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Eminent Domain

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Property And Prosperity, A Demythifying Story, Xiaoqian Hu Jun 2023

Property And Prosperity, A Demythifying Story, Xiaoqian Hu

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

Economic development is fundamentally a property law story. Prominent thinkers―from Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham, to Douglass North and Richard Posner―tell us that protection of private property rights is essential for economic growth and wealth accumulation. Clear and freely alienable property rights reduce transaction costs and allow private bargaining to produce efficient results. Property rights allow owners to internalize the costs and benefits of their own behavior, reduce production costs, and encourage innovation. Secure property rights protect owners from arbitrary confiscation by the government, foster owner expectations, and facilitate investment, trade, and the development of financial markets. The idea …


A Perpetual Cycle Of “Give-And-Take”: The Case For Texas Eminent Domain Reform, Kathryn Faulk Jun 2023

A Perpetual Cycle Of “Give-And-Take”: The Case For Texas Eminent Domain Reform, Kathryn Faulk

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


A New Takings Clause? The Implications Of Cedar Point Nursery V. Hassid For Property Rights And Moratoria, Benjamin Alexander Mogren Dec 2022

A New Takings Clause? The Implications Of Cedar Point Nursery V. Hassid For Property Rights And Moratoria, Benjamin Alexander Mogren

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

In part, the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution holds that “no person . . . shall [have their] private property . . . taken for public use, without just compensation.” In Cedar Point Nursery v. Hassid, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that “a California regulation that permits union organizers to enter the property of agricultural business to talk with employees about supporting a union is unconstitutional.” The purpose of this Note is to discuss what Cedar Point Nursery means generally for the future of Takings Clause analysis and will argue that Cedar Point Nursery should be seen as a …


Does The Constitution Allow Private Companies To Use Eminent Domain Against A State? Penn East Pipeline Co., Llc V. New Jersey, Crystal J. Anthony Jul 2022

Does The Constitution Allow Private Companies To Use Eminent Domain Against A State? Penn East Pipeline Co., Llc V. New Jersey, Crystal J. Anthony

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

In 2021 the United States Supreme Court decided in the case PennEast Pipeline Co. v. New Jersey that Section 717(h) of the Natural Gas Act authorized the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to delegate the government’s eminent domain power to private companies. The Court’s decision allows a private company to condemn all “necessary rights-of-way,” whether privately-owned or state-owned land. This case note explores the history of the government’s eminent domain power and the states’ Eleventh Amendment immunity from lawsuits. The majority opinion in PennEast reasoned that the states waived their sovereign immunity at the ratification of the Constitution. Thus, according …


Game Of Thrones: Liberty & Eminent Domain, Mitchell F. Crusto Jun 2022

Game Of Thrones: Liberty & Eminent Domain, Mitchell F. Crusto

University of Miami Law Review

This Article analyzes the relationship between private property and the government’s power to expropriate it. When it comes to protecting private property from governmental expropriation, our Constitution is conflicted. On the one hand, the right to private property is a foundational principle that defines the American spirit, our history, and our culture. Yet, on the other hand, the Founders adopted the government’s superior authority over private property, that is, eminent domain, for public purpose and with just compensation, via the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment. This “private property conundrum” requires us to explore the limits of eminent domain relative …


A Cost To Bear—Environmental Contamination And Eminent Domain, Evan C. Heaney Jan 2022

A Cost To Bear—Environmental Contamination And Eminent Domain, Evan C. Heaney

Seattle University Law Review

This Note advocates for Washington courts to adopt a system that universally allows evidence of environmental contamination on the private property taken in eminent domain proceedings. Part I of this Note discusses the history and progression of eminent domain and the broader constitutional roots of the Takings Clause. Part II explores Washington’s environmental remediation statute. Part III details the various approaches jurisdictions around the county have formulated to deal with this issue. Part IV argues Washington courts should adopt the inclusionary approach, which allows the introduction of environmental evidence in eminent domain proceedings.


Understanding Urban Renewal: History Forgotten, Daniel R. Mandelker Jan 2022

Understanding Urban Renewal: History Forgotten, Daniel R. Mandelker

Scholarship@WashULaw

Urban renewal is an important feature of urban life, but judicial, statutory, and constitutional backlash followed a U.S. Supreme Court decision that held constitutional the use of eminent domain to acquire land for redevelopment in an urban renewal project. Urban renewal got its start in the federal urban renewal program, which influenced state legislation but had a weak planning requirement and did not include blight as a requirement for urban renewal. This weakness was a factor in the problems that occurred in urban renewal and that created the backlash to the Supreme Court decision.


Evaluating Emergency Takings: Flattening The Economic Curve, Robert H. Thomas Jul 2021

Evaluating Emergency Takings: Flattening The Economic Curve, Robert H. Thomas

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Desperate times may breed desperate measures, but when do desperate measures undertaken as a response to an emergency trigger the Fifth Amendment’s requirement that the government provides just compensation when it takes private property for public use? The answer to that question has commonly been posed as a choice between the “police power”—a sovereign government’s power to regulate property’s use in order to further the public health, safety, and welfare—and the eminent domain power, the authority to seize private property for public use with the corresponding requirement to pay compensation. But that should not be the question. After all, emergencies …


Valuation Blunders In The Law Of Eminent Domain, Richard A. Epstein Apr 2021

Valuation Blunders In The Law Of Eminent Domain, Richard A. Epstein

Notre Dame Law Review

In dealing with the valuation problem, I will bracket these estimation issues in order to look to different and disturbing types of difficulties in the valuation enterprise. The law of eminent domain starts with the implicit assumption that the government is in general a good actor whose motives and laudable and whose behavior does not need excessive judicial oversight. Hence the general norm of judicial deference often applies to valuation decisions. In the cases that I shall review, as well as others, a general pattern emerges, whereby all doubtful valuation questions that arise dealing with key problems are at best …


Economic Liberty Takings, Jeffrey Manns Jan 2021

Economic Liberty Takings, Jeffrey Manns

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

State governors rediscovered the sweeping contours of their police powers in imposing recurring waves of COVID-19 pandemic shutdowns. However necessary shutdowns have been to slow down the spread of COVID-19, state governors’ actions have exposed how takings law has become all but toothless in compensating business owners from state-imposed shutdowns. The result has been state governors picking economic winners and losers. Stores and sectors that state governors designated as “essential” have remained continuously open and received windfalls of pandemic profits. In contrast, businesses that state governors deemed “non-essential” have been stripped of their ability to function for months at a …


Don't Condemn My Creek: Using Eminent Domain To Satisfy Environmental Obligations, Mason E. Heidt, Joshua Wysor Apr 2020

Don't Condemn My Creek: Using Eminent Domain To Satisfy Environmental Obligations, Mason E. Heidt, Joshua Wysor

Belmont Law Review

No abstract provided.


First Amendment Lochnerism & The Origins Of The Incorporation Doctrine, James Y. Stern Jan 2020

First Amendment Lochnerism & The Origins Of The Incorporation Doctrine, James Y. Stern

Faculty Publications

The 20th century emergence of the incorporation doctrine is regarded as a critical development in constitutional law, but while issues related to the doctrine's justification have been studied and debated for more than fifty years, the causes and mechanics of its advent have received relatively little academic attention. This Essay, part of a symposium on Judge Jeffrey Sutton's recent book about state constitutional law, examines the doctrinal origins of incorporation, in an effort to help uncover why the incorporation doctrine emerged when it did and the way it did. It concludes that, for these purposes, incorporation is best understood as …


Property's Problem With Extremes, Lynda L. Butler Jan 2020

Property's Problem With Extremes, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

Western-style property systems are ill-equipped to deal with extremes--extreme poverty, extreme wealth, extreme environmental harm. Though they can effectively handle many problems, the current systems are inherently incapable of providing the types of reform needed to address extreme situations that are straining the fabric of societies--situations that are stressing the integrity of core societal and natural systems to the breaking point. The American property system, in particular, is problematic. The system has a long tradition of strong individual rights and relies primarily on the efficiency norm to operate and shape the incentives of rights holders. The economic model that now …


Murr V. Wisconsin And The Inherent Limits Of Regulatory Takings, Lynda L. Butler Oct 2019

Murr V. Wisconsin And The Inherent Limits Of Regulatory Takings, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

This article examines the confusion surrounding constitutional protection of property under the substantive due process and takings clauses, using Murr as a springboard for reconsidering the substantive due process/takings distinction and asking whether the regulatory takings doctrine should remain a viable constitutional concept despite its muddled principles. While powerful reasons support treating as compensable economic regulations that are functionally equivalent to physical takings, important differences between physical and regulatory takings need to be recognized as limits to the degree of equivalence possible and therefore to the regulatory takings doctrine. A look back at the evolutionary paths of substantive due process, …


Podcast Episode 24 – Professor James Stern Discusses Knick V. Township Of Scott, Clint Schumacher, James Y. Stern Sep 2019

Podcast Episode 24 – Professor James Stern Discusses Knick V. Township Of Scott, Clint Schumacher, James Y. Stern

James Y. Stern

Welcome to Episode 24 of the Eminent Domain Podcast. We have a great episode for you that we are calling “A Review of Knick v. Township of Scott.” Our guest today is Professor James Stern of the William & Mary Law School. Professor Stern is uniquely qualified to talk about the Knick case as both a current property law professor and a former U.S. Supreme Court clerk.


The Future Of Transferable Development Rights In The Supreme Court, Linda A. Malone Sep 2019

The Future Of Transferable Development Rights In The Supreme Court, Linda A. Malone

Linda A. Malone

No abstract provided.


The Coastal Zone Management Act And The Takings Clause In The 1990'S: Making The Case For Federal Land Use To Preserve Coastal Areas, Linda A. Malone Sep 2019

The Coastal Zone Management Act And The Takings Clause In The 1990'S: Making The Case For Federal Land Use To Preserve Coastal Areas, Linda A. Malone

Linda A. Malone

No abstract provided.


A Prudential Take On A Prudential Takings Doctrine, Katherine Mims Crocker Sep 2019

A Prudential Take On A Prudential Takings Doctrine, Katherine Mims Crocker

Katherine Mims Crocker

The Supreme Court is set to decide a case requesting reconsideration of a doctrine that has long bedeviled constitutional litigants and commentators. The case is Knick v. Township of Scott, and the doctrine is the "ripeness" rule from Williamson County Regional Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank that plaint~ffs seeking to raise takings claims under the Fifth Amendment must pursue state-created remedies first- the so-called "compensation prong" (as distinguished from a separate "takings prong"). This Essay argues that to put the compensation prong in the best light possible, the Court should view the requirement as a "prudential" rule rather than (as …


The Politics Of Takings: Choosing The Appropriate Decisionmaker, Lynda L. Butler Sep 2019

The Politics Of Takings: Choosing The Appropriate Decisionmaker, Lynda L. Butler

Lynda L. Butler

No abstract provided.


The Governance Function Of Constitutional Property, Lynda L. Butler Sep 2019

The Governance Function Of Constitutional Property, Lynda L. Butler

Lynda L. Butler

Contemporary takings scholarship has devoted much attention to the problem of regulatory takings and has largely assumed that physical takings are resolved under a clear but simplistic per se rule. Under that rule, modern courts automatically find a physical taking whenever government action causes a permanent physical invasion of property, regardless of the context or the importance of the public interest. Applying this bright-line rule has proved to be difficult because it ignores the nuances of physical takings situations and the complexities of modern property arrangements. Should the physical takings concept apply to a rent control law that limits the …


Foreword: Property Rights And Economic Development, Eric Kades Sep 2019

Foreword: Property Rights And Economic Development, Eric Kades

Eric A. Kades

No abstract provided.


Time For A Change In Eminent Domain: A “Dirt Farmer’S” Story Shows Why Just Compensation Should Include Lost Profits, Edward Walton May 2019

Time For A Change In Eminent Domain: A “Dirt Farmer’S” Story Shows Why Just Compensation Should Include Lost Profits, Edward Walton

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


A Prudential Take On A Prudential Takings Doctrine, Katherine Mims Crocker Nov 2018

A Prudential Take On A Prudential Takings Doctrine, Katherine Mims Crocker

Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court is set to decide a case requesting reconsideration of a doctrine that has long bedeviled constitutional litigants and commentators. The case is Knick v. Township of Scott, and the doctrine is the "ripeness" rule from Williamson County Regional Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank that plaint~ffs seeking to raise takings claims under the Fifth Amendment must pursue state-created remedies first- the so-called "compensation prong" (as distinguished from a separate "takings prong"). This Essay argues that to put the compensation prong in the best light possible, the Court should view the requirement as a "prudential" rule rather than (as …


Uniform Conservation Easement Act Study Committee Background Report, Nancy Mclaughlin Sep 2018

Uniform Conservation Easement Act Study Committee Background Report, Nancy Mclaughlin

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This report was prepared by Nancy A. McLaughlin, Robert W. Swenson Professor of Law at the University of Utah S.J. Quinney College of Law, in her role as Reporter for the Uniform Law Commission's Uniform Conservation Easement Act Study Committee. The report provides an overview of the Uniform Conservation Easement Act (UCEA), which was approved by the Commission in 1981, and examines the provisions in individual state conservation easement enabling statutes that differ from the provisions in the UCEA.


Hb 434 - Eminent Domain, Ashley M. Bowcott, Derek M. Schwahn Jan 2018

Hb 434 - Eminent Domain, Ashley M. Bowcott, Derek M. Schwahn

Georgia State University Law Review

The Act amends Georgia’s eminent domain laws by providing an exception to the general rule that condemnations cannot be converted to any use, other than a public use, for twenty years. The Act creates a new procedure which requires the condemnor to petition the jurisdiction’s superior court to determine whether the property is blighted property. Additionally, the condemnor must provide notice to all owners of the alleged blighted property. If the court finds the land is blighted property, the condemnor must file a petition to condemn the property according to the established procedure set forth in Article 3 Chapter 2 …


Essay: Cooperative Federalism And Federal Takings After The Trump Administration's Border Wall Executive Order, Gerald S. Dickinson Jan 2018

Essay: Cooperative Federalism And Federal Takings After The Trump Administration's Border Wall Executive Order, Gerald S. Dickinson

Articles

The Trump Administration’s (arguably) most polemic immigration policy — Executive Order No. 13,767 mandating the construction of an international border wall along the southwest border of the United States — offers a timely and instructive opportunity to revisit the elusive question of the federal eminent domain power and the historical practice of cooperative federalism. From federal efforts to restrict admission and entry of foreign nationals and aliens (the so-called “travel ban”) to conditioning federal grants on sanctuary city compliance with federal immigration enforcement, state and local governments (mostly liberal and Democratic enclaves) today have become combative by resisting a federal …


The Power To Exclude And The Power To Expel, Donald J. Smythe Jan 2018

The Power To Exclude And The Power To Expel, Donald J. Smythe

Faculty Scholarship

Property laws have far-reaching implications for the way people live and the opportunities they and their children will have. They also have important consequences for property developers and businesses, both large and small. It is not surprising, therefore, that modern developments in property law have been so strongly influenced by political pressures. Unfortunately, those with the most economic resources and political power have had the most telling influences on the way property laws have developed in the United States during the twentieth century. This article introduces a normal form game – I call it the “Not-In-My-Backyard Game” – to illustrate …


Property Musings At The U.S.-Mexico Border, Gerald S. Dickinson Jan 2018

Property Musings At The U.S.-Mexico Border, Gerald S. Dickinson

Articles

President Donald J. Trump issued an Executive Order calling for “a physical wall on the southern border” of the United States in January, 2017. In his address before Congress, the President stated, “[W]e will soon begin the construction of a great wall along our southern border.” The political response to the Executive Order has been swift. Representative Lamar Smith of Texas views the Executive Order as a testament to the President “honoring his commitment” to immigration enforcement. Senator Ron Johnson of Wisconsin favorably compares the border mandates in Israel and Egypt as successful examples of how to mitigate illegal immigration. …


The [̶T̶A̶K̶I̶N̶G̶S̶] Keepings Clause: An Analysis Of Framing Effects From Labeling Constitutional Rights, Donald J. Kochan Dec 2017

The [̶T̶A̶K̶I̶N̶G̶S̶] Keepings Clause: An Analysis Of Framing Effects From Labeling Constitutional Rights, Donald J. Kochan

Donald J. Kochan

Did you know that the “Takings Clause” was not called the “Takings Clause” by any court before 1955? That was the first time that any court of any jurisdiction referred to the provisions regarding takings of private property in either the federal or state constitutions under the label “Taking Clause.” Did you know that justices of the U.S. Supreme Court did not use that moniker “Taking Clause” in any opinion before 1978? Given this history, the phrase “takings clause,” whether an apt descriptor or not, certainly cannot be justified as the dominant way to refer to these provisions by contemporaneous …


Reverse Exactions, Gregory M. Stein Oct 2017

Reverse Exactions, Gregory M. Stein

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

When an owner applies for a permit to use property in a certain way, the government body with jurisdiction can either deny the permit, grant the permit outright, or grant the permit subject to conditions. These conditions—known as “exactions”—must meet two constitutional thresholds. First, there must be a close linkage between a problem the owner’s project will create or exacerbate, such as increased traffic caused by a proposed new shopping mall, and the exaction the government proposes, such as the dedication of land for a new right-turn lane. Second, the condition the government suggests must be proportional in magnitude to …