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An Empirical Look At Commander Bias In Sexual Assault Cases, Eric R. Carpenter Nov 2017

An Empirical Look At Commander Bias In Sexual Assault Cases, Eric R. Carpenter

Eric R. Carpenter

In response to the American military’s perceived inability to handle sexual assault cases, the Uniform Code of Military Justice is undergoing its most significant restructuring since its creation in 1950. Critics point to the high rates of sexual assault case attrition as a sign that the system is failing sexual assault victims. The theory is that commanders are predisposed to believe the offenders and to blame the victims. This bias then causes high levels of attrition as the commanders undervalue the cases and divert them from the legal process. This study tests that causal inference. It measures the attrition of …


An Empirical Study Of University Patent Activity, Brian L. Frye, Christopher J. Ryan Oct 2017

An Empirical Study Of University Patent Activity, Brian L. Frye, Christopher J. Ryan

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Since 1980, a series of legislative acts and judicial decisions have affected the ownership, scope, and duration of patents. These changes have coincided with historic increases in patent activity among academic institutions.

This article presents an empirical study of how changes to patent policy precipitated responses by academic institutions, using spline regression functions to model their patent activity. We find that academic institutions typically reduced patent activity immediately before changes to the patent system, and increased patent activity immediately afterward. This is especially true among research universities. In other words, academic institutions responded to patent incentives in a strategic manner, …


The Stricter Standard: An Empirical Assessment Of Daubert’S Effect On Civil Defendants, Andrew Jurs, Scott Devito Aug 2017

The Stricter Standard: An Empirical Assessment Of Daubert’S Effect On Civil Defendants, Andrew Jurs, Scott Devito

Scott DeVito

No abstract provided.


Data For The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search, Susan Nevelow Mart Jul 2017

Data For The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search, Susan Nevelow Mart

Research Data

These documents underlie and are cited in this empirical study: Susan Nevelow Mart, The Algorithm as a Human Artifact: Implications for Legal [Re]Search, 109 Law Libr. J. 387, 409 n.123 (2017), available at http://scholar.law.colorado.edu/articles/755/.

The ZIP file contains three files: one PDF document ("Tables for Charts 1-3"), and two SPSS files ("Data Archive" and "Syntax Archive" (SPSS version 24)). The "Syntax Archive" file may be viewed in a text editor (e.g., Notepad) as well as in SPSS.


Appendix B: The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search, Susan Nevelow Mart Jul 2017

Appendix B: The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search, Susan Nevelow Mart

Research Data

This document, "Search Instructions for Algorithm Study," is an electronic Appendix B to, and is cited in, the empirical study: Susan Nevelow Mart, The Algorithm as a Human Artifact: Implications for Legal [Re]Search, 109 Law Libr. J. 387, 400 n.78 (2017), available at http://scholar.law.colorado.edu/articles/755/.


Patent Injunctions On Appeal: An Empirical Study Of The Federal Circuit's Application Of Ebay, Christopher B. Seaman, Ryan T. Holte Jun 2017

Patent Injunctions On Appeal: An Empirical Study Of The Federal Circuit's Application Of Ebay, Christopher B. Seaman, Ryan T. Holte

Christopher B. Seaman

More than ten years after the United States Supreme Court’s landmark decision in eBay v. MercExchange, the availability of injunctive relief in patent cases remains hotly contested. For example, in a recent decision in the long-running litigation between Apple and Samsung, members of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit divided sharply on whether an injunction was warranted to prevent Samsung from continuing to infringe several smartphone features patented by Apple. To date, however, nearly all empirical scholarship regarding eBay has focused on trial court decisions, rather than the Federal Circuit. This Article represents the first comprehensive …


Patent Injunctions On Appeal: An Empirical Study Of The Federal Circuit's Application Of Ebay, Christopher B. Seaman, Ryan T. Holte Mar 2017

Patent Injunctions On Appeal: An Empirical Study Of The Federal Circuit's Application Of Ebay, Christopher B. Seaman, Ryan T. Holte

Scholarly Articles

More than ten years after the United States Supreme Court’s landmark decision in eBay v. MercExchange, the availability of injunctive relief in patent cases remains hotly contested. For example, in a recent decision in the long-running litigation between Apple and Samsung, members of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit divided sharply on whether an injunction was warranted to prevent Samsung from continuing to infringe several smartphone features patented by Apple. To date, however, nearly all empirical scholarship regarding eBay has focused on trial court decisions, rather than the Federal Circuit.

This Article represents the first …


Critical Issues And New Empirical Research In Public Defense: An Introduction, Andrew L.B. Davies, Janet Moore Jan 2017

Critical Issues And New Empirical Research In Public Defense: An Introduction, Andrew L.B. Davies, Janet Moore

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

When we co-founded the Indigent Defense Research Association (IDRA) in 2015, we wanted to create a meeting place for people who share the sense that empirical research has something to contribute to the field of public defense. With over 150 members and counting, IDRA has become a vibrant community of practitioners and researchers who engage via an active listserv, topical monthly conference calls, and the production of white papers and webinars. In addition, IDRA members present papers at conferences of the American Society of Criminology (ASC). Many of the papers in this volume were first presented at the November 2015 …


What Difference Does Adr Make? Comparison Of Adr And Trial Outcomes In Small Claims Court, Lorig Charkoudian, Deborah Thompson Eisenberg, Jamie Walter Jan 2017

What Difference Does Adr Make? Comparison Of Adr And Trial Outcomes In Small Claims Court, Lorig Charkoudian, Deborah Thompson Eisenberg, Jamie Walter

Faculty Scholarship

This study compares the experience of small claims litigants who use alternative dispute resolution (“ADR”) to those who proceeded to trial without ADR. ADR had significant immediate and long-term benefits, including improved party attitudes toward and relationship with each other, greater sense of empowerment and voice, increases in parties taking responsibility for the dispute, and increases in party satisfaction with the judiciary. Cases that settled in ADR also were less likely to return to court for an enforcement action within the next year.


The Market For Software Innovation Through The Lens Of Patent Licenses And Sales, Colleen V. Chien Jan 2017

The Market For Software Innovation Through The Lens Of Patent Licenses And Sales, Colleen V. Chien

Faculty Publications

Software innovation is transforming the US economy. Yet our understanding of how patents and patent transactions support this innovation is limited, in part because of a lack of public information about patent licenses and sales. Claims about the patent marketplace, for example, extolling the virtues of intermediaries like non-practicing entities, or questioning the social utility of ex post patent licenses, tend not to be grounded in empirical evidence. This article brings much-needed data to the policy debate by analyzing transactional data from several proprietary databases of patent licenses and transfers, and reporting several novel findings. First I find that, despite …


The Tax Lives Of Uber Drivers: Evidence From Internet Discussion Forums, Shu-Yi Oei, Diane M. Ring Jan 2017

The Tax Lives Of Uber Drivers: Evidence From Internet Discussion Forums, Shu-Yi Oei, Diane M. Ring

Faculty Scholarship

In this Article, we investigate the tax issues and challenges facing Uber and Lyfi drivers by studying their online interactions in three internet discussion forums: Reddit.com, Uberpeople.net, and Intuit TurboTax AnswerXchange. Using descriptive statistics and content analysis, we examine (1) the substantive tax concerns facing forum participants, (2) how taxes affect their driving and profitability decisions, and (3) the degree of user sophistication, accuracy of legal advising, and other cultural features of the forums.

We find that while forum participants displayed generally accurate understandings of tax filing and income inclusion obligations, their approaches to expenses and deductions were less accurate …


The Decline Of The Virginia (And American) Death Penalty, Brandon L. Garrett Jan 2017

The Decline Of The Virginia (And American) Death Penalty, Brandon L. Garrett

Faculty Scholarship

The American death penalty is disappearing. Death sentences and executions have reached the lowest levels seen in three decades. Even the states formerly most aggressive in pursuit of death sentences have seen death sentences steadily decline. Take Virginia, which has the highest rate of executions of any death penalty state, and which has executed the third highest number of prisoners since the 1970s. How times have changed. There has not been a new death sentence in Virginia since 2011. Only seven counties have imposed death sentences in the past decade in Virginia. There are now two or fewer trials a …


Time Is Money: An Empirical Assessment Of Non-Economic Damages Arguments, Christopher Robertson Jan 2017

Time Is Money: An Empirical Assessment Of Non-Economic Damages Arguments, Christopher Robertson

Faculty Scholarship

Non-economic damages (pain and suffering) are the most significant and variable components of liability. Our survey of 51 U.S. jurisdictions shows wide heterogeneity in whether attorneys may quantify damages as time-units of suffering (“per diem”) or demand a specific amount (“lump sum”). Either sort of large number could exploit an irrational anchoring effect.

We performed a realistic online, video-based experiment with 732 human subjects. We replicate prior work showing that large lump sum demands drive larger jury verdicts, but surprisingly find no effect of similarly-sized per diem anchors. We do find per diem effects on binary liability outcomes, and thus …


Every Algorithm Has A Pov, Susan Nevelow Mart Jan 2017

Every Algorithm Has A Pov, Susan Nevelow Mart

Publications

When legal researchers search in online databases for the information they need to solve a legal problem, they need to remember that the algorithms that are returning results to them were designed by humans. The world of legal research is a human-constructed world, and the biases and assumptions the teams of humans that construct the online world bring to the task are imported into the systems we use for research. This article takes a look at what happens when six different teams of humans set out to solve the same problem: how to return results relevant to a searcher’s query …


The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search, Susan Nevelow Mart Jan 2017

The Algorithm As A Human Artifact: Implications For Legal [Re]Search, Susan Nevelow Mart

Publications

The results of using the search algorithms in Westlaw, Lexis Advance, Fastcase, Google Scholar, Ravel, and Casetext are compared. Six groups of humans created six different algorithms, and the results are a testament to the variability of human problem solving. That variability has implications both for researching and teaching research.


A Tactical Fourth Amendment, Brandon L. Garrett, Seth Stoughton Jan 2017

A Tactical Fourth Amendment, Brandon L. Garrett, Seth Stoughton

Faculty Scholarship

What rules regulate when police can kill? As ongoing public controversy over high-profile police killings drives home, the civil, criminal, and administrative rules governing police use of force all remain deeply contested. Members of the public may assume that police rules and procedures provide detailed direction for when officers can use deadly force. However, many agencies train officers to respond to threats according to a force "continuum" that does not provide hardedged rules for when or how police can use force or deadly force. Nor, as recent cases have illustrated, does a criminal prosecution under state law readily lend itself …


The American Death Penalty Decline, Brandon L. Garrett, Alexander Jakubow, Ankur Desai Jan 2017

The American Death Penalty Decline, Brandon L. Garrett, Alexander Jakubow, Ankur Desai

Faculty Scholarship

American death sentences have both declined and become concentrated in a small group of counties. In his dissenting opinion in Glossip v. Gross in 2014, Justice Stephen Breyer highlighted how from 2004 to 2006, "just 29 counties (fewer than 1% of counties in the country) accounted for approximately half of all death sentences imposed nationwide." That decline has become more dramatic. In 2015, fifty-one defendants were sentenced to death in thirty-eight counties. In 2016, thirty-one defendants were sentenced to death in twenty-eight counties. In the mid-1990s, by way of contrast, over 300 people were sentenced to death in as many …


Man Up Or Go Home: Exploring Perceptions Of Women In Leadership, Abigail Perdue Jan 2017

Man Up Or Go Home: Exploring Perceptions Of Women In Leadership, Abigail Perdue

Marquette Law Review

Throughout history, women in positions of authority have often been perceived as violating well-established gender norms. Perhaps as a result, female leadership has often been viewed as a threat to male power and privilege and thus provoked resistance. Female leaders challenge longstanding sex stereotypes and patriarchal structures, subverting the identities of androcentric institutions and the people who comprise them. In so doing, they redefine notions of what it means to be a leader as well as what it means to be a woman. Cisgender male subordinates in particular may feel that their masculinity is under assault when they are placed …


Fostering Legal Cynicism Through Immigration Detention, Emily Ryo Jan 2017

Fostering Legal Cynicism Through Immigration Detention, Emily Ryo

Faculty Scholarship

Every year, tens of thousands of noncitizens in removal proceedings are held and processed through an expanding web of immigration detention facilities across the United States. The use of immigration detention is expected to dramatically increase under the Trump administration’s mass deportation policy. I argue that this civil confinement system may serve a critical socio-legal function that has escaped the attention of policymakers, scholars, and the public alike. Using extensive original data on long-term immigrant detainees, I explore how immigration detention might function as a site of legal socialization that helps to promote or reinforce widespread legal cynicism among immigrant …


Capital Jurors In An Era Of Death Penalty Decline, Brandon L. Garrett, Daniel Krauss, Nicholas Scurich Jan 2017

Capital Jurors In An Era Of Death Penalty Decline, Brandon L. Garrett, Daniel Krauss, Nicholas Scurich

Faculty Scholarship

The state of public opinion regarding the death penalty has not experienced such flux since the late 1960s. Death sentences and executions have reached their lowest annual numbers since the early 1970s and today, the public appears fairly evenly split in its views on the death penalty. In this Essay, we explore, first, whether these changes in public opinion mean that fewer people will be qualified to serve on death penalty trials as jurors, and second, whether potential jurors are affected by changes in the practice of the death penalty. We conducted surveys of persons reporting for jury duty at …


Chickens And Eggs: Does Custody Move Support, Or Vise-Versa?, Margaret Brinig Jan 2017

Chickens And Eggs: Does Custody Move Support, Or Vise-Versa?, Margaret Brinig

Journal Articles

Most, if not all, of the theoretical work on child support presupposes that it becomes an issue only when couples separate, that is, that the flow moves between custody and child support and that the duty to make monetary payments is typically owed by the noncustodial parent. (I realize, of course, that there can be issues regarding the identity of the payor and that there are criminal and civil actions possible when parents refuse or neglect to provide support to dependent children.) Some empirical work confirms the relationship between the two. For example, Judith Seltzer, Weiss and Willis, and Brinig …


Racial And Gender Justice In The Child Welfare And Child Support Systems, Margaret Brinig Jan 2017

Racial And Gender Justice In The Child Welfare And Child Support Systems, Margaret Brinig

Journal Articles

While divorcing couples in the United States have been studied for many years, separating unmarried couples and their children have proven more difficult to analyze. Recently there have been successful longitudinal ethnographic and survey-based studies. This piece uses documents from a single Indiana county’s unified family court (called the Probate Court) to trace the effects of race and gender on unmarried families, beginning with a sample of 386 children for whom paternity petitions were brought in four months of 2008. It confirms prior theoretical work on racial differences in noncustodial parenting and poses new questions about how incarceration and gender …


Comparing The Effects Of Judges' Gender And Arbitrators' Gender In Sex Discrimination Cases And Why It Matters, Pat K. Chew Jan 2017

Comparing The Effects Of Judges' Gender And Arbitrators' Gender In Sex Discrimination Cases And Why It Matters, Pat K. Chew

Articles

Empirical research substantiates that the judges’ gender makes a difference in sex discrimination and sexual harassment court cases. The author’s study of arbitration of sex discrimination cases administered by the American Arbitration Association between 2010 and 2014, however, finds that this judges’ “gender effect” does not occur. Namely, there is no significant difference in the decision-making patterns of female and male arbitrators as indicated by case outcomes.

The author proposes that characteristics of arbitrators, the arbitration process, and arbitration cases all combine to help explain the gender effect differences. Further, she suggests that this analysis reveals concerns about the arbitration …


Research Algorithms Have A Point Of View: The Effect Of Human Decision Making On Your Search Results, Susan Nevelow Mart Jan 2017

Research Algorithms Have A Point Of View: The Effect Of Human Decision Making On Your Search Results, Susan Nevelow Mart

Publications

No abstract provided.