Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discrimination

2021

Discipline
Institution
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 50

Full-Text Articles in Law

Disestablishing "The Last Plantation": The Need For Accountability In The United States Department Of Agriculture, Seth L. Ellis Aug 2021

Disestablishing "The Last Plantation": The Need For Accountability In The United States Department Of Agriculture, Seth L. Ellis

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862. At the signing ceremony, President Lincoln declared the Department of Agriculture to be the "people's Department" because he said it governed an industry "in which [citizens felt] more directly concerned than in any other. .. ." Today, many American citizens do not share Abraham Lincoln's view of the USDA as being the "people's Department"; rather, they identify it as being "the last plantation" due to its long history of open discrimination against African-American farmers. While this discrimination has occurred throughout America's ...


From Nucleotides To Nuanced Law: The Value Of An Incremental Approach To Experimentation In State-Level Genetic Anti-Discrimination Legislation, Katelyn Fisher Jun 2021

From Nucleotides To Nuanced Law: The Value Of An Incremental Approach To Experimentation In State-Level Genetic Anti-Discrimination Legislation, Katelyn Fisher

University of Massachusetts Law Review

A person’s genetic information tells a detailed story of what someone looks like, who her relatives are, and even what illnesses she may develop. This information, as enlightening as it may be, can be especially damaging when utilized in a discriminatory way. This Note explores how the protections under the Genetic Non Discrimination Act of 2008 will no longer be sufficient for protecting individuals from genetic discrimination as the use of genetic information becomes more commonplace. The questions become: Where do we start? How and where should protections that extend to circumstances not covered by GINA be created in ...


The Future Of The Americans With Disabilities Act: Website Accessibility Litigation After Covid-19, Randy Pavlicko Jun 2021

The Future Of The Americans With Disabilities Act: Website Accessibility Litigation After Covid-19, Randy Pavlicko

Cleveland State Law Review

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was enacted in 1990 to eliminate discrimination against individuals with disabilities. Over time, as society has become more reliant on the internet, the issue of whether the ADA’s scope extends beyond physical places to online technology has emerged. A circuit split developed on this issue, and courts have discussed three interpretations of the ADA’s scope: (1) the ADA applies to physical places only; (2) the ADA applies to a website or mobile app that has a sufficient nexus to a physical place; or (3) the ADA broadly applies beyond physical places to ...


Modernizing Discrimination Law: The Adoption Of An Intersectional Lens, Marisa K. Sanchez Jun 2021

Modernizing Discrimination Law: The Adoption Of An Intersectional Lens, Marisa K. Sanchez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.


Explaining Reproductive Health Disparities: Violence In The “Colorblind” Institution Of Medicine, Chineze Osakwe May 2021

Explaining Reproductive Health Disparities: Violence In The “Colorblind” Institution Of Medicine, Chineze Osakwe

Honors Scholar Theses

Medical policies have resulted in violence that has a formal role in regulating the reproductive rights of women of African descent in the United States from the Jim Crow era (circa 1965) to present day (2021), resulting in significantly racialized reproductive health disparities regardless of social or economic influences. This thesis explores why reproductive violence against African-American women persists, regardless of women’s own class and educational background. I have focused on the potential impact of two structural components that I hypothesized contributed to the perpetuation of reproductive violence against Black women and persistent health disparities. The two factors explored ...


Covenants To Discriminate: How The Anti-Lgbt Policies Of Participating Voucher Schools Might Violate The State Action Doctrine, Preston C. Green Iii, Julie F. Mead, Suzanne E. Eckes May 2021

Covenants To Discriminate: How The Anti-Lgbt Policies Of Participating Voucher Schools Might Violate The State Action Doctrine, Preston C. Green Iii, Julie F. Mead, Suzanne E. Eckes

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

This article analyzes the legal arguments that students might make to compel states that subsidize private education through voucher, tax credit scholarship, and ESA programs to offer these programs on an equal basis, regardless of the sexual orientation or gender identity of the student or members of the student’s family. The first section provides an overview of voucher programs and discusses the prevalence of participating schools with anti-LGBT admissions policies. The second section evaluates constitutional challenges that students could make to invalidate the anti-LGBT admissions policies of participating voucher schools under the state action doctrine. Specifically, we explain the ...


Life Through The Eyes Of An Undocumented Immigrant In The United States, Yesenia Torres May 2021

Life Through The Eyes Of An Undocumented Immigrant In The United States, Yesenia Torres

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This research project focused on how undocumented immigrants experience their lives in the United States, taking in mind the multiple barriers that prevent them from integrating into the community. This research project surveyed the California State University of San Bernardino School of Social Work students who work or engage with undocumented immigrants. A positivism paradigm research design was used to obtain quantitative data of participant's knowledge of immigrants' past and present experiences while living in the United States. The study's goal was to bring mental health awareness to the well-being and emotional experiences during the resettlement and acculturation ...


Unexpected Inequality: Disparate-Impact From Artificial Intelligence In Healthcare Decisions, Sahar Takshi Apr 2021

Unexpected Inequality: Disparate-Impact From Artificial Intelligence In Healthcare Decisions, Sahar Takshi

Journal of Law and Health

Systemic discrimination in healthcare plagues marginalized groups. Physicians incorrectly view people of color as having high pain tolerance, leading to undertreatment. Women with disabilities are often undiagnosed because their symptoms are dismissed. Low-income patients have less access to appropriate treatment. These patterns, and others, reflect long-standing disparities that have become engrained in U.S. health systems.

As the healthcare industry adopts artificial intelligence and algorithminformed (AI) tools, it is vital that regulators address healthcare discrimination. AI tools are increasingly used to make both clinical and administrative decisions by hospitals, physicians, and insurers—yet there is no framework that specifically places ...


Shhhh, They're Listening - Inside The Coming Voice-Profiling Revolution, Joseph Turow Apr 2021

Shhhh, They're Listening - Inside The Coming Voice-Profiling Revolution, Joseph Turow

Departmental Papers (ASC)

The article describes the coming voice profiling revolution and its challenges for society. Voice profiling is a biometric activity that raises questions about social discrimination and freedom. The article refers to research described in the new book The Voice Catchers: How Marketers Listen in to Exploit Your Feelings, Your Privacy, and Your Wallet, published in May 2021 by Yale University Press.


Bye, Bye, Bilinguals: The Removal Of English- Spanish Bilinguals From The Criminal Jury And Latino Discrimination, Ashley Rich Apr 2021

Bye, Bye, Bilinguals: The Removal Of English- Spanish Bilinguals From The Criminal Jury And Latino Discrimination, Ashley Rich

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


Employer Liability For Sex Harassment Through The Lens Of Restorative Justice, Emily Rees Apr 2021

Employer Liability For Sex Harassment Through The Lens Of Restorative Justice, Emily Rees

Cleveland State Law Review

Title VII cases alleging sex harassment have become almost completely deferential to employers who have anti-harassment policies. In this Note, I discuss legal and sociological influences on this development and propose using restorative justice focused mediation to avoid rendering Title VII entirely ineffective. Mediation should only be compelled as a remedy—after a court finds that harassment occurred, but that the plaintiff cannot prove her employer knew about the harassment. Instead of dismissing these cases—where judges have already found illegal discrimination—some corrective action should be imposed on the employer for its failure to maintain a harassment-free workplace. Focusing ...


Title Ix Administers A Booster Shot: The Effect Of Private Donations On Title Ix, Charlotte Franklin Apr 2021

Title Ix Administers A Booster Shot: The Effect Of Private Donations On Title Ix, Charlotte Franklin

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in federally funded education programs or activities. Since its enactment, Title IX has dramatically increased interscholastic and intercollegiate athletic opportunities for women and girls. Despite indisputable progress since Title IX’s enactment, particularly for female athletes, many high schools and universities still fail to offer equal athletic opportunities for members of both sexes. Inadequate educational resources for high school and university athletic department administrators leads to a misunderstanding of Title IX’s requirements. This misunderstanding results in institutional misconduct and non-compliance with Title ...


Reconceptualizing Cannabis, Julia Peoples Apr 2021

Reconceptualizing Cannabis, Julia Peoples

Honors Theses

Inflammatory rhetoric and increasingly punitive drug policies dominated marijuana politics in the past. Today, as 36 have legalized cannabis in some form and 17 states have legalized recreational marijuana, the federal government continues to perpetuate policies of the past. The following analysis investigates rhetoric and policies that led to the War on Drugs as well as their outcomes, the dramatic shift in public opinion as states began to legalize marijuana, and the successes and failures of state cannabis programs to identify gaps within the MORE Act, the ideal policy, and politically viable incremental change. State programs are incapable of addressing ...


Weathering The Pandemic: Dying Old At A Young Age From Pre-Existing Racist Conditions, Arline T. Geronimus Apr 2021

Weathering The Pandemic: Dying Old At A Young Age From Pre-Existing Racist Conditions, Arline T. Geronimus

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Mainstream social epidemiology now acknowledges the contributions of interpersonal racism, racialized stress, and implicit bias to population health inequity. It also increasingly recognizes that current and historical racist policies place barriers in the way of healthy lifestyles by institutionalizing food deserts, housing decay, and austerity urbanism. Essential as these developments are, they only skim the surface of how insidiously structural racism establishes and reproduces population health inequity. I coined the term “weathering” to describe the effects of sustained cultural oppression upon the body. Weathering expands on the more conventional “social determinants of health” approach to understand the contextually fluctuating and ...


Persistent Inequalities, The Pandemic, And The Opportunity To Compete, Rachel F. Moran Apr 2021

Persistent Inequalities, The Pandemic, And The Opportunity To Compete, Rachel F. Moran

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Even before the recent coronavirus pandemic, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status played a powerful role in allocating opportunity—in the public schools and elsewhere. The pandemic has laid bare the dimensions of this inequality with a new and alarming clarity. In this essay, I first will focus on the landscape of educational inequity that existed before the coronavirus forced public schools to shut down. In particular, I will explore patterns of racial and ethnic segregation in America’s schools and how those patterns are linked to additional challenges based on socioeconomic isolation. In addition, I will consider the role of ...


Empathy’S Promise And Limits For Those Disproportionately Harmed By The Covid-19 Pandemic, Theresa Glennon Apr 2021

Empathy’S Promise And Limits For Those Disproportionately Harmed By The Covid-19 Pandemic, Theresa Glennon

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Structural race, ethnicity, and class disparities in the United States concentrated and intensified the health, economic, and psychological impact of COVID-19 for certain populations. Those same structural disparities and the belief system that maintains them may also account for the weak policy response that left the United States with high rates of infection and death, economic devastation of individuals, families, and small businesses, and psychological distress. A more equal society with a stronger pre-pandemic safety net may have prevented or eased the disproportionate hardship and avoided the drama and cliffhanging. Or the shock of a pandemic and likelihood of extreme ...


Domestic Violence Victims, A Nuisance To Society?: Moving Toward A More Equitable System In Protecting Vulnerable Women, Elizabeth Haderlie, Layla Shaaban Apr 2021

Domestic Violence Victims, A Nuisance To Society?: Moving Toward A More Equitable System In Protecting Vulnerable Women, Elizabeth Haderlie, Layla Shaaban

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

Recent conversations about racial biases that exist towards the black community have required many of us to rethink systems and laws that unconsciously perpetuate racial discrimination. This article uses state, federal, and local lawsuits to argue the case against nuisance ordinances and the negative effects they can have on victims of domestic abuse, namely black women. We dive into the histories and statistics of domestic violence and nuisance ordinances. We provide evidence that indicates a correlation between domestic violence victim’s fear of reaching out for help, and nuisance ordinances being in place. Finally, we urge the federal government to ...


Using The Iied Tort To Address Discrimination And Retaliation In The Workplace, Alex B. Long Apr 2021

Using The Iied Tort To Address Discrimination And Retaliation In The Workplace, Alex B. Long

UTK Law Faculty Publications

Citing the need to preserve managerial discretion, courts frequently espouse the need to adopt an “especially strict approach” in cases of intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED) in the workplace. As a result, the IIED tort currently has a limited role to play in the fight against workplace discrimination and harassment. At the same time, a few courts – almost undetected in the literature on the subject - have recognized that one form of employer conduct may merit special treatment when assessing an IIED claim against an employer. According to these courts, the fact that an employer has engaged in retaliatory conduct ...


Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Pekerja Penyandang Disabilitas, Ametta Diksa Wiraputra Mar 2021

Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Pekerja Penyandang Disabilitas, Ametta Diksa Wiraputra

Dharmasisya

A person with a disability is someone who has physical, intellectual, mental and / or sensory limitations for a long time. This research examines and answers problems regarding the protection of workers with disabilities in Indonesia who are currently vulnerable and still experiencing discrimination. Persons with disabilities certainly have the right to get a decent living by working and entrepreneurship as mandated in the 1945 Constitution. The type of research used in this research is descriptive analytical with secondary data types which are then analyzed by qualitative analysis with data obtained from the results of observations and interviews. The results showed ...


Brief For Council Of Islamic Schools In North America, Partnership For Inner-City Education, And Union Of Orthodox Jewish Congregations Of America As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Nicole Stelle Garnett, Richard W. Garnett, Michael H. Mcginley Mar 2021

Brief For Council Of Islamic Schools In North America, Partnership For Inner-City Education, And Union Of Orthodox Jewish Congregations Of America As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Nicole Stelle Garnett, Richard W. Garnett, Michael H. Mcginley

Court Briefs

DAVID AND AMY CARSON, as Parents and next Friends of O.C., and TROY AND ANGELA NELSON, as Parents and next Friends of A.N. and R.N., Petitioners

v.

A. PENDER MAKIN, in Her Official Capacity as Commissioner of the Maine Department of Education, Respondent.

On Petition for Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit

BRIEF FOR COUNCIL OF ISLAMIC SCHOOLS IN NORTH AMERICA, PARTNERSHIP FOR INNER-CITY EDUCATION, AND UNION OF ORTHODOX JEWISH CONGREGATIONS OF AMERICA AS AMICI CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF PETITIONERS

No. 20-1088

March 11, 2021

Amici curiae operate, represent ...


Enhancing Deaf People’S Access To Justice In Northern Ireland: Implementing Article 13 Of The Un Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Bronagh Byrne, Brent Elder, Michael Schwartz Mar 2021

Enhancing Deaf People’S Access To Justice In Northern Ireland: Implementing Article 13 Of The Un Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Bronagh Byrne, Brent Elder, Michael Schwartz

College of Education Faculty Scholarship

Article 13 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) specifies that disabled people have the right to ‘effective access to justice’ on an equal basis with others. This includes Deaf people. There is a distinct lack of research which explores the extent to which Article 13 UNCRPD is implemented in practice and which actively involves Deaf people in its implementation and monitoring. This paper shares findings from a rights-based research study co-produced with a Deaf Advisory Group and a Deaf-led organisation. It explores the implementation of Article 13 UNCRPD in Northern Ireland through the ...


2nd Annual Women In Law Leadership Lecture: A Fireside Chat With Debra Katz, Esq. 03-03-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2021

2nd Annual Women In Law Leadership Lecture: A Fireside Chat With Debra Katz, Esq. 03-03-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


The Lost Promise Of Disability Rights, Claire Raj Mar 2021

The Lost Promise Of Disability Rights, Claire Raj

Michigan Law Review

Children with disabilities are among the most vulnerable students in public schools. They are the most likely to be bullied, harassed, restrained, or segregated. For these and other reasons, they also have the poorest academic outcomes. Overcoming these challenges requires full use of the laws enacted to protect these students’ affirmative right to equal access and an environment free from discrimination. Yet, courts routinely deny their access to two such laws—the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (section 504).

Courts too often overlook the affirmative obligations contained in these two disability ...


Rationing In The Time Of Covid And The Perils Of Anti-Subordination Rhetoric, Mark Kelman Jan 2021

Rationing In The Time Of Covid And The Perils Of Anti-Subordination Rhetoric, Mark Kelman

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

With surges in COVID-19 cases threatening to overload some hospital facilities, we must face the possibility that therapeutic treatments will need to be rationed, at least in some places. I do not propose any particular ideal rationing scheme but caution strongly against adopting a position that Professor Bagenstos advocated this past spring, rejecting rationing on the basis of patient life expectancy simply because life expectancy based rationing might threaten the factual interests of those with disabilities and might conceivably be implemented by those making judgments that were not simply inaccurate but grounded in biased, unacceptably discriminatory intuitions that some decision ...


Toward A Race-Conscious Critique Of Mental Health-Related Exclusionary Immigration Laws, Monika Batra Kashyap Jan 2021

Toward A Race-Conscious Critique Of Mental Health-Related Exclusionary Immigration Laws, Monika Batra Kashyap

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

This Article employs the emergent analytical framework of Dis/ability Critical Race Theory (DisCrit) to offer a race-conscious critique of a set of immigration laws that have been left out of the story of race-based immigrant exclusion in the United States—namely, the laws that exclude immigrants based on mental health-related grounds. By centering the influence of the white supremacist, racist,and ableist ideologies of the eugenics movement in shaping mental health-related exclusionary immigration laws, this Article locates the roots of these restrictive laws in the desire to protect the purity and homogeneity of the white Anglo- Saxon race against ...


Disclosing Discrimination, Stephanie Bornstein Jan 2021

Disclosing Discrimination, Stephanie Bornstein

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the United States, enforcement of laws prohibiting workplace discrimination rests almost entirely on the shoulders of employee victims, who must first file charges with a government agency and then pursue litigation themselves. While the law forbids retaliation against employees who complain, this does little to prevent it, in part because employees are also responsible for initiating any claims of retaliation they experience as a result of their original discrimination claims. The burden on employees to complain—and their justified fear of retaliation if they do so—results in underenforcement of the law and a failure to spot and redress ...


The Gender Pay Gap, In Relation To Professional Sports, Bryan Ramdat Jan 2021

The Gender Pay Gap, In Relation To Professional Sports, Bryan Ramdat

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


1 Step Forward 2 Steps Back: The Transgender Individual Right To Access Optimal Health Care, Alexandre Rotondo-Medina Jan 2021

1 Step Forward 2 Steps Back: The Transgender Individual Right To Access Optimal Health Care, Alexandre Rotondo-Medina

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


Challenges In Bringing Gender Equity Into The Workplace: Addressing Common Concerns Women Have When Deciding To Hold Employers Accountable For Gender Discrimination, Siobhan Klassen Jan 2021

Challenges In Bringing Gender Equity Into The Workplace: Addressing Common Concerns Women Have When Deciding To Hold Employers Accountable For Gender Discrimination, Siobhan Klassen

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


The Evolution Of Gender Equity From A Marxist And Existentialist Perspective, Alexandria Lopez Jan 2021

The Evolution Of Gender Equity From A Marxist And Existentialist Perspective, Alexandria Lopez

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.