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Environmental Law

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 106

Full-Text Articles in Law

Climate Change Under Nepa: Avoiding Cursory Consideration Of Greenhouse Gases, Amy L. Stein Dec 2014

Climate Change Under Nepa: Avoiding Cursory Consideration Of Greenhouse Gases, Amy L. Stein

Amy L. Stein

Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”) nor its implementing regulations require consideration of climate change in NEPA documentation. Yet an ever-growing body of NEPA case law related to climate change is making it increasingly difficult for a federal agency to avoid discussing the impacts of those emissions under NEPA in its Environmental Impact Statements (“EISs”). Although consideration of climate change in NEPA documents sounds right in theory, within the current legal framework, the NEPA documents provide only lip service to the goals of NEPA without any meaningful consideration of climate change. An empirical evaluation of two years of selected …


State Fish Stocking Programs At Risk: Takings Under The Endangered Species Act, Amy L. Stein Dec 2014

State Fish Stocking Programs At Risk: Takings Under The Endangered Species Act, Amy L. Stein

Amy L. Stein

Part I of this article provides a brief background to fish stocking practices in the United States, including a discussion of beneficial fish stocking practices, as well as some of the allegations surrounding the detrimental effects. Part II of this article provides some necessary background on section 9 of the ESA, the “actual injury” prong, the “significant impairment” prong, and their application to fish stocking. Part III of this article sets forth recommendations for future clarification and increased consistency on these issues. Specifically, this article supports the use of two rules that can help reconcile the uncertain landscape surrounding a …


Why Environmental Laws Fail, Jan G. Laitos, Lauren Joseph Wolongevicz Dec 2014

Why Environmental Laws Fail, Jan G. Laitos, Lauren Joseph Wolongevicz

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Although governments have deployed an array of environmental protection laws, our planet continues to experience unprecedented environmental “crises,” including climate change, resource depletion, species extinction, ecosystem damage, and toxic air-water-land pollution. Despite universal acknowledgment and recognition of these serious environmental issues, and despite a growing list of laws designed to address these issues, the reality is that these adverse Earth-based environmental changes continue, and may even be worsening. Environmental protection laws have often failed because they usually include certain problematic characteristics: they are anthropocentric, in that their goal is to protect and benefit humans, not the environment in which humans …


Managing The Risks Of Shale Gas Development Using Innovative Legal And Regulatory Approaches, Sheila Olmstead, Nathan Richardson Dec 2014

Managing The Risks Of Shale Gas Development Using Innovative Legal And Regulatory Approaches, Sheila Olmstead, Nathan Richardson

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Booming production of oil and gas from shale enabled by hydraulic fracturing technology has led to tension between hoped-for economic benefits and feared environmental and other costs, with great associated controversy. Studies of how policy can best react to these challenges and how it can balance risk and reward have focused on prescriptive regulatory responses and, to a somewhat lesser extent, voluntary industry best practices. While there is undoubtedly room for improved regulation, innovative tools are relatively understudied. The liability system predates environmental regulation yet still plays an important—and in some senses predominant—role. Changes to that system, including burden-shifting rules …


Restoration Rx: An Evaluation And Prescription, Alyson C. Flournoy Nov 2014

Restoration Rx: An Evaluation And Prescription, Alyson C. Flournoy

Alyson Flournoy

In this introductory article, I explore what ethics, science, economics, and law suggest about the value of restoration. These themes -- the questions and challenges posed by ethics, science, economics, and law -- resonate throughout the Articles in this Symposium. Drawing on the presentations given at the Symposium and the literature on environmental restoration, this article reviews some of the major questions that science and ethics pose for restoration, as well as the challenges posed by the economic and legal contexts within which environmental restoration occurs. After a brief comment on the definition of restoration, this article addresses the challenges …


Section 404 At Thirty-Something: A Program In Search Of A Policy, Alyson C. Flournoy Nov 2014

Section 404 At Thirty-Something: A Program In Search Of A Policy, Alyson C. Flournoy

Alyson Flournoy

This article focuses on three controversies that have dominated debate over wetlands -- jurisdiction, delineation, and the scope of activities regulated by section 404 -- and shows how the limitations inherent in section 404 have contributed to endless conflict over these issues, with little long-term benefit to policy development. This article examines why wetlands policy has failed to mature in its first thirty years.


Protecting A Natural Resource Legacy While Promoting Reslience: Can It Be Done?, Alyson C. Flournoy Nov 2014

Protecting A Natural Resource Legacy While Promoting Reslience: Can It Be Done?, Alyson C. Flournoy

Alyson Flournoy

Our stock of natural resources, and the values and services they provide, are diminishing steadily over time. We have dozens of laws, enacted over a period of almost forty years that express the objective of stemming this tide. Yet, the inexorable, incremental loss continues. Scholars concerned with conservation of our natural capital have long wrestled with how best to improve the laws we have in place and to supplement the framework of existing law with newer approaches. One common theme in efforts to design progressive conservation law is how to better incorporate scientific insights into our legal regimes. This effort …


Harnessing The Power Of Information To Protect Our Public Natural Resource Legacy, Alyson Flournoy, Heather Halter, Christina Storz Nov 2014

Harnessing The Power Of Information To Protect Our Public Natural Resource Legacy, Alyson Flournoy, Heather Halter, Christina Storz

Alyson Flournoy

In practice, our laws have proven unequal to the lofty objectives of preserving a legacy of public natural resources for our children or achieving sustainable use of these resources. There are many factors that contribute to this shortfall, but inherent inadequacies in the design of these statutes cannot be overlooked as an important determinant. Despite the statutes' broadly stated aspirations toward sustainability and protection of the interests of future generations, only a handful of these statutes include strong and enforceable mandates for sustainable resource use. Many of these statutes accord natural resource-management agencies broad discretion to balance and permit a …


Building An Environmental Ethic From The Ground Up, Alyson Flournoy Nov 2014

Building An Environmental Ethic From The Ground Up, Alyson Flournoy

Alyson Flournoy

Over the last twenty years there has been a remarkable theoretical flourishing in the field of environmental philosophy, with the development of biocentric ethics, animal rights theories, deep ecology, ecofeminism, modified utilitarianism, moral pluralism and theories drawing on numerous religious and cultural traditions. These theories explore the intellectual and moral causes for the environmentally destructive practices of the dominant western industrial and economic culture, and propose alternatives that might avoid these consequences. This symposium raises a worthy question: to what extent have these theories had practical impact on environmental law and policy. I come to this question as a lawyer …


In Search Of An Environmental Ethic, Alyson C. Flournoy Nov 2014

In Search Of An Environmental Ethic, Alyson C. Flournoy

Alyson Flournoy

A preliminary analysis of several core environmental provisions suggests that the mix of values embedded in our environmental statutes is substantially similar to the values found in the common law and non-environmental statutes. That is, the environmental statutes tend to reflect human concerns that predate any dawning of environmental awareness -- with only a modest introduction of new values or reasons for caring that are uniquely attributable to concern for the human relationship to the environment. If this is true, it seems to undermine a tenet of the public debate. It may call into question the very naming of these …


The Environmental Commerce Clause, Christine A. Klein Nov 2014

The Environmental Commerce Clause, Christine A. Klein

Christine A. Klein

This Article studies every commerce clause decision of the modem Supreme Court that involves the scope of governmental authority to regulate the use of natural resources. These decisions comprise what I will call the environmental commerce clause -- the Court's interpretation of the limits mandated by the commerce clause upon federal and state legislation protecting natural resources. Overall, the Court has been limiting the scope of the affirmative commerce clause while simultaneously expanding the reach of the dormant commerce clause. As a result, both federal and state efforts to protect the natural environment have been rendered constitutionally suspect. This study …


Applying Administrative Law Principles To Hydraulic Fracturing, Joel M. Pratt Nov 2014

Applying Administrative Law Principles To Hydraulic Fracturing, Joel M. Pratt

Joel M Pratt

Because fracking regulators and industry need both legal clarity and the ability to react to new information, courts should apply principles of administrative deference to resolve conflicts between state and local fracking regulations.Under these principles, courts weigh expert agency decision making more heavily when the agency has acted reasonably. When faced with a conflict between state and local fracking laws, courts should adopt administrative principles and privilege expert agency regulations rather than engage in an independent judicial inquiry. Part I provides background on fracking and argues that states are in the best position to regulate the practice. Part II then …


Global Environmental Constitutionalism, Erin Daly, James May Oct 2014

Global Environmental Constitutionalism, Erin Daly, James May

Erin Daly

No abstract provided.


Ten Good Practices In Environmental Constitutionalism: Structure, Text And Justiciability, James May, Erin Daly Oct 2014

Ten Good Practices In Environmental Constitutionalism: Structure, Text And Justiciability, James May, Erin Daly

Erin Daly

Environmental constitutionalism is a relatively recent phenomenon at the confluence of constitutional law, international law, human rights, and environmental law. It embodies the recognition that the environment is a proper subject for protection in constitutional texts and for vindication by constitutional courts worldwide. This White Paper posits ten “good practices” – those attributes that make effective outcomes more likely, but not assured – in environmental constitutionalism for advancing positive environmental outcomes considering energy, and governance and sustainability. Good practices in environmental constitutionalism can serve as a useful construct for considering the relationship between sustainability, energy and governance. Accordingly, Section A …


Features Of Forestry In Bangladesh And Available Legal Protections And Implications, Mahmudul Hasan Oct 2014

Features Of Forestry In Bangladesh And Available Legal Protections And Implications, Mahmudul Hasan

Mahmudul Hasan

Due to climate change as well as rise of global temperature Bangladesh is going to face a massive environmental challenge. Being an environmentally vulnerable country Bangladesh needs to step immediately to take all sort of measures to prevent the growing environmental threats. Forestry plays a pivotal role to protect environment as well as biodiversity of a particular region. Being agriculture based country and a coastal region Bangladesh already has been facing the adverse effect of decrease of forest lands. For some decades desertification has been taking place in many arena of the country. And due to the large amount of …


Evaluation Of Directive 2014/52/Eu And Spanish Law 21/2013 Along With The Need To Include The Reverse Environmental Assessment Analysis For The Adaptation Of Projects, Plans, And Programs To The Effects Of Climate Change, Teresa -. Parejo Oct 2014

Evaluation Of Directive 2014/52/Eu And Spanish Law 21/2013 Along With The Need To Include The Reverse Environmental Assessment Analysis For The Adaptation Of Projects, Plans, And Programs To The Effects Of Climate Change, Teresa -. Parejo

Teresa - Parejo

The need for action on climate change is recognized around the world, and the European Union is not an exception. For that reason, the new Directive 2014/52/EU stresses the requirement to strengthen the quality of the Environmental Impact Assessment procedure by including the so-called “Reverse Environmental Impact Assessment”, which adds to the traditional tool a new and complementary vision that takes into account the effects of the changing climate into certain public and private projects.


Billionaires, Birds, And Environmental Brawls: Reconceptualizing Energy Easements, Nadia B. Ahmad Oct 2014

Billionaires, Birds, And Environmental Brawls: Reconceptualizing Energy Easements, Nadia B. Ahmad

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Sustaining An Unsustainable Fuel Source: How Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Limitations Can Improve The Sustainability Of The Tar Oil Industry, Brittany Debord Sep 2014

Sustaining An Unsustainable Fuel Source: How Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Limitations Can Improve The Sustainability Of The Tar Oil Industry, Brittany Debord

Brittany DeBord

The United States seeks to achieve energy security and self-sufficiency by acquiring energy from Canadian tar sands and promoting a domestic tar sands industry. However, support for this industry is inconsistent with the greenhouse gas reduction policies of the Energy Independence and Security Act and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, since tar oil extraction creates three times more carbon emissions than conventional oil extraction. Legislation limiting lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions has already been implemented through the Renewable Fuel Standard Program in response to concerns that plant-based fuel production leads to greater carbon emissions than intended. Since the lifecycle …


Regulation Of Chemical Risks: Lessons For Tsca Reform From Canada And The European Union, Adam Abelkop, John D. Graham Sep 2014

Regulation Of Chemical Risks: Lessons For Tsca Reform From Canada And The European Union, Adam Abelkop, John D. Graham

Adam Abelkop

The United States Congress is considering reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976. This Article compares recent reforms in Europe and Canada in order to draw lessons for TSCA reform. In 2006, the European Union enacted the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation while Canada used existing authority under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) of 1999 to initiate the 2006 Chemicals Management Plan (CMP). Focusing on the tens of thousands of industrial chemicals now in use in the US, we offer several suggestions for TSCA reform based on the European and Canadian experiences. …


Constitution And Pollution: Federalism At Work, David R. Hodas Sep 2014

Constitution And Pollution: Federalism At Work, David R. Hodas

David R. Hodas

No abstract provided.


Looking To The Practices Of Transnational Corporations To Protect The Global Environment: A New Theory Of Custom In International Environmental Law, Matthew Thurmer Sep 2014

Looking To The Practices Of Transnational Corporations To Protect The Global Environment: A New Theory Of Custom In International Environmental Law, Matthew Thurmer

Matthew A Thurmer Mr.

To a large extent, international environmental law has been unsuccessful. As a result, new and creative thinking is needed to protect the global environment. This paper, in particular, considers an approach to customary international law that is based on the practices of transnational corporations (TNCs) rather than the practices of states. Of course, many TNCs are harming the Earth. Thus, the state must regulate these multinational companies to establish practices that are environmentally sound. If enough states pass and enforce such laws, then at some point a rule of custom will arise that can protect the global environment.


Governing For The Corporations: History And Analysis Of U.S. Promotion Of Foreign Investment, Michael R. Miller Sep 2014

Governing For The Corporations: History And Analysis Of U.S. Promotion Of Foreign Investment, Michael R. Miller

Michael R Miller

This paper explores and analyzes U.S. government support for foreign investors, especially major oil companies.

Throughout the 20th Century the US government has repeatedly used its international political influence to benefit US corporate activities abroad. The US government and others assumed initially that this was in the larger interests of the United States because US companies would represent and promote the United States’ policy agenda.

However, US corporate activities abroad over the last century seem to indicate this assumption was flawed. In numerous examples, US corporations have either ignored or thwarted the stated interests of the US government. At first …


Protecting Children Attending School Through Effective Regulations Of Harmful Volatile Organic Compounds, Michelle Gregory Sep 2014

Protecting Children Attending School Through Effective Regulations Of Harmful Volatile Organic Compounds, Michelle Gregory

Michelle Gregory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a regulation known as the Federal Clean Air Act Currently, the Federal Clean Air Act only sets the framework for air pollution control as it affects industrial settings.Although industrial facilities are not major sources of ozone depletion per se; they are sources of high emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are the precursors of ozone depletion.The EPA has not established standards for indoor VOCs and nonindustrial settings. As a result, public health is compromised as states and communities are left to determine policies relating to land development and indoor safety standards. …


U.S. Military Responsibility For Environmental Clean Up In Contingency Environments, Jennifer Neuhauser Sep 2014

U.S. Military Responsibility For Environmental Clean Up In Contingency Environments, Jennifer Neuhauser

Jennifer Neuhauser

U.S. Military Responsibility for Environmental Clean Up in Contingency Environments Environmental destruction is an inevitable by-product of warfare. However, the new paradigm of U.S. military contingency operations requires a strategic vision beyond merely engaging the enemy. American military commanders in the 21st century must also seek to win the “hearts and minds” of the local population in order to solidify gains and ensure lasting victory. Unfortunately, many commanders have not adapted to this new way of thinking. As a result, commanders fail to consider the long-term environmental damage inflicted by their soldiers during combat operations, damage which must be borne …


Sue And Settle: Demonizing The Environmental Citizen Suit, Stephen M. Johnson Sep 2014

Sue And Settle: Demonizing The Environmental Citizen Suit, Stephen M. Johnson

Seattle University Law Review

In the spring of 2013, industry groups and states began a concerted lobbying effort to oppose citizen enforcement of the federal environmental laws. The United States Chamber of Commerce and lobbyists for states created a catch-phrase—“sue and settle”—to demonize citizen enforcement and the federal government’s practice of settling lawsuits it is destined to lose in court. The Chamber alleged that the federal government, by settling lawsuits brought by citizens groups rather than defending them in court, was colluding with those non-governmental organizations and excluding other affected parties to reallocate the agencies’ priorities and obligations. Federal environmental laws establish a central …


Archaeological Sites And Mangrove Forest: A Legal Overview Of The Ecologically Critical Areas In The Bangladesh Context, Arpeeta Shams Mizan Sep 2014

Archaeological Sites And Mangrove Forest: A Legal Overview Of The Ecologically Critical Areas In The Bangladesh Context, Arpeeta Shams Mizan

Arpeeta Shams Mizan

Ecologically critical area as a concept is practised globally to preserve the natural biodiversity of environmentally endangered areas. These areas also fall under the criteria of natural and cultural heritage. Since the Stockholm Declaration, leading international legal instruments have reiterated their sanctity in consonance with the principles of Intergenerational equity and also of human rights. The environmental law in Bangladesh has incorporated these principles by making provisions for Ecologically Critical Areas (ECAs) in the Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act 1995 (as amended in 2010) and the Environment Conservation Rules 1997. Bangladesh is a signatory to the World Heritage Convention, the principal …


Calling Foul: Deficiencies In Approaches To Environmental Whistleblowers And Suggested Reforms, Emily Becker Sep 2014

Calling Foul: Deficiencies In Approaches To Environmental Whistleblowers And Suggested Reforms, Emily Becker

Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate, and the Environment

Whistleblowers could facilitate the regulation of the environmental sector at little to no cost to the taxpayer. Often, potential whistleblowers have timely access to information that would enable them to avert or minimize environmental damage and to protect our communities. However, existing federal and state regulations fail to adequately protect environmental whistleblowers and to incentivize potential environmental whistleblowers. These failures unjustly penalize whistleblowers and discourage potential whistleblowers. This article uses research findings and a case study to illuminate these failings and to argue for reforms that would better protect and incentivize whistleblowers


Billionaires, Birds, And Environmental Brawls: Reconceptualizing Energy Easements, Nadia B. Ahmad Sep 2014

Billionaires, Birds, And Environmental Brawls: Reconceptualizing Energy Easements, Nadia B. Ahmad

Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate, and the Environment

In the substantial power outages associated with Hurricane Sandy and the 2013 Oklahoma tornadoes and Colorado floods, which left millions without power, the United States witnessed the insufficiency of its existing energy infrastructure. The lack of access to reliable energy widens the cleavage between the rich and poor, particularly in times of disaster and crisis. Policymakers and government regulators involved with long distance energy transmission projects have not adequately instituted laws and policies for existing and future energy access. This Article holds that current regulations, practices, and norms for long distance energy transmission may be doomed because of complications with …


Palila, People, And Politics: Perfect Facts, Law, And Lawsuits With Imperfect Results, Joanna C. Zeigler Aug 2014

Palila, People, And Politics: Perfect Facts, Law, And Lawsuits With Imperfect Results, Joanna C. Zeigler

Joanna C Zeigler

This paper discusses the endangered bird, the Palila, and the stakeholder perspectives that have influenced the bird's protection under the Endangered Species Act.


Complexity And Simplicity In Law: A Review Essay (Cass R. Sunstein, Simpler: The Future Of Government (2003)), David M. Driesen Aug 2014

Complexity And Simplicity In Law: A Review Essay (Cass R. Sunstein, Simpler: The Future Of Government (2003)), David M. Driesen

David M Driesen

This essay discusses Cass Sunstein’s book, Simpler: The Future of Government, in order to advance our understanding of the concepts of complex and simple law. Many writers identify complexity with uncertainty and high cost. This essay argues that complexity bears no fixed relationship to costs or benefits. It also shows that complexity’s relationship to uncertainty is so ambiguous that it is profitable to treat complexity and uncertainty as separate concepts. It develops useful separate concepts of legal and compliance complexity that will aid efforts to simplify law, like the one Sunstein claims to have embarked upon. It also argues that …