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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Unbearable Lightness Of Batson: Mixed Motives And Discrimination In Jury Selection, Russell D. Covey Nov 2015

The Unbearable Lightness Of Batson: Mixed Motives And Discrimination In Jury Selection, Russell D. Covey

Russell D. Covey

No abstract provided.


Agency, Equality, And Antidiscrimination Law, Tracy E. Higgins, Laura A. Rosenbury Oct 2015

Agency, Equality, And Antidiscrimination Law, Tracy E. Higgins, Laura A. Rosenbury

Laura A. Rosenbury

Some commentators, perhaps a minority, have argued that the Equal Protection Clause should be read to require the use of race-conscious policies when necessary to eradicate or remedy the most serious consequences of racial inequality. Others have argued that such policies, though not required, should be permitted when duly adopted by the majority of the populace to promote the interests of an historically oppressed minority. Still others, including now a majority of the Supreme Court, take the view that the Constitution forbids virtually all explicit uses of race by the state. In this Essay, we do not enter this debate ...


The Risk Of Complaining- Retaliation, Ivan E. Bodensteiner Oct 2015

The Risk Of Complaining- Retaliation, Ivan E. Bodensteiner

Ivan E. Bodensteiner

No abstract provided.


The False Choice Between Race And Class And Other Affirmative Action Myths, Lisa R. Pruitt Aug 2015

The False Choice Between Race And Class And Other Affirmative Action Myths, Lisa R. Pruitt

Lisa R Pruitt

This article refutes the widely held assumption that affirmativeaction is appropriate either to support only racial and ethnic minorities or to support only low-income students, but that it cannot or should not support both. Pruitt argues that we need not make such a choice and that we should aspire to socioeconomically diversify higher education institutions — including the most elite sector — with low-income students of all colors. Pruitt thus disputes the framing of Richard Kahlenberg and Richard Sander who have long argued that we should seek socioeconomic diversity in lieu of racial/ethnic diversity, a stance that has needlessly pitted underrepresented ...


An Essay Challenging The Racially Biased Selection Of Arbitrators For Employment Discrimination Suits, Michael Z. Green Aug 2015

An Essay Challenging The Racially Biased Selection Of Arbitrators For Employment Discrimination Suits, Michael Z. Green

Michael Z. Green

Since 1991, employers have increasingly decided to require that employees agree to arbitrate statutory employment discrimination claims as a condition of employment. This Essay seeks to expose some of the potential discriminatory components that may arise in the arbitrator selection process while highlighting the lack of legal remedy for those who believe that employers, in conjunction with neutral service provders, have stacked the pool in favor of having arbitrators who tend to be older, white and male. The Essay suggests the use of 42 U.S.C. Section 1981 as a potential remedy and challenge to the dearth of arbitrators ...


The Blinding Color Of Race: Elections And Democracy In The Post-Shelby County Era, Sahar F. Aziz Aug 2015

The Blinding Color Of Race: Elections And Democracy In The Post-Shelby County Era, Sahar F. Aziz

Sahar F. Aziz

No abstract provided.


Natural Hazards, Human Actors, Serious Harm: Refugee Protection Through Understanding The Social Construction Of Disasters, Matthew Scott Jul 2015

Natural Hazards, Human Actors, Serious Harm: Refugee Protection Through Understanding The Social Construction Of Disasters, Matthew Scott

Matthew Scott

The occurrence of a natural hazard event is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for the unfolding of a ‘natural’ disaster. Disasters result when individuals and communities are exposed and vulnerable to natural hazards, such as droughts, floods and earthquakes. In their turn, exposure and vulnerability are social facts that are often closely correlated with discrimination, for example against women, children, older people, persons with disabilities, as well as for reasons of race, religion, nationality or political opinion. Adopting the perspective that sees disasters as socially constructed in this way, the scope of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status ...


An Essay Challenging The Racially Biased Selection Of Arbitrators For Employment Discrimination Suits, Michael Z. Green Jul 2015

An Essay Challenging The Racially Biased Selection Of Arbitrators For Employment Discrimination Suits, Michael Z. Green

Michael Z. Green

Since 1991, employers have increasingly decided to require that employees agree to arbitrate statutory employment discrimination claims as a condition of employment. This Essay seeks to expose some of the potential discriminatory components that may arise in the arbitrator selection process while highlighting the lack of legal remedy for those who believe that employers, in conjunction with neutral service provders, have stacked the pool in favor of having arbitrators who tend to be older, white and male. The Essay suggests the use of 42 U.S.C. Section 1981 as a potential remedy and challenge to the dearth of arbitrators ...


Perceptual Segregation, Russell K. Robinson Jul 2015

Perceptual Segregation, Russell K. Robinson

Russell K Robinson

No abstract provided.


Debate, Implicit Race Bias And The 2008 Presidential Election: Much Ado About Nothing?, Gregory S. Parks, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Richard A. Epstein Jun 2015

Debate, Implicit Race Bias And The 2008 Presidential Election: Much Ado About Nothing?, Gregory S. Parks, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Richard A. Epstein

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

The election of Barack Obama marks a significant milestone for race relations in our nation—on this much our debaters agree. The meaning of this milestone for the future of race-based policies, such as affirmative action and antidiscrimination laws, is where they disagree. Dr. Gregory Parks and Professor Jeffrey Rachlinski argue that any announcement of the arrival of a “post-racial America” is premature, as the presidential campaign actually revealed an implicit racial bias present in “most white adult brains.” The stereotypical criticisms of Obama, explicit racial references by supporters of opposing candidates, and “deeply racially stratified voting” were, in fact ...


Diversity And The Federal Workforce, Alev Dudek May 2015

Diversity And The Federal Workforce, Alev Dudek

Alev Dudek

   
In a society based on merit, everyone would be judged by their qualifications and would have equal access to employment opportunities, without limitations based on gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, accent, sexual orientation, and similar protected or non-protected traits. Ideally, the diversity of a workforce would match the make-up of the population, and most importantly, diversity would be scattered proportionally across all income levels. 

This paper is examining access to equal opportunity through the example of the federal government. As the nation’s largest employer, the government of the United States has not only an opportunity to demonstrate how access ...


Loving V. Virginia In A Post-Racial World: Rethinking Race, Sex, And Marriage, Kevin Maillard, Rose Villazor, Victor Romero May 2015

Loving V. Virginia In A Post-Racial World: Rethinking Race, Sex, And Marriage, Kevin Maillard, Rose Villazor, Victor Romero

Victor C. Romero

Victor Romero is a contributing author: "Loving Across the Miles: Binational Same-Sex Marriages" pages 217-234. In 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that laws prohibiting interracial marriage were unconstitutional in Loving vs. Virginia. Although this case promotes marital freedom and racial equality, there are still significant legal and social barriers to the free formation of intimate relationships. Marriage continues to be the sole measure of commitment, mixed relationships continue to be rare, and same-sex marriage is only legal in 6 out of 50 states. Most discussion of Loving celebrates the symbolic dismantling of marital discrimination. This book, however, takes ...


The Encyclopedia Of American Civil Liberties, Paul Finkelman, Victor Romero May 2015

The Encyclopedia Of American Civil Liberties, Paul Finkelman, Victor Romero

Victor C. Romero

Victor Romero contributed the following encyclopedia entries: "Civil Liberties of Aliens"; "Race and Immigration"; "Criminal Law/Civil Liberties and Noncitizens in the U.S."; "Illegitimacy and Immigration"; "Homosexuality and Immigration"; "Ambach v. Norwick"; "United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez"; "Fiallo v. Bell"; "INS v,. Chadha"; and "In re Griffiths."

This Encyclopedia on American history and law is the first devoted to examining the issues of civil liberties and their relevance to major current events while providing a historical context and a philosophical discussion of the evolution of civil liberties.

- From the Publisher


Immigrant Education And The Promise Of Integrative Egalitarianism, Victor C. Romero May 2015

Immigrant Education And The Promise Of Integrative Egalitarianism, Victor C. Romero

Victor C. Romero

Although not an equal protection case, Martinez v. Regents of the University of California challenges us to grapple with the Supreme Court’s post-Brown commitment to equal opportunity within the context of immigrant higher education. Sadly, Brown’s progeny from Bakke to Parents Involved reveals the cost of embracing a color-blind constitutionalism unmoored from a fundamental commitment to vigilantly combat subordination and dismantle unearned privilege. More optimistically, the Supreme Court’s gay rights jurisprudence developed in Romer v. Evans and Lawrence v. Texas provides insights into how a conservative court can accurately distinguish irrational discrimination from democratic deliberation, a lesson ...


Our Illegal Founders, Victor C. Romero May 2015

Our Illegal Founders, Victor C. Romero

Victor C. Romero

This Essay briefly mines America’s history to argue that the law setting forth where our national borders are and how strictly we patrol them has always been subject to the vagaries of politics, economics, and perception. Illegal (im)migration has long been part of our migration history, engaged in not just by Latin American border crossers, but also by prominent colonists, giving the lie to the claim that upholding border laws should always be sacrosanct. In many school districts today, the usual summary of American history from our childhood civics classes no longer bypasses the uncomfortable truths of conquest ...


Postsecondary School Education Benefits For Undocumented Immigrants: Promises And Pitfalls, Victor C. Romero May 2015

Postsecondary School Education Benefits For Undocumented Immigrants: Promises And Pitfalls, Victor C. Romero

Victor C. Romero

Should longtime undocumented immigrants have the same opportunity as lawful permanent residents and U.S. citizens to attend state colleges and universities? There are two typical justifications for denying them such opportunities. First, treating undocumented immigrants as in-state residents discriminates against U.S. citizen nonresidents of the state. Second, and more broadly, undocumented immigration should be discouraged as a policy matter, and therefore allowing undocumented immigrant children equal opportunities as legal residents condones and perhaps encourages "illegal" immigration. This essay responds to these two concerns by surveying state and federal solutions to this issue.


Interrogating Iqbal: Intent, Inertia, And (A Lack Of) Imagination, Victor C. Romero May 2015

Interrogating Iqbal: Intent, Inertia, And (A Lack Of) Imagination, Victor C. Romero

Victor C. Romero

In Ashcroft v. Iqbal, the Court reaffirmed the long-standing equal protection doctrine that government actors can only be held liable for discriminatory conduct when they purposefully rely on a forbidden characteristic, such as race or gender, in promulgating policy; to simply know that minorities and women will be adversely affected by the law does not deny these groups equal protection under the law. This Essay interrogates this doctrine by taking a closer look at Iqbal and Feeney, the thirty-year-old precedent the majority cited as the source of its antidiscrimination standard. Because Feeney was cited in neither of the lower court ...


Contesting A Contestation Of Testing: A Reply To Richard Delgado, Dan Subotnik May 2015

Contesting A Contestation Of Testing: A Reply To Richard Delgado, Dan Subotnik

Dan Subotnik

This article was written as part of an ongoing dialog about the author’s previous article, Does Testing = Race Discrimination?: Ricci, The Bar Exam, the LSAT, and the Challenge to Learning, which defended the Supreme Court’s decision in Ricci v. DeStefano, as well as defending testing more generally against charges of irrelevance, racial obtuseness, and most seriously, race discrimination. This article specifically responds to Richard Delgado’s article, Standardized Testing as Discrimination: A Reply to Dan Subotnik.


Race Indeed Above All: A Reply To Professors Andrea Curcio, Carol Chomsky, And Eileen Kaufman, Dan Subotnik May 2015

Race Indeed Above All: A Reply To Professors Andrea Curcio, Carol Chomsky, And Eileen Kaufman, Dan Subotnik

Dan Subotnik

This article was written as part of an ongoing dialog about the author’s previous article, Does Testing = Race Discrimination?: Ricci, The Bar Exam, the LSAT, and the Challenge to Learning, which defended the Supreme Court’s decision in Ricci v. DeStefano, as well as defending testing more generally against charges of irrelevance, racial obtuseness, and most seriously, race discrimination. This article specifically responds to Andrea A. Curcio, Carol L. Chomsky, and Eileen Kaufman’s article, Testing, Diversity, and Merit: A Reply to Dan Subotnik and Others.


Female Genital Mutilation And Designer Vaginas In Britain: Crafting An Effective Legal And Policy Framework, Lisa Avalos Apr 2015

Female Genital Mutilation And Designer Vaginas In Britain: Crafting An Effective Legal And Policy Framework, Lisa Avalos

Lisa Avalos

The prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Britain and Europe has grown in recent years as a result of international migration, and European institutions have grown increasingly concerned with eradicating the practice. According to the European Parliament, approximately 500,000 girls and women living in Europe have undergone FGM and are suffering with the lifelong consequences of the procedure, and more than 30,000 girls in Britain are thought to be at risk of future FGM. Although Britain strengthened its law against FGM in 2003, the number of girls at risk continues to grow, and there have been no ...


Integration Of And The Potential For Islamic Radicalization Among Ethnic Turks In Germany, Alev Dudek Apr 2015

Integration Of And The Potential For Islamic Radicalization Among Ethnic Turks In Germany, Alev Dudek

Alev Dudek

In spite of ongoing improvements, integration of ethnic Turks in Germany remains a challenge from the dominant culture perspective, whereas a deeply ingrained institutional and everyday racism and the lack of legal protection against discrimination pose a challenge to full participation of ethnic Turks from another perspective. In an increasingly xenophobic Europe, particularly Germany, an increase in potential for religious and nationalist radicalization in different groups including ethnic Turks is becoming more and more evident. This increase in radical attitudes is not necessarily caused by a lack of integration, as evidenced among well-integrated individuals.

In view of recent developments toward ...


U.S. Police Officers Kill Primarily Because They Are Attacked, Not To Disrupt Crime, Alev Dudek Mar 2015

U.S. Police Officers Kill Primarily Because They Are Attacked, Not To Disrupt Crime, Alev Dudek

Alev Dudek

In spite of the steady decline in violent crimes, law enforcement in the U.S.A. is becoming significantly more violent. Compared to other developed countries, such as Germany or Great Britain, disproportionately more arrest-related deaths occur in the U.S. Additionally, in the treatment of suspects, a racial disparity is evident; disproportionately more black males get killed by white police officers. Political exploitation of “crime” and militarization of law enforcement are factors that contribute to the status-quo and may explain why most arrest-related killings by the police are not a result of attempting to disrupt crime, but in defense ...


Fisher V. Texas: The Limits Of Exhaustion And The Future Of Race-Conscious University Admissions, John Powell, Stephen Menendian Mar 2015

Fisher V. Texas: The Limits Of Exhaustion And The Future Of Race-Conscious University Admissions, John Powell, Stephen Menendian

john a. powell

This Article investigates the potential ramifications of Fisher v. Texas and the future of race-conscious university admissions. Although one cannot predict the ultimate significance of the Fisher decision, its brief and pregnant statements of law portends an increasingly perilous course for traditional affirmative action programs. Part I explores the opinions filed in Fisher, with a particular emphasis on Justice Kennedy’s opinion on behalf of the Court. We focus on the ways in which the Fisher decision departs from precedent, proscribes new limits on the use of race in university admissions, and tightens requirements for narrow tailoring. Part II investigates ...


Fitting The Forum To The Pernicious Fuss: A Dispute System Design To Address Implicit Bias And 'Isms In The Workplace, Elayne E. Greenberg Mar 2015

Fitting The Forum To The Pernicious Fuss: A Dispute System Design To Address Implicit Bias And 'Isms In The Workplace, Elayne E. Greenberg

Elayne E Greenberg

This proposal is a heretofore untaken first step in the dispute system design for implicit bias. It offers a different type of thinking about workplace discrimination caused by implicit bias and a different way to resolve it.

Until now, workplace discrimination caused by implicit biases has gone unabated, because the courts and EEOC mediation programs are better designed to address workplace discrimination caused by explicit biases. As the social science research clarifies, there are salient differences between workplace discrimination animated by implicit biases and workplace discrimination shaped by explicit biases discrimination. We now understand that we all have implicit biases ...


The Pariah Principle, Daniel A. Farber, Suzanna Sherry Mar 2015

The Pariah Principle, Daniel A. Farber, Suzanna Sherry

Daniel A Farber

Argues the decision in the homosexuality case of `Romer versus Evans' means that Colorado's Amendment Two is invalid regardless of the level of judicial scrutiny. Failure of the `Romer' court to invoke familiar doctrinal support; Government's ban on untouchable societal groups; Arguments for invalidating Amendment Two; Definition of the pariah principle.


War Against Muslims Post 9/11?, Alev Dudek Mar 2015

War Against Muslims Post 9/11?, Alev Dudek

Alev Dudek

9/11 has changed the life of Muslims substantially. Almost overnight, they became the target of media-hype, various “anti-terror” efforts, religious intolerance and hate crimes.


The Ncaa's Transgender Student-Athlete Policy: How Attempting To Be More Inclusive Has Led To Gender And Gender Identity Discrimination, Elliot S. Rozenberg Jan 2015

The Ncaa's Transgender Student-Athlete Policy: How Attempting To Be More Inclusive Has Led To Gender And Gender Identity Discrimination, Elliot S. Rozenberg

Elliot S Rozenberg

No abstract provided.


Disqualifiying Universality Under The Americans With Disabilities Act Amendments Act, Michelle Travis Dec 2014

Disqualifiying Universality Under The Americans With Disabilities Act Amendments Act, Michelle Travis

Michelle A. Travis

This Article reveals a new resistance strategy to disability rights in the workplace. The initial backlash against the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) targeted protected class status by characterizing the ADA's accommodation mandate as special treatment that benefitted the disabled at the expense of the nondisabled workforce. As a result, federal courts treated the ADA as a welfare statute rather than a civil rights law, which resulted in the Supreme Court dramatically narrowing the definition of disability. Congress responded with sweeping amendments in 2008 to expand the class of individuals with disabilities who are entitled to accommodations ...


Acting White? Or Acting Affluent? A Book Review Of Acting White? Rethinking Race In "Post-Racial" America, Lisa Pruitt Dec 2014

Acting White? Or Acting Affluent? A Book Review Of Acting White? Rethinking Race In "Post-Racial" America, Lisa Pruitt

Lisa R Pruitt

Acting White? Rethinking Race in “Post-Racial” America (2013) is the latest installment in Devon Carbado and Mitu Gulati’s decade-plus collaboration regarding issues of race and employment. This review lauds the book’s comprehensive treatment of the double bind that racial minorities—especially blacks—experience within principally white institutions. In this volume, the authors expand on their prior employment-centered work to consider, for example, Barack and Michelle Obama’s presence on the national political stage, racial identity and performance in the context of higher education admissions, and racial profiling by law enforcement. With a focus on intra-racial diversity, Carbado and ...


The Responsibility Of Victory: Confronting The Systemic Subordination Of Lgbt Youth And Considering A Positive Role For The State, Julie Nice Dec 2014

The Responsibility Of Victory: Confronting The Systemic Subordination Of Lgbt Youth And Considering A Positive Role For The State, Julie Nice

Julie A. Nice

In light of the stunning cascade of recent victories ending some aspects of sexual orientation discrimination, this article calls for both the LGBT Rights Movement and the State to take responsibility for ending the systemic subordination of LGBT youth. This article’s first section synthesizes the alarming data demonstrating the disproportionate harms suffered by LGBT youth within the very institutions designed to protect them. Professor Nice categorizes these experiences as including rejection by families, hostility from faith communities, harshness from the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, harassment in schools, and destitution and violence on the streets. She further argues ...