dissemi­ nation of news - including a family's or individual's private matters - was newspapers. While disclosure through this medium could certainly be embarrassing, the disclosure …


Fiduciary Litigation In Louisiana: Mandataries, Succession Representatives, And Trustees, Elizabeth R. Carter Sep 2020

Fiduciary Litigation In Louisiana: Mandataries, Succession Representatives, And Trustees, Elizabeth R. Carter

Louisiana Law Review

The article discusses fiduciary relationships and litigation issues on the estate-planning setting in Louisiana, as well as the roles of mandataries, trustees, and succession representatives.


Rethinking The Estate Planning Curriculum, Jeffrey A. Cooper Sep 2020

Rethinking The Estate Planning Curriculum, Jeffrey A. Cooper

ACTEC Law Journal

As a result of recent changes in Federal estate tax law, fewer and fewer clients need sophisticated estate tax planning. Many lawyers are thus spending less time acting as estate tax planners and instead deploying different skills and expertise.

In this brief article, I explore the extent to which law schools are rethinking their curricula as a result. The discussion proceeds in two parts. First, I discuss the curricular changes I have overseen at the law school at which I teach, setting out both the changes made and the assumptions underlying them. Second, relying on a brief survey of other …


Blockchain Wills, Bridget J. Crawford Jul 2020

Blockchain Wills, Bridget J. Crawford

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Blockchain technology has the potential to radically alter the way that people have executed wills for centuries. This Article makes two principal claims--one descriptive and the other normative. Descriptively, this Article suggests that traditional wills formalities have been relaxed to the point that they no longer serve the cautionary, protective, evidentiary, and channeling functions that scholars have used to justify strict compliance with wills formalities. Widespread use of digital technology in everyday communications has led to several notable cases in which individuals have attempted to execute wills electronically. These wills have had a mixed reception. Four states currently recognize electronic …


In Re. Estate Of Easterday, Corey Michelle Timpson Jun 2020

In Re. Estate Of Easterday, Corey Michelle Timpson

GGU Tax & Estate Planning Review

Whether pending divorce has an effect on entitlement to life insurance; and whether ERISA preempts state law specifically relating to enforcement of a contractual waiver in relation to pension benefits.


Utilizing Estate Plans To Achieve Economic Justice, Geber Penate Apr 2020

Utilizing Estate Plans To Achieve Economic Justice, Geber Penate

Poverty Law Conference & Symposium

Bayview has been the home to many black families for decades. However, the inability of title-holders to create distribution plans for their estate before their death has contributed to their ultimate displacement. When a title-holder of property dies, their property is required to go through a court system known as probate. The probate court system has various functions ranging from identifying assets, calculating any owed taxes and fees, and distributing property. The only way to avoid probate is through the execution of a probate-avoidance distribution document, which is mentioned in further detail below. The probate court system, to say the …


The Law Of High-Wealth Exceptionalism, Allison Anna Tait Jan 2020

The Law Of High-Wealth Exceptionalism, Allison Anna Tait

Law Faculty Publications

No family is an island. But some families would like to be – at least when it comes to wealth preservation – and they depend on what this Article calls the law of high-wealth exceptionalism to facilitate their success. The law of high-wealth exceptionalism has been forged, over the years, from the twinned scripts of wealth management and family wealth law, both of which constitute high-wealth families as sovereign entities capable of self-regulation and deserving of exemption from the rules that govern ordinary-wealth families. Consequently, high-wealth families take advantage of complicated estate planning techniques and highly favorable wealth rules in …


Tearing Down The Wall: How Transfer-On-Death Real-Estate Deeds Challenge The Inter Vivos/Testamentary Divide, Danaya C. Wright, Stephanie L. Emrick Jul 2019

Tearing Down The Wall: How Transfer-On-Death Real-Estate Deeds Challenge The Inter Vivos/Testamentary Divide, Danaya C. Wright, Stephanie L. Emrick

Maryland Law Review

This Article will examine one of the most recent will substitutes, the transfer-on-death (“TOD”) real-estate deed. Nearly half of the states have recognized, through common-law forms or legislation, a mechanism to allow for the transfer of real property on death without using a will, without following the will formalities, and without necessitating probate. This new tool in the estate planner’s toolbox is invaluable: revocable trusts have proven too expensive for decedents of modest means, and wills continue to require formalities that can easily frustrate non-lawyer-drafted estate documents. But the variety of TOD deed rules and mechanisms that the different states …


Janus As A Client: Ethical Obligations When Your Client Plays Two Roles In One Fiduciary Estate, Karen E. Boxx, Philip N. Jones Jun 2019

Janus As A Client: Ethical Obligations When Your Client Plays Two Roles In One Fiduciary Estate, Karen E. Boxx, Philip N. Jones

ACTEC Law Journal

Is it possible for an attorney to have a conflict of interest when the attorney represents a trustee who is also a beneficiary of the trust? Is that situation similar to having two clients? What if the trustee is not only a beneficiary, but also a claimant against the trust? Since the trustee has three roles to play, is that situation similar to an attorney having three clients? The issue presented by these potential conflicts was one of the most vexing for the drafters of the Fifth Edition of the ACTEC Commentaries. The range of possible approaches goes from a …


Tearing Down The Wall: How Transfer-On-Death Real-Estate Deeds Challenge The Inter Vivos/Testamentary Divide, Danaya C. Wright, Stephanie Emrick Jan 2019

Tearing Down The Wall: How Transfer-On-Death Real-Estate Deeds Challenge The Inter Vivos/Testamentary Divide, Danaya C. Wright, Stephanie Emrick

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article will examine one of the most recent will substitutes, the transfer-on-death (“TOD”) real-estate deed. Nearly half of the states have recognized, through common-law forms or legislation, a mechanism to allow for the transfer of real property on death without using a will, without following the will formalities, and without necessitating probate. This new tool in the estate planner’s toolbox is invaluable: revocable trusts have proven too expensive for decedents of modest means, and wills continue to require formalities that can easily frustrate non-lawyer-drafted estate documents. But the variety of TOD deed rules and mechanisms that the different states …


The Stranger-To-The-Marriage Doctrine: Judicial Construction Issues Post-Obergefell, Lee-Ford Tritt Jan 2019

The Stranger-To-The-Marriage Doctrine: Judicial Construction Issues Post-Obergefell, Lee-Ford Tritt

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article tracks the evolution of inheritance law for adopted children and suggests that courts use construction approaches that worked in the context of a new understanding of the parent-child relationship as a guide to construing wills in the context of changing social and legal definitions of the martial relationship. In this regard, Part II offers a brief overview of pertinent construction doctrines. Next, Part III summarizes the history of inheritance law for adopted children. Finally, Part IV draws an analogy between the stranger-to-the-adoption doctrine and an approach to inheritance law for same-sex spouses that this Essay calls the "stranger-to-the-marriage" …


Disrupting The Wealth Gap Cycles: An Empirical Study Of Testacy And Wealth, Danaya C. Wright Jan 2019

Disrupting The Wealth Gap Cycles: An Empirical Study Of Testacy And Wealth, Danaya C. Wright

UF Law Faculty Publications

In an empirical study of all decedents dying in 2013 in Alachua County, Florida whose estates were probated, either testate or intestate, the data show striking correlations between intestacy and lower wealth, and testacy and greater wealth. And the demographics of those who died intestate correspond to the demographics of those people at risk of falling into the cycle of wealth-dissipation. To explore the possible effects of intestacy and testacy on wealth and property succession, I analyzed 408 estates (293 testate and 115 intestate) across a variety of categories, including wealth, age, race, sex, and marital status. All of these …


Transgender Beneficiaries: In Becoming Who You Are, Do You Lose The Benefits Attached To Who You Were, Ashleigh C. Rousseau Dec 2018

Transgender Beneficiaries: In Becoming Who You Are, Do You Lose The Benefits Attached To Who You Were, Ashleigh C. Rousseau

Hofstra Law Review

Suppose William Smith, father of Joseph Smith, executes a will to leave his estate to his children. In his will, the phrase "to my son, Joseph" is used, preceding a bequest for property. Before William dies, Julia embraces her transgender identity, obtains a lawful name change to Julia, obtains a lawful gender marker change, and undergoes sex confirmation surgery. William dies, and his estate is divided. Is Julia still entitled to Joseph's portion of William's estate? In embracing her transgender identity, is she deprived of her right to inherit?


Change Is Constant In Estate Planning: Reflections Of An Actec Law Journal Editor, Bridget J. Crawford Jan 2018

Change Is Constant In Estate Planning: Reflections Of An Actec Law Journal Editor, Bridget J. Crawford

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Change is the only constant in the life of a trusts and estates professional. The law changes; the needs of clients change; the methods for achieving certain results change; technology and modes of communication change. So, too, it can be said that change is the only constant running through more than forty years of our organization's flagship publication.


The Prince Estate: How Intestacy Works, How It Could Work, And How It Fails As An Estate Plan, Dennis M. Patrick, Beth T. Morrison Jan 2018

The Prince Estate: How Intestacy Works, How It Could Work, And How It Fails As An Estate Plan, Dennis M. Patrick, Beth T. Morrison

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Ethics Of Empowerment: An Elder Law Lawyer's Challenge Or Obligation?, Gregory T. Holtz Nov 2017

Understanding The Ethics Of Empowerment: An Elder Law Lawyer's Challenge Or Obligation?, Gregory T. Holtz

Northern Illinois University Law Review

This Article considers the concept of empowerment and the obligation lawyers have as they advise and counsel their clients, especially the elderly, in the use of estate planning documents which empower others to undertake responsibility on the client's behalf. The article proposes the lawyer achieve the "good result" for the client as a means of fulfilling that responsibility, applying it in the use of the durable power of attorney, advance directive, and psychiatric advance directive.


Distributive Justice And Donative Intent, Alexander Boni-Saenz Jul 2017

Distributive Justice And Donative Intent, Alexander Boni-Saenz

All Faculty Scholarship

The inheritance system is beset by formalism. Probate courts reject wills on technicalities and refuse to correct obvious drafting mistakes by testators. These doctrines lead to donative errors, or outcomes that are not in line with the decedent’s donative intent. While scholars and reformers have critiqued the intent-defeating effects of formalism in the past, none have examined the resulting distribution of donative errors and connected it to broader social and economic inequalities. Drawing on egalitarian theories of distributive justice, this Article develops a novel critique of formalism in the inheritance law context. The central normative claim is that formalistic wills …


The Elective Share Has No Friends: Creditors Trump Spouse In The Battle Over The Revocable Trust, Angela M. Vallario Jan 2017

The Elective Share Has No Friends: Creditors Trump Spouse In The Battle Over The Revocable Trust, Angela M. Vallario

All Faculty Scholarship

A revocable trust is a popular estate planning tool used to disinherit a spouse in sixteen jurisdictions. In common law jurisdictions, a surviving spouse, who is dissatisfied with his or her inheritance, has the right to receive an elective share of the decedent's estate regardless of the decedent's estate plan. However, sixteen jurisdictions have defined a dissatisfied spouse's rights with a fractional share of the deceased spouse's "net probate estate," allowing one spouse to disinherit the other, by single-handedly transferring his or her assets to a revocable trust. To add insult to injury seven of these common law jurisdictions have …


In States We "Trust": Self-Settled Trusts, Public Policy, And Interstate Federalism, Brendan Duffy Dec 2016

In States We "Trust": Self-Settled Trusts, Public Policy, And Interstate Federalism, Brendan Duffy

Northwestern University Law Review

Over the last twenty years, domestic asset protection trusts have risen in popularity as a means of estate planning and asset protection. A domestic asset protection trust is an irrevocable trust formed under state law which enables an independent trustee to allocate money to a class of

persons, which includes the settlor.

Since Alaska first enacted domestic asset protection legislation in 1997, fifteen states have followed its lead. The case law over the last twenty years addressing these trust mechanisms has, however, been surprisingly sparse. A Washington bankruptcy court decision, In re Huber, altered this drought, but caused more confusion …