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Discrimination

2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 160

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Unbearable Lightness Of Batson: Mixed Motives And Discrimination In Jury Selection, Russell D. Covey Nov 2015

The Unbearable Lightness Of Batson: Mixed Motives And Discrimination In Jury Selection, Russell D. Covey

Russell D. Covey

No abstract provided.


Reply Brief For Petitioner. Paske V. Fitzgerald, 136 S.Ct. 536 (2015) (No. 15-162), 2015 U.S. S. Ct. Briefs Lexis 3941, 2015 Wl 6748880, Eric Schnapper, Margaret A. Harris Nov 2015

Reply Brief For Petitioner. Paske V. Fitzgerald, 136 S.Ct. 536 (2015) (No. 15-162), 2015 U.S. S. Ct. Briefs Lexis 3941, 2015 Wl 6748880, Eric Schnapper, Margaret A. Harris

Court Briefs

QUESTIONS PRESENTED McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green established a common method of analyzing evidence of an unlawful discriminatory motive. If a plaintiff establishes a prima facie case of discrimination, the defendant must articulate a legitimate, non-discriminatory purpose for the disputed action; where the defendant has done so, the plaintiff has the burden of demonstrating that the proffered purpose was a pretext for discrimination. This Court has repeatedly explained that the burden of establishing a prima facie case is “not onerous.” United States Postal Service Board of Governors v. Aikens held, in the context of a case which had gone to ...


Setting The Stage For Ferguson: Housing Discrimination And Segregation In St. Louis, Rigel C. Oliveri Nov 2015

Setting The Stage For Ferguson: Housing Discrimination And Segregation In St. Louis, Rigel C. Oliveri

Missouri Law Review

The history of St. Louis is replete with discriminatory housing laws, policies, and practices: racially restrictive covenants, redlining, blockbusting and white flight, and exclusionary zoning. While these were common in virtually every part of the United States, they were particularly egregious, widespread, and pervasive in industrial Midwestern cities like Chicago, Detroit, and St. Louis – which saw a large influx of blacks migrating from the south at the close of the nineteenth century. In fact, three of the most foundational housing cases originated in St. Louis. When we look closely at these cases – not just the legal principles that they established ...


What The Marriage Equality Cases Tell Us About Voter Id, Ellen D. Katz Nov 2015

What The Marriage Equality Cases Tell Us About Voter Id, Ellen D. Katz

Articles

Two years ago, United States u. Windsor tossed out the Defense of Marriage Act ("DOMA"). Thereafter, proponents of marriage equality secured dozens of notable victories in the lower courts, a smattering of setbacks, and last June, the victory they sought in Obergefell v. Hodges. During this same period, opponents of electoral restrictions such as voter identification have seen far less sustained success. Decided the day before Windsor, Shelby County v. Holder scrapped a key provision of the Voting Rights Act ("VRA") while making clear that plaintiffs might still challenge disputed voting regulations under Section 2 of the VRA and the ...


Beyond Marriage Equality Symposium, Roger Williams University School Of Law Oct 2015

Beyond Marriage Equality Symposium, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Newsroom: Lgbt Equality: The Challenges Ahead, Roger Williams University School Of Law Oct 2015

Newsroom: Lgbt Equality: The Challenges Ahead, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Agency, Equality, And Antidiscrimination Law, Tracy E. Higgins, Laura A. Rosenbury Oct 2015

Agency, Equality, And Antidiscrimination Law, Tracy E. Higgins, Laura A. Rosenbury

Laura A. Rosenbury

Some commentators, perhaps a minority, have argued that the Equal Protection Clause should be read to require the use of race-conscious policies when necessary to eradicate or remedy the most serious consequences of racial inequality. Others have argued that such policies, though not required, should be permitted when duly adopted by the majority of the populace to promote the interests of an historically oppressed minority. Still others, including now a majority of the Supreme Court, take the view that the Constitution forbids virtually all explicit uses of race by the state. In this Essay, we do not enter this debate ...


The Risk Of Complaining- Retaliation, Ivan E. Bodensteiner Oct 2015

The Risk Of Complaining- Retaliation, Ivan E. Bodensteiner

Ivan E. Bodensteiner

No abstract provided.


Network Neutrality And The First Amendment, Andrew Patrick, Eric Scharphorn Oct 2015

Network Neutrality And The First Amendment, Andrew Patrick, Eric Scharphorn

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The First Amendment reflects the conviction that the widest possible dissemination of information from diverse and antagonistic sources is essential to public welfare. Like the printing press, the Internet has dramatically transformed the marketplace of ideas by providing unprecedented opportunities for individuals to communicate. Though its growth continues to be phenomenal, broadband service providers— acting as Internet gatekeepers—have developed the ability to discriminate against specific content and applications. First, these gatekeepers intercept and inspect data transferred over public networks, then selectively block or slow it. This practice has the potential to stifle the Internet’s value as a speech ...


Indigenous Lawyers In Canada: Identity, Professionalization, Law, Sonia Lawrence, Signa Daum Shanks Oct 2015

Indigenous Lawyers In Canada: Identity, Professionalization, Law, Sonia Lawrence, Signa Daum Shanks

Dalhousie Law Journal

For Indigenous communities and individuals in Canada, "Canadian" law has been a mechanism of assimilation, colonial governance and dispossession, a basis for the assertion of rights, and a method of resistance. How do Indigenous lawyers in Canada make sense of these contradictory threads and their roles and responsibilities? This paper urges attention to the lives and experiences of Indigenous lawyers, noting that the number of self-identified Indigenous lawyers has been rapidly growing since the 1990s. At the same time, Indigenous scholars are focusing on the work of revitalizing Indigenous law and legal orders. Under these conditions, Indigenous lawyers occupy a ...


Lessons Learned From Ferguson: Ending Abusive Collection Of Criminal Justice Debt, Neil L. Sobol Oct 2015

Lessons Learned From Ferguson: Ending Abusive Collection Of Criminal Justice Debt, Neil L. Sobol

Faculty Scholarship

On March 4, 2015, the Department of Justice released its scathing report of the Ferguson Police Department calling for “an entire reorientation of law enforcement in Ferguson” and demanding that Ferguson “replace revenue-driven policing with a system grounded in the principles of community policing and police legitimacy, in which people are equally protected and treated with compassion, regardless of race.” Unfortunately, abusive collection of criminal justice debt is not limited to Ferguson. This Article, prepared for a discussion group at the Southeastern Association of Law Schools conference in July 2015, identifies the key findings in the Department of Justice’s ...


Diversity Levers, Dan L. Burk Sep 2015

Diversity Levers, Dan L. Burk

Faculty Scholarship

Patent law is capable of prompting innovation across a wide range of technologies by virtue of flexible “policy levers” that allow patent standards to be calibrated to the impediments that characterize different economic sectors. But it has become increasingly clear that social bias also raises significant barriers to successful creativity and innovation. In this essay I argue that the same policy levers used to address economic impediments to innovation can also be used to address other social impediments to innovation. I offer as a detailed example one possible doctrinal response to the well-documented gender gap in patentable innovation. I conclude ...


The False Choice Between Race And Class And Other Affirmative Action Myths, Lisa R. Pruitt Aug 2015

The False Choice Between Race And Class And Other Affirmative Action Myths, Lisa R. Pruitt

Lisa R Pruitt

This article refutes the widely held assumption that affirmativeaction is appropriate either to support only racial and ethnic minorities or to support only low-income students, but that it cannot or should not support both. Pruitt argues that we need not make such a choice and that we should aspire to socioeconomically diversify higher education institutions — including the most elite sector — with low-income students of all colors. Pruitt thus disputes the framing of Richard Kahlenberg and Richard Sander who have long argued that we should seek socioeconomic diversity in lieu of racial/ethnic diversity, a stance that has needlessly pitted underrepresented ...


Regulation-Tolerant Weapons, Regulation-Resistant Weapons And The Law Of War, Sean Watts Aug 2015

Regulation-Tolerant Weapons, Regulation-Resistant Weapons And The Law Of War, Sean Watts

International Law Studies

The historical record of international weapons law reveals both regulation-tolerant weapons and regulation-resistant weapons, identifiable by a number of criteria, including effectiveness, novelty, deployment, medical compatibility, disruptiveness and notoriety. This article identifies these criteria both to explain and inform existing weapons law, and also to facilitate efforts to identify weapons and emerging technology that may prove susceptible to future law of war regulation. By charting both the history and methodology of weapons law with a view toward identifying forces and influences that have made some weapons susceptible to international regulation and made others resistant, this article offers a starting point ...


Employment Equality In A Color-Blind Society, Earl M. Curry Jr. Aug 2015

Employment Equality In A Color-Blind Society, Earl M. Curry Jr.

Akron Law Review

The purposes of this article are first, to look at the rights of Negroes, under law, to bring economic pressure to bear for employment equality, including the demand for a quota, and secondly to see how that law is satisfying today's social needs. To achieve this latter purpose, perhaps we must ask whether our society can afford to be legally color-blind? We shall look first to the private self-help devices that have been used by minorities, and then to one area of governmental intervention that has dealt directly with minority employment and the use of quotas or goals to ...


The Reach Of The Law: Sin, Crime And Poor Taste, Alexander B. Smith, Harriet Pollack Aug 2015

The Reach Of The Law: Sin, Crime And Poor Taste, Alexander B. Smith, Harriet Pollack

Akron Law Review

The past decade has been a period of intensive reevaluation of the law. The criminal law, in particular, has been subjected to an especially intensive criticism. These attacks fall largely into two categories: criticisms of the legitimacy of our penal codes, and criticisms of their efficiency.
Starting with the Civil Rights Movement of the Kennedy era with its heavy emphasis on civil disobedience as a tool of protest, the legitimacy of many of our laws was called into question. When Rosa Parks sat in the front of the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, she was not simply breaking the law; she ...


An Essay Challenging The Racially Biased Selection Of Arbitrators For Employment Discrimination Suits, Michael Z. Green Aug 2015

An Essay Challenging The Racially Biased Selection Of Arbitrators For Employment Discrimination Suits, Michael Z. Green

Michael Z. Green

Since 1991, employers have increasingly decided to require that employees agree to arbitrate statutory employment discrimination claims as a condition of employment. This Essay seeks to expose some of the potential discriminatory components that may arise in the arbitrator selection process while highlighting the lack of legal remedy for those who believe that employers, in conjunction with neutral service provders, have stacked the pool in favor of having arbitrators who tend to be older, white and male. The Essay suggests the use of 42 U.S.C. Section 1981 as a potential remedy and challenge to the dearth of arbitrators ...


The Blinding Color Of Race: Elections And Democracy In The Post-Shelby County Era, Sahar F. Aziz Aug 2015

The Blinding Color Of Race: Elections And Democracy In The Post-Shelby County Era, Sahar F. Aziz

Sahar F. Aziz

No abstract provided.


The Federal Power Commission, Job Bias, And Naacp V. Fpc, John N. Kennedy Aug 2015

The Federal Power Commission, Job Bias, And Naacp V. Fpc, John N. Kennedy

Akron Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Federal Power Commission, Job Bias, And Naacp V. Fpc, John N. Kennedy Aug 2015

The Federal Power Commission, Job Bias, And Naacp V. Fpc, John N. Kennedy

Akron Law Review

FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM has long been used to describe the structure of the American economy. Yet in a critical sense this characterization is a misnomer, because for many Americans the system has always been anything but free. Indeed, racial and sex discrimination are commonplace even today among the employment practices of a frightening number of employers. Gradually, however, the justice of equal employment opportunity is at last beginning to be recognized, even if it is not yet being universally administered, and many Americans are fast becoming genuinely committed to its realization. Because of this, a recent decision by the United ...


Administrative Agencies; Subpoena Power; Relevancy; Right Of Privacy; Atchison, Topeka & Sante Fe Ry. Co. V. Lopez, David L. Hostetler Aug 2015

Administrative Agencies; Subpoena Power; Relevancy; Right Of Privacy; Atchison, Topeka & Sante Fe Ry. Co. V. Lopez, David L. Hostetler

Akron Law Review

The Kansas Supreme Court in Sante Fe has joined the majority of states in declaring that administrative "fishing expeditions" via the use of subpoena powers are now permissible. No probable cause need be shown and confidential information may be subject to subpoena if there is even a mere possibility of relevance to a matter within the scope of the agency's authority. The state's interest in preventing discrimination in employment practices has been declared a "compelling state interest" such as to override any claims to rights of privacy. Although primarily discussing only arrest and conviction records, the court in ...


Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari. Paske V. Fitzgerald, 136 S.Ct. 536 (2015) (No. 15-162), 2015 U.S. S. Ct. Briefs Lexis 2659, 2015 Wl 4651685, Eric Schnapper, Margaret A. Harris Aug 2015

Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari. Paske V. Fitzgerald, 136 S.Ct. 536 (2015) (No. 15-162), 2015 U.S. S. Ct. Briefs Lexis 2659, 2015 Wl 4651685, Eric Schnapper, Margaret A. Harris

Court Briefs

QUESTIONS PRESENTED McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green established a common method of analyzing evidence of an unlawful discriminatory motive. If a plaintiff establishes a prima facie case of discrimination, the defendant must articulate a legitimate, non-discriminatory purpose for the disputed action; where the defendant has done so, the plaintiff has the burden of demonstrating that the proffered purpose was a pretext for discrimination. This Court has repeatedly explained that the burden of establishing a prima facie case is “not onerous.” United States Postal Service Board of Governors v. Aikens held, in the context of a case which had gone to ...


Natural Hazards, Human Actors, Serious Harm: Refugee Protection Through Understanding The Social Construction Of Disasters, Matthew Scott Jul 2015

Natural Hazards, Human Actors, Serious Harm: Refugee Protection Through Understanding The Social Construction Of Disasters, Matthew Scott

Matthew Scott

The occurrence of a natural hazard event is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for the unfolding of a ‘natural’ disaster. Disasters result when individuals and communities are exposed and vulnerable to natural hazards, such as droughts, floods and earthquakes. In their turn, exposure and vulnerability are social facts that are often closely correlated with discrimination, for example against women, children, older people, persons with disabilities, as well as for reasons of race, religion, nationality or political opinion. Adopting the perspective that sees disasters as socially constructed in this way, the scope of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status ...


Racial Credit Steering As A Discriminatory Credit Practice Under The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Warren L. Dennis, Charles G. Field Jul 2015

Racial Credit Steering As A Discriminatory Credit Practice Under The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Warren L. Dennis, Charles G. Field

Akron Law Review

This article will explore the possible application of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act with its multiple remedies and enforcement methods to racial credit steering practices as described above.


A Fresh Look At The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Gail R. Reizenstein Jul 2015

A Fresh Look At The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Gail R. Reizenstein

Akron Law Review

The subsequent material will illustrate that despite the fact that women have been required to meet both a different and a higher standard for them to be deemed creditworthy, studies have shown that they (especially single women) are in fact better credit risks than men. Nevertheless, in an investigation of special problems concerning the availability of credit, the National Commission on Consumer Finance identified difficulties that women in particular faced in obtaining consumer, as well as mortgage, credit.


An Essay Challenging The Racially Biased Selection Of Arbitrators For Employment Discrimination Suits, Michael Z. Green Jul 2015

An Essay Challenging The Racially Biased Selection Of Arbitrators For Employment Discrimination Suits, Michael Z. Green

Michael Z. Green

Since 1991, employers have increasingly decided to require that employees agree to arbitrate statutory employment discrimination claims as a condition of employment. This Essay seeks to expose some of the potential discriminatory components that may arise in the arbitrator selection process while highlighting the lack of legal remedy for those who believe that employers, in conjunction with neutral service provders, have stacked the pool in favor of having arbitrators who tend to be older, white and male. The Essay suggests the use of 42 U.S.C. Section 1981 as a potential remedy and challenge to the dearth of arbitrators ...


Meritor Savings Bank V. Vinson: The Supreme Court's Recognition Of The Hostile Environment In Sexual Harassment Claims, Victoria T. Bartels Jul 2015

Meritor Savings Bank V. Vinson: The Supreme Court's Recognition Of The Hostile Environment In Sexual Harassment Claims, Victoria T. Bartels

Akron Law Review

This casenote will examine Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson in light of the brief legal history of Title VII sexual harassment claims and will consider the implications of both the Court's holding and its dicta regarding the undecided issues.


Local Number 93, International Association Of Firefighters V. City Of Cleveland: A Consent Decree Is Not An Adjudicated Order For Purposes Of Title Vii, Paul Leslie Jackson Jul 2015

Local Number 93, International Association Of Firefighters V. City Of Cleveland: A Consent Decree Is Not An Adjudicated Order For Purposes Of Title Vii, Paul Leslie Jackson

Akron Law Review

This note will examine the decision of the United States Supreme Court in Local 93, International Association of Firefighters v. City of Cleveland, and explore its potential implications in future Title VII actions. The issue the Supreme Court had to decide was whether a consent decree is a form of court ordered relief for purposes of Title VII litigation.


Making And Meeting The Prima Facie Case Under The Fair Housing Act, Frederic S. Schwartz Jul 2015

Making And Meeting The Prima Facie Case Under The Fair Housing Act, Frederic S. Schwartz

Akron Law Review

This article will deal almost exclusively with cases in the Individual Discrimination category.

Analysis of the housing discrimination cases requires that the fundamental substantive issue and the fundamental procedural issue be carefully distinguished. The substantive issue is simply whether the Act has been violated. That issue will be ultimately decided by the jury (or the judge in a trial to the court). The fundamental procedural issue with which we shall be concerned is whether the plaintiff has established his "prima facie case."

Part II of this paper will deal with the substantive issue and Part III with the procedural one ...


Perceptual Segregation, Russell K. Robinson Jul 2015

Perceptual Segregation, Russell K. Robinson

Russell K Robinson

No abstract provided.