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Discrimination

2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 91

Full-Text Articles in Law

Gender Typing In Stereo: The Transgender Dilemma In Employment Discrimination, Richard F. Storrow Dec 2017

Gender Typing In Stereo: The Transgender Dilemma In Employment Discrimination, Richard F. Storrow

Maine Law Review

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) prohibits discrimination against men because they are men and against women because they are women. This familiar characterization of the Act has been quoted in dozens of sex discrimination cases to support a narrow view of who is protected against sex discrimination in this country. When transsexuals file suit, “[e]mployment discrimination jurisprudence at both the federal and state levels ... captures transsexuals in a discourse of exclusion from social participation. This wide net, using a remarkably refined system of semantic manipulations, snags all claims launched by transsexuals and reveals ...


Hiv And The Ada: What Is A Direct Threat?, Dawn-Marie Harmon Dec 2017

Hiv And The Ada: What Is A Direct Threat?, Dawn-Marie Harmon

Maine Law Review

Anne, a surgical technician at a local hospital, recently learned that she was HIV-positive. She works in the emergency room and, as a part of her job, she hands surgical instruments to doctors performing emergency surgery. It is a fast paced and unpredictable environment. Her hands often come in contact with sharp instruments. Although Anne has never put her hands into a patient's body cavity, there is a remote possibility that she may need to do so in the future. There is always a possibility, however small, that she will cut herself and come into blood-to-blood contact with a ...


Running From The Gender Police: Reconceptualizing Gender To Ensure Protection For Non-Binary People, Katie Reineck Dec 2017

Running From The Gender Police: Reconceptualizing Gender To Ensure Protection For Non-Binary People, Katie Reineck

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Non-binary people who are discriminated against at work or school are in a unique and demoralizing position. Not only have some courts expressed reluctance to use existing antidiscrimination law to protect plaintiffs who are discriminated against based on their gender identity and not simply because they are men or women, in most states non-binary genders are not legally recognized. I argue that a fundamental right to self-identification grounded in the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment would provide non-binary plaintiffs with the ability to assert their gender in court and have that assertion carry legal weight, regardless of how ...


Sexual Orientation, Equal Treatment And The Right To Manifest Religion: Lee V Mcarthur, Mel Cousins Nov 2017

Sexual Orientation, Equal Treatment And The Right To Manifest Religion: Lee V Mcarthur, Mel Cousins

Mel Cousins

This note outlines the recent decisions of the Northern Ireland courts in what has become known as the ‘gay cake’ case. The county court ruled that the bakery (Ashers) and its directors had discriminated against Mr. Lee on the grounds of sexual orientation (under the Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2006) and on the grounds of political opinion and/or religious belief (under the Fair Employment and Treatment (Northern Ireland) Order 1998). The court further held that any limit on the manifestation of the defendant’s religious beliefs was necessary in a democratic society and a proportionate means ...


Third Generation Discrimination: The Ripple Effects Of Gender Bias In The Workplace, Catherine Ross Dunham Nov 2017

Third Generation Discrimination: The Ripple Effects Of Gender Bias In The Workplace, Catherine Ross Dunham

Akron Law Review

This Article joins together threads of ongoing conversations regarding implicit bias and gender discrimination. The Article builds on the groundbreaking work of Susan Sturm of Columbia University who developed the theory of second generation gender discrimination, Title VII gender discrimination based on implicit bias, in her article Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach, 101 Colum. L. Rev. 458 (2001). In her article, Sturm developed a theory to pursue Title VII claims where the employment practice at issue is facially-neutral, but the effect of the policy in a bias-based, homogeneous work environment is discriminatory. Since 2001, several high profile cases ...


Jespersen V. Harrah's Operating Co.: Employer Appearance Standards And The Promotion Of Gender Stereotypes, Hillary J. Bouchard Nov 2017

Jespersen V. Harrah's Operating Co.: Employer Appearance Standards And The Promotion Of Gender Stereotypes, Hillary J. Bouchard

Maine Law Review

In Jespersen v. Harrah’s Operating Co., Harrah’s Casino (Harrah’s) gave Darlene Jespersen (Jespersen), a female employee, thirty days to comply with the new mandatory makeup requirement the business imposed on its female beverage service employees. Jespersen refused, thirty days passed, and Harrah’s immediately terminated her. After unsuccessfully seeking administrative relief with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Jespersen filed a lawsuit against Harrah’s in federal district court. The claim alleged “disparate treatment sex discrimination” by Harrah’s in violation of Title VII. Subsequently, Harrah’s moved for summary judgment, and the district court granted the ...


Defense Counsel And Public Defence, Eve Brensike Primus Nov 2017

Defense Counsel And Public Defence, Eve Brensike Primus

Book Chapters

Public-defense delivery systems nationwide are grossly inadequate. Public defenders are forced to handle caseloads that no one could effectively manage. They often have no funding for investigation or expert assistance. They aren’t adequately trained, and there is little to no oversight of their work. In many jurisdictions, the public-defense function is not sufficiently independent of the judiciary or the elected branches to allow for zealous representation. The result is an assembly line into prison, mostly for poor people of color, with little check on the reliability or fairness of the process. Innocent people are convicted, precious resources are wasted ...


Newsroom: Is Wall Between Church And State Crumbling? 10-10-2017, Diana Hassel Oct 2017

Newsroom: Is Wall Between Church And State Crumbling? 10-10-2017, Diana Hassel

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Rwu First Amendment Blog: Diana Hassel's Blog: Is The Wall Between Church And State Crumbling? 10-07-2017, Diana Hassel Oct 2017

Rwu First Amendment Blog: Diana Hassel's Blog: Is The Wall Between Church And State Crumbling? 10-07-2017, Diana Hassel

Law School Blogs

No abstract provided.


An Intersectional Approach To Homelessness: Discrimination And Criminalization Oct 2017

An Intersectional Approach To Homelessness: Discrimination And Criminalization

Marquette Benefits and Social Welfare Law Review

The purpose of this essay is to address discrimination against homeless people. First of all, the theory of intersectionality will be explained and then applied as a method of analysis. The complexity of defining homelessness will be tackled, focusing on the difficulties encountered when approaching this concept. I will discuss notions of protected ground and immutability of personal characteristics, then outline an intersectional approach to homelessness. Intersectional discrimination has not yet been applied by many courts and tribunals, but Canada has proven to be a vanguard in this area. For this reason, Canadian case law has been chosen as the ...


Justice Blackmun And Individual Rights, Diane P. Wood Oct 2017

Justice Blackmun And Individual Rights, Diane P. Wood

Dickinson Law Review

Of the many contributions Justice Blackmun has made to American jurisprudence, surely his record in the area of individual rights stands out for its importance. Throughout his career on the Supreme Court, he has displayed concern for a wide variety of individual and civil rights. He has rendered decisions on matters ranging from the most personal interests in autonomy and freedom from interference from government in life’s private realms, to the increasingly complex problems posed by discrimination based upon race, sex, national origin, alienage, illegitimacy, sexual orientation, and other characteristics. As his views have become well known to the ...


The Bankruptcy Of Refusing To Hire Persons Who Have Filed Bankruptcy, Terrence Cain Oct 2017

The Bankruptcy Of Refusing To Hire Persons Who Have Filed Bankruptcy, Terrence Cain

Faculty Scholarship

In 1978, Congress made it illegal for government employers to deny employment to, terminate the employment of, or discriminate with respect to employment against a person who has filed bankruptcy. In 1984, Congress extended this prohibition to private employers by making it illegal for such employers to terminate the employment of, or discriminate with respect to employment against a person who has filed bankruptcy. Under the law as it currently exists, private employers can refuse to hire a person who has filed bankruptcy solely because that person has filed for bankruptcy. Meanwhile, employers have substantially increased their use of credit ...


India’S Revised Model Bit: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back?, Jesse Coleman, Kanika Gupta Oct 2017

India’S Revised Model Bit: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back?, Jesse Coleman, Kanika Gupta

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

In December 2015, the Indian government approved the final text of its revised model bilateral investment treaty (BIT). Shortly thereafter, in February 2016, India published a joint interpretative statement to clarify its understanding of certain treaty provisions found in existing Indian treaties. These recent developments in Indian investment treaty policy are products of a multi-year review process ,prompted at least in part by the 2011 finding against India in the White Industries claim - the first such known finding against the state – and by several notices of dispute received following the determination in that case.


Major Changes To The Missouri Human Rights Act, Lauren Herbig Sep 2017

Major Changes To The Missouri Human Rights Act, Lauren Herbig

SLU Law Journal Online

In this article, Lauren Herbig discusses the potential ramifications of the amended Missouri Human Rights Act and how its implementation could affect discrimination suits in Missouri.


Open Source: The Enewsletter Of Rwu Law 09-22-2017, Roger Williams University School Of Law Sep 2017

Open Source: The Enewsletter Of Rwu Law 09-22-2017, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


"I Feel Like I Just Need To Be More Careful, You Know?": Gay And Bisexual Post-Secondary Students Contemplate The Job Market, Kyle Carmelo Militello Sep 2017

"I Feel Like I Just Need To Be More Careful, You Know?": Gay And Bisexual Post-Secondary Students Contemplate The Job Market, Kyle Carmelo Militello

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Through a qualitative lens, this research explores the concerns sexual minority students have about making the transition to full-time employment and examines how experiences of adversity shape concerns and anxieties. Unlike the previous generations before them, the students who participated in this study share the privilege of entering a labour market that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual identity. With the aim of complementing and advancing existing literature, the study is motivated by the following research question: despite being a protected class, do post-secondary gay and bisexual students hold anxieties about joining a potentially heteronormative workforce? To answer this ...


Smoking Guns: The Supreme Court's Willingness To Lower Procedural Barriers To Merits Review In Cases Involving Egregious Racial Bias In The Criminal Justice System, Carrie Leonetti Sep 2017

Smoking Guns: The Supreme Court's Willingness To Lower Procedural Barriers To Merits Review In Cases Involving Egregious Racial Bias In The Criminal Justice System, Carrie Leonetti

Marquette Law Review

The systematic foreclosure of federal-court review of even the most meritorious federal constitutional challenges of state criminal convictions has made review on the merits of an inmate’s claim that a state court violated the U.S. Constitution in adjudicating a criminal case exceedingly rare. Nonetheless, over the past two terms, the Supreme Court appears to have started down a different road, overlooking potential procedural hurdles in several cases to uphold on the merits state inmates’ claims that their criminal trials were tainted by explicit race discrimination. While these cases taken together seem to suggest that the Court is willing ...


The Racialization And Exploitation Of Foreign Workers By The Law, Seiko Ishikawa Sep 2017

The Racialization And Exploitation Of Foreign Workers By The Law, Seiko Ishikawa

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Intense demand for cheap labor in the United States has resulted in a widespread effect of employing high skilled immigrants in STEM fields. Examining how companies use high-skilled visa categories to create a flexible cheaper immigrant workforce, this paper demonstrates that skilled immigrants from Asia are being exploited through neutral skills-based criteria that are de facto racially biased. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of how, from the perspective of law and society, skills-based immigration works primarily to benefit the technological industry rather than skilled immigrants.


Newsroom: U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg To Visit Rwu Law 08-31-2017, Roger Williams University School Of Law Aug 2017

Newsroom: U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg To Visit Rwu Law 08-31-2017, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Clarifying Stereotyping, Kerri Lynn Stone Aug 2017

Clarifying Stereotyping, Kerri Lynn Stone

Kerri Stone

This Article addresses the largely undefined, misunderstood-yet-often-resorted-to concept of “stereotyping” as a basis for, or sufficient evidence of, liability for employment discrimination. Since, the concept’s genesis in Supreme Court jurisprudence in 1989, Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, plaintiffs have proffered remarks alleged to be tinged with, or indicating the presence of, impermissible stereotypes as evidence of discrimination based on protected-class status – be that sex, race, color, religion, or national origin – in contravention of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Article examines the language in Hopkins and its precise mandates and guidance for lower courts. It then ...


Achieving Equality For Women In Labour And Employment – A Comparative Study Of Colombia And Canada, Lina M. Hernandez Aug 2017

Achieving Equality For Women In Labour And Employment – A Comparative Study Of Colombia And Canada, Lina M. Hernandez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The primary focus of this thesis is to analyze and compare the legal systems enacted to protect working women in Colombia and Canada. This thesis focuses on: the protection of maternity and parental rights; the principle of equal pay for work of equal value; and discrimination in employment (including harassment). This research argues that the legislative and judicial changes made in each country to protect working women have not led to substantive equality for working women. This thesis also argues that there is a gap between international and national standards, thus a law reform is appropriate and needed in both ...


Rwu First Amendment Blog: Jared A. Goldstein's Blog: Ri's Conversion Therapy Ban Protects Lgbtq Youth And It's Constitutional 08-09-2017, Jared A. Goldstein Aug 2017

Rwu First Amendment Blog: Jared A. Goldstein's Blog: Ri's Conversion Therapy Ban Protects Lgbtq Youth And It's Constitutional 08-09-2017, Jared A. Goldstein

Law School Blogs

No abstract provided.


Babies Aren't U.S., Zachary J. Devlin Aug 2017

Babies Aren't U.S., Zachary J. Devlin

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Parental leave has been an on-going issue in the political process, most recently during this presidential election. This is because upon the birth or adoption of a child, many in the United States cannot afford to take time off from work to care for and integrate children into their families. This is especially true for the contemporary family. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) was Congress’s attempt to strike equilibrium between employment and family and medical needs. The FMLA put legal emphasis on the family unit in an effort to neutralize gender discrimination while promoting gender ...


Reckless Discrimination, Stephanie Bornstein Aug 2017

Reckless Discrimination, Stephanie Bornstein

UF Law Faculty Publications

If there are known, easily adopted ways to reduce bias in employment decisions, should an employer be held liable for discriminatory results when it fails to adopt such measures? Given the vast amount we now know about implicit bias and the ways to reduce it, to what extent is an employer who knowingly fails to do so engaging in intentional discrimination? This Article theorizes a “recklessness” model of discrimination under Title VII, arguing for liability where an employer acts with reckless disregard for the consequences of implicit bias and stereotyping in employment decisions. Legal scholars have argued that Title VII ...


The Dubious Empirical And Legal Foundations Of Wellness Programs, Adrianna Mcintyre, Nicholas Bagley, Austin Frakt, Aaron Carroll Jul 2017

The Dubious Empirical And Legal Foundations Of Wellness Programs, Adrianna Mcintyre, Nicholas Bagley, Austin Frakt, Aaron Carroll

Articles

The article offers information on the dubious empirical and legal foundations of workplace wellness programs in the U.S. Topics discussed include enactment of Affordable Care Act for expanding the scope of incentives availas; analysis of financial incentives offered to the employees for encouraging their participation in wellness programs; and targeting incentives specifically toward individuals diagnosed with chronic diseases.


The Five Stages Of Lgbtq Discrimination And Its Effects On Mass Incarceration, Michael D. Braunstein Jul 2017

The Five Stages Of Lgbtq Discrimination And Its Effects On Mass Incarceration, Michael D. Braunstein

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

Although the Supreme Court’s recent decision in Obergefell v. Hodges provided some indication of equality for members of the LBGTQ community, the sad truth is that discrimination against those who do not identify as “heterosexual” reaches far deeper than the right to marry. This discrimination is especially present with regards to biased treatment by law enforcement officers and a lack of accommodations or protections within the court and prison systems. In a nation that has seen various groups of people fight for and earn their equality over and over again, it is truly concerning that the LGBTQ community is ...


Love And Civil Rights, Ediberto Román Jun 2017

Love And Civil Rights, Ediberto Román

Ediberto Roman

Despite western legal scholars' almost universal rejection of the use of emotions in legal analysis, the unquestionable greatest social activist and grassroots legal reformer of our times, and perhaps one of the greatest in the annals of time, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, understood a basic yet profound fact concerning societal change - the transformative power of love. During the era where he achieved the greatest influence, Dr. King knew that societal-wide change could not occur without transforming the American psyche on the basic fairness of the civil rights struggle. This civil rights struggle, which is now so closely associated with ...


Disability Rights And Labor: Is This Conflict Really Necessary?, Samuel R. Bagenstos Jun 2017

Disability Rights And Labor: Is This Conflict Really Necessary?, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Articles

In this Essay, I hope to do two things: First, I try to put the current labor-disability controversy into that broader context. Second, and perhaps more important, I take a position on how disability rights advocates should approach both the current controversy and labor-disability tensions more broadly. As to the narrow dispute over wage-and-hour protections for personal-assistance workers, I argue both that those workers have a compelling normative claim to full FLSA protection—a claim that disability rights advocates should recognize—and that supporting the claim of those workers is pragmatically in the best interests of the disability rights movement ...


Introduction: The Enduring Power Of Collective Rights, In Labor Law Stories, Catherine L. Fisk, Laura J. Cooper May 2017

Introduction: The Enduring Power Of Collective Rights, In Labor Law Stories, Catherine L. Fisk, Laura J. Cooper

Catherine Fisk

No abstract provided.


Workin’ 9:00–5:00 For Nine Months: Assessing Pregnancy Discrimination Laws In Georgia, Kaitlyn Pettet May 2017

Workin’ 9:00–5:00 For Nine Months: Assessing Pregnancy Discrimination Laws In Georgia, Kaitlyn Pettet

Georgia State University Law Review

As demonstrated in this Note, there is still a considerable way to go before women are no longer forced to choose between pregnancy and keeping their career. Allegations of pregnancy discrimination in the workplace are also on the rise.

In 1997, 4,000 plaintiffs filed complaints with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). By 2011, that number rose to 5,800. The EEOC won significant damages in pregnancy discrimination cases, demonstrating a greater tendency towards discrimination in the workplace. Additionally, this rise in claims and awards caught the attention of the nation’s media, placing new emphasis on the treatment ...