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Full-Text Articles in Law

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle Nov 2105

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle

Josh Eagle

Environmental law scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have wrestled for some time with the implications of climate change for environmental law. There is widespread, although not universal, agreement that climate change requires greater flexibility in environmental legal systems. Flexibility—reduced procedural requirements for administrative agency decision making and less rigid substantive standards—would allow the agencies that implement environmental law to adapt to a future world characterized by dynamic, uncertain changes in natural resource systems. According to its proponents, flexibility would make it easier for agencies to more frequently update their management or regulatory decisions to respond to changed conditions, and ...


When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle Nov 2105

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle

Eric Biber

Environmental law scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have wrestled for some time with the implications of climate change for environmental law. There is widespread, although not universal, agreement that climate change requires greater flexibility in environmental legal systems. Flexibility—reduced procedural requirements for administrative agency decision making and less rigid substantive standards—would allow the agencies that implement environmental law to adapt to a future world characterized by dynamic, uncertain changes in natural resource systems. According to its proponents, flexibility would make it easier for agencies to more frequently update their management or regulatory decisions to respond to changed conditions, and ...


Park County Environmental Council V. Montana Department Of Environmental Quality, 477 P.3d 288 (Mont. 2020), Holly Seymour Sep 2021

Park County Environmental Council V. Montana Department Of Environmental Quality, 477 P.3d 288 (Mont. 2020), Holly Seymour

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The Montana Supreme Court held in 2020 that loopholes in the Montana Environmental Procedure Act ("MEPA") review process violate Montana's constitutional right to a clean and healthful environment. The holding sets a strong precedent requiring statutory protections to prevent harm to the environment before it occurs.


Reimagining Exceptional Events: Regulating Wildfires Through The Clean Air Act, Emily Williams Jun 2021

Reimagining Exceptional Events: Regulating Wildfires Through The Clean Air Act, Emily Williams

Washington Law Review

Wildfires are increasing in both frequency and severity due to climate change. Smoke from these fires causes serious health problems. Land managers agree that prescribed burns help mitigate these negative consequences. Prescribed burns are lower-intensity fires that are intentionally ignited and managed for an ecological benefit. They reduce the amount of smoke produced and limit wildfire damage to natural systems and human property.

The Clean Air Act (CAA) is designed to regulate air pollution to protect public health, yet it exempts wildfire smoke through the exceptional events designation while imposing strict regulations on prescribed burns. Congress and the Environmental Protection ...


The U.S. Dairy Industry In The 20th And 21st Century, George B. Frisvold Apr 2021

The U.S. Dairy Industry In The 20th And 21st Century, George B. Frisvold

Journal of Food Law & Policy

At the beginning of the 20th Century, the U.S. dairy industry was comprised of millions of small-scale operations producing for their own or for very local consumption. By the end of the 20th Century, the industry was dominated by large-scale producers marketing products via large cooperatives. Improvements in transportation, advances in animal breeding and feeding technologies, and scale economies have allowed the industry to be more competitive on global markets, where there is now active international trade in dairy products. Major government programs to support dairy farm income date back to Depression-era problems facing the industry. Federal programs to ...


Breaking Up With Dillion: A Practical Call For Virginia State & Local Government Law Reform, Karly Newcomb Feb 2021

Breaking Up With Dillion: A Practical Call For Virginia State & Local Government Law Reform, Karly Newcomb

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

States’ long-standing allegiance to the Dillon Rule stems from the theory that it prevents localities from passing unequal and corrupt laws. However, states with strict adherence to the Dillon Rule have stifled localities from addressing their own issues and priorities. Though the debates surrounding the Dillon Rule’s strengths and weaknesses have existed since its inception, the burdensome effects on a locality’s ability to serve and protect its citizens are constantly evolving. In particular, localities in Dillon Rule states have been unable to enact laws that directly address environmental issues, citing the Dillon Rule as their main obstacle.

Although ...


Navigating The Blue Economy, Edward Canuel Feb 2021

Navigating The Blue Economy, Edward Canuel

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

The time has come, the Walrus said,

To talk of many things:

Of shoes—and ships—and sealing-wax—

Of cabbages—and kings—

And why the sea is boiling hot—

And whether pigs have wings.

And like the conversation of the Walrus and Carpenter walking along the “wet as wet could be” sea, the blue economy offers us the opportunity to talk of many things. Part I of this Article analyzes what the blue economy is and its relevance. Governance mechanisms, including ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning are introduced and reviewed. The section discusses the benefits associated with such mechanisms ...


How The Safe Drinking Water Act & The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act Fail Emerging Contaminants: A Per- And Polyfluoralkyl Substances (Pfas) Case Study, Carly Johnson Jan 2021

How The Safe Drinking Water Act & The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act Fail Emerging Contaminants: A Per- And Polyfluoralkyl Substances (Pfas) Case Study, Carly Johnson

Mitchell Hamline Law Journal of Public Policy and Practice

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Climate Change And The Voiceless: Protecting Future Generations, Wildlife, And Natural Resources, Jacqueline Hoswell Jan 2021

Book Review: Climate Change And The Voiceless: Protecting Future Generations, Wildlife, And Natural Resources, Jacqueline Hoswell

Natural Resources Journal

No abstract provided.


Negative-Value Property, Bruce R. Huber Jan 2021

Negative-Value Property, Bruce R. Huber

Journal Articles

Ownership is commonly regarded as a powerful tool for environmental protection and an essential solution to the tragedy of the commons. But conventional property analysis downplays the possibility of negative-value property, a category which includes contaminated, depleted, or derelict sites. Owners have little incentive to retain or restore negative-value property and much incentive to alienate it. Although the law formally prohibits the abandonment of real property, avenues remain by which owners may functionally abandon negative-value property, as demonstrated recently by busts in certain coal and oil & gas markets. When negative-value property is abandoned, whether formally or functionally, the rehabilitation of ...


Mtsun, Llc V. Mont. Dep't Of Pub. Serv. Regulation, Ryan W. Frank Dec 2020

Mtsun, Llc V. Mont. Dep't Of Pub. Serv. Regulation, Ryan W. Frank

Public Land & Resources Law Review

MTSUN, LLC initiated negotiations for a power purchase agreement with NorthWestern Energy in September of 2015 for a potential solar energy facility in eastern Montana. In December of 2016, at an impasse in contract negotiations with NorthWestern, MTSUN filed a petition with the Montana Public Service Commission requesting that the agency exercise its statutory authority to set the terms of the contract for the proposed project. Following MTSUN’s petition, the PSC issued a series of orders and reconsiderations which ultimately reconfigured the entirety of the agreement, including the terms that the parties had previously agreed upon. After exhausting its ...


Transportation In A Changing Climate: Innovating To Create Resilient, Low-Carbon Systems, Vicki Arroyo, Annie Bennett Sep 2020

Transportation In A Changing Climate: Innovating To Create Resilient, Low-Carbon Systems, Vicki Arroyo, Annie Bennett

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The climate is changing rapidly, bringing new temperature highs and weather extremes and affecting every individual, community, and sector of society—including transportation. Although, at times, climate change may feel like an insurmountable challenge, humanity is resilient and innovative. Transportation ultimately is about people: connecting people to places, to goods and services, and to each other. Because of its central role in the functioning of society, the transportation system—including its infrastructure, networks, and workforce—is an essential part of addressing and responding to climate change.

This article discusses challenges and opportunities for building resilient and low-carbon transportation solutions in ...


A Defense Of The Regulatory Takings Doctrine: A Historical Analysis Of This Conflict Between Property Rights And Public Good And A Prediction For Its Future, Andrew Parslow Jul 2020

A Defense Of The Regulatory Takings Doctrine: A Historical Analysis Of This Conflict Between Property Rights And Public Good And A Prediction For Its Future, Andrew Parslow

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Since man first left the state of nature and formed property rights, there have been issues when states desire to use the property of another for what they consider to be the greater good. In their wisdom, the Founding Fathers of the United States built on centuries of historical principles ranging from the Romans to the English and enshrined in the Fifth Amendment the common law notion that “private property [shall not] be taken for public use, without just compensation.” The rise of environmentalism has brought a new frontier to the ancient struggle between the rights of individuals and the ...


Community-Driven Climate Solutions: How Public-Private Partnerships With Land Trusts Can Advance Climate Action, Jessica Grannis Jul 2020

Community-Driven Climate Solutions: How Public-Private Partnerships With Land Trusts Can Advance Climate Action, Jessica Grannis

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

In 2018 and 2019, several landmark developments demonstrated the failings of past efforts to address climate change and the need for new and more ambitious solutions. In October 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (“IPCC”) released a dire report indicating that the window is rapidly closing for countries to dramatically reduce emissions in order to avoid the worst consequences of climate change and predicting dramatic consequences to the environment and public health if countries fail to take action; young activists started taking to the streets to demand more ambitious action to address climate change; and, at the 25th Conference ...


Environmental Federalism As Forum Shopping, Cale Jaffe Jul 2020

Environmental Federalism As Forum Shopping, Cale Jaffe

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Public policy advocates of all stripes—litigators, politicians, or newspaper columnists—invoke principles of federalism when they are imploring Congress to respect limits imposed by Article I, and when they are insisting that a state legislature accede to the supremacy of a duly enacted national law, invoking Article VI. Yet historically, application of the term, “federalism,” at least in the context of environmental law, has been driven far more by pragmatic considerations than constitutional ones.

This pragmatic approach should not be surprising because, at its core, federalism simply asks what is the right level of government to solve a given ...


The Green New Deal And Green Transitions, Nicholas Bryner Jul 2020

The Green New Deal And Green Transitions, Nicholas Bryner

All Scholarship

In February 2019, Representative Ocasio-Cortez and Senator Markey introduced a "Green New Deal" Resolution in Congress, calling for a tenyear mobilization toward action on climate change, socioeconomic inequality, and other issues. A Green New Deal--evoking the language of FDR-erapolicy--envisions a transition to a green economy that is integrated with concern for the social and economic welfare of those who are most harmed by environmental degradation and those who are most likely to be displaced by the reinvention ofU.S. infrastructure and energy systems. This Article addresses the need for engaging with regulatory transition theory in order to assess the legal ...


The Incidental Environmental Agency, Tara K. Righetti Jul 2020

The Incidental Environmental Agency, Tara K. Righetti

Utah Law Review

State oil and gas conservation agencies are the gatekeepers to oil and gas development: as the agencies charged with granting drilling permits, they decide if, when, where, and how oil and gas will be developed. As such, oil and gas conservation agencies sit on the front lines in the emerging, and increasingly irresolvable, struggle between fossil energy development and the environment. Current oil and gas conservation regulation is designed to promote development, maximize recovery of the resource, and protect the individual property rights of mineral owners. However, advocacy by environmental constituencies, including surface owners and local governments, has challenged the ...


Issuance Of The Keystone Xl Permit: Presidential Prerogative Or Presidential “Chutzpah”, Hope M. Babcock May 2020

Issuance Of The Keystone Xl Permit: Presidential Prerogative Or Presidential “Chutzpah”, Hope M. Babcock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article uses President Trump's issuance of the Keystone XL Pipeline permit to illustrate the dangers of an imperial presidency, one in which the exercise of discretionary authority, based on neither the text of Article II of the Constitution nor a statute, will in all likelihood be unchecked by Congress, the courts, or popular opinion. To understand the dimensions of this concern, Part I of this article briefly describes the process and requirements for a presidential permit. Part II identifies key facts surrounding issuance of the Keystone XL Pipeline permit, the chronology of its issuance, and commonly given reasons ...


Comprehensive General Liability Policies Under Maine's Ground Water Protection Act: The Law Court's Extraordinary Definition Of Ordinary Intelligence, Andrew M. Strongin Apr 2020

Comprehensive General Liability Policies Under Maine's Ground Water Protection Act: The Law Court's Extraordinary Definition Of Ordinary Intelligence, Andrew M. Strongin

Maine Law Review

In Patrons Oxford Mutual Insurance Co. v. Marios, the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, sitting as the Law Court, joined the current debate in the state and federal judiciaries as to whether comprehensive general liability (CGL) insurance policies obligate the insurer to indemnify the insured for cleanup costs incurred pursuant to governmentally mandated cleanup of hazardous substances. In that decision, the court held that cleanup costs incurred pursuant to court order authorized by the Maine Underground Oil Storage Facilities and Ground Water Protection Act are not covered by such policies. The explicit basis of the court's decision was that ...


Comprehensive General Liability Policies Under Maine's Ground Water Protection Act: The Law Court's Extraordinary Definition Of Ordinary Intelligence, Andrew M. Strongin Apr 2020

Comprehensive General Liability Policies Under Maine's Ground Water Protection Act: The Law Court's Extraordinary Definition Of Ordinary Intelligence, Andrew M. Strongin

Maine Law Review

In Patrons Oxford Mutual Insurance Co. v. Marios, the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, sitting as the Law Court, joined the current debate in the state and federal judiciaries as to whether comprehensive general liability (CGL) insurance policies obligate the insurer to indemnify the insured for cleanup costs incurred pursuant to governmentally mandated cleanup of hazardous substances. In that decision, the court held that cleanup costs incurred pursuant to court order authorized by the Maine Underground Oil Storage Facilities and Ground Water Protection Act are not covered by such policies. The explicit basis of the court's decision was that ...


The Limited Power Of Federal Bankruptcy Courts To Stay Enforcement Of State Environmental Regulations, David A. Brenningmeyer Apr 2020

The Limited Power Of Federal Bankruptcy Courts To Stay Enforcement Of State Environmental Regulations, David A. Brenningmeyer

Maine Law Review

Over the course of the past few decades, public awareness of privately created environmental hazards has risen. As a result, state and federal legislatures have been moved to enact comprehensive environmental laws that serve both to remedy past harms and to prevent future ones. Today, environmental statutes seek to correct and prevent public health hazards as diverse as groundwater contamination, toxic waste disposal, soil contamination, destruction of native plant and animal habitats, and air pollution, to name but a few. In addition, state and federal courts have permitted the invocation of common law theories, such as nuisance and trespass, to ...


The Lasting Impacts Of Mass Consumerism And The Disposable Culture: A Proposition For The Development Of Plastic Shopping Bag Bans In Texas Law, David Brewster Apr 2020

The Lasting Impacts Of Mass Consumerism And The Disposable Culture: A Proposition For The Development Of Plastic Shopping Bag Bans In Texas Law, David Brewster

St. Mary's Law Journal

This Article addresses the developing state of plastic bag bans in Texas municipal and state jurisprudence. The Article recites the history of plastic bag bans and their impacts on the environment, the issues pertinent to municipal powers as regulatory devices, and analyzes the most recent case regarding bag bans in Texas, which is the Texas Supreme Court’s opinion in City of Laredo v. Laredo Merchants Association. The Article makes suggestions about how to move forward in developing municipal plastic bag bans for the benefit of the environment, and addresses the immediate impacts of bag ban litigation and legislation in ...


Forks In The Road, Michael P. Vandenbergh, J. M. Gilligan Jan 2020

Forks In The Road, Michael P. Vandenbergh, J. M. Gilligan

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This Essay outlines a simple heuristic that will enable public and private policymakers to focus on the most important climate change mitigation strategies. Policymakers face a dizzying array of information, pressure from advocacy groups, and policy options, and it is easy to lose sight of the forest for the trees. Many policy options are attractive on the surface but either fail to meaningfully address the problem or are unlikely to be adopted in the foreseeable future. If policymakers make the right decision when confronting three essential choices or forks in the road, though, the result will be 60% to 70 ...


Integrative Environmental Law: A Prescription For Law In The Time Of Climate Change, Alyson C. Flournoy Jan 2020

Integrative Environmental Law: A Prescription For Law In The Time Of Climate Change, Alyson C. Flournoy

UF Law Faculty Publications

As the magnitude of the threat posed by climate change has become increasingly apparent, scholars and practitioners have begun a dialogue about how to reform environmental law to meet the challenge. Concepts like adaptive management, sustainability, and resilience have emerged in succession, as policy makers and scholars search for new moorings for our ethical and legal framework. While useful, these concepts have failed to provide a vision, goal, or solid ethical grounding for environmental law in the era of climate change. This project takes a new approach by exploring what we can learn from the field of Integrative Medicine. The ...


George Perkins Marsh: Anticipating The Anthropocene, Robin Kundis Craig Jan 2020

George Perkins Marsh: Anticipating The Anthropocene, Robin Kundis Craig

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This chapter, part of the forthcoming volume PIONEERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, explores the vision of humanity's influence on social-ecological systems that George Perkins Marsh provided to the world in his 1964 work, MAN AND NATURE, OR PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AS MODIFIED BY HUMAN ACTION, republished in 1874 as THE EARTH AS MODIFIED THROUGH HUMAN ACTION. In addition to tracing how Marsh and these publications influenced nature resources and environmental law in the United States well into the 20th century, this chapter also argues that Marsh anticipated, in many respects, the environmental legal and policy issues of the Anthropocene by tracing ...


The Rise And Fall Of Clean Air Act Climate Policy, Nathan Richardson Jan 2020

The Rise And Fall Of Clean Air Act Climate Policy, Nathan Richardson

Faculty Publications

The Clean Air Act has proven to be one of the most successful and durable statutes in American law. After the Supreme Court’s 2008 decision in Massachusetts v. EPA, there was great hope that the Act could be brought to bear on climate change, the most pressing current environmental challenge of our time. Massachusetts was fêted as the most important environmental case ever decided, and, upon it, the Environmental Protection Agency under President Obama built a sweeping program of greenhouse gas regulations, aimed first at emissions from road vehicles, and later at fossil fuel power plants. It was the ...


Transboundary Waters, Annie Brett Jan 2020

Transboundary Waters, Annie Brett

UF Law Faculty Publications

In 2018, toxic algae spread from Lake Okeechobee through the State of Florida, leading to a state of emergency and costing the state over $17 million. Similar toxic algal blooms have become an annual occurrence throughout the country and highlighted the pervasive issues with the US. water supply. Inadequate and incomplete monitoring data means that state and federal managers, as well as the public, know shockingly little about water quality in most of the waters in the United States despite the fact that the Clean Water Act requires extensive water quality monitoring and assessment. Academics have widely discussed failings of ...


Administrative Law's Extraordinary Cases, Jonathan Skinner-Thompson Jan 2020

Administrative Law's Extraordinary Cases, Jonathan Skinner-Thompson

Articles

The Supreme Court's major questions doctrine is grounded in the Chevron framework. Reconstituting it as a "major rules" exception to Chevron or as a non-delegation principle are misguided and create greater uncertainty.


Professor Julian Conrad Juergensmeyer’S "Impact": Scholarly, Theoretical, And Practical, Becky L. Jacobs Jan 2020

Professor Julian Conrad Juergensmeyer’S "Impact": Scholarly, Theoretical, And Practical, Becky L. Jacobs

UTK Law Faculty Publications

It is difficult to believe that a decade has passed since the original Festschrift in honor of the occasion of Julian Conrad Juergensmeyer’s 45th year of teaching. That first Festschrift was an impressive and moving scholarly tribute to Julian’s impact on his colleagues, on his students, and on broader legal doctrine. Yet, despite the many accolades received and accomplishments documented in Festschrift I, Julian lamented with typical humility and self-deprecation, in his Introduction and Thank You that he had “never succeeded in developing a course which adequately links the coverage of land use and environmental law[,]” but that ...


The Fault In Our Stars: Challenging The Fcc's Treatment Of Commercial Satellites As Categorically Excluded From Review Under The National Environmental Policy Act, Ramon J. Ryan Jan 2020

The Fault In Our Stars: Challenging The Fcc's Treatment Of Commercial Satellites As Categorically Excluded From Review Under The National Environmental Policy Act, Ramon J. Ryan

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Mega satellite constellations, such as SpaceX's Starlink, have the ability to connect humans across the globe in a way never before possible. However, the unprecedented deployment of tens of thousands of satellites into orbit around Earth creates the risk of altering the night sky for astronomers and the public for decades to come, as well as the risk of polluting the environment through the use of toxic satellite components. The Federal Communications Commission considers commercial-satellite projects categorically excluded from environmental review despite the National Environmental Policy Act's requirement that federal agencies review projects for their environmental effects. A ...