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Discrimination

2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 97

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (Gina): Public Policy And Medical Practice In The Age Of Personalized Medicine, Eric A. Feldman Dec 2011

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (Gina): Public Policy And Medical Practice In The Age Of Personalized Medicine, Eric A. Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Survey data suggest that many people fear genetic discrimination by health insurers or employers. In fact, such discrimination has not yet been a significant problem. This article examines the fear and reality of genetic discrimination in the United States, describes how Congress sought to prohibit such discrimination by passing the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA), and explores the implications of GINA for general internists and their institutions. It concludes that medical providers and health care institutions must be familiar with the general intent and specific terms of GINA, and should continue to collect genetic information that can contribute ...


Talking About Race And Equality, Sharon E. Rush Dec 2011

Talking About Race And Equality, Sharon E. Rush

UF Law Faculty Publications

Lots of people of different races are increasingly uncomfortable talking about race. They prefer to function in a colorblind society where they insist that race is irrelevant. Not surprisingly, the concept of racial silencing is consistent with the concept of colorblindness. Logically, it seems impossible to talk about race if we are not even supposed to see it. The idea seems to be that if people who believe in racial equality magically stopped seeing and talking about race they could avoid the negativity surrounding racial issues and just hope that the inequality would fix itself. But we know that if ...


Travellers, Equality And School Admission: Christian Brothers High School Clonmel -V- Stokes, Mel Cousins Nov 2011

Travellers, Equality And School Admission: Christian Brothers High School Clonmel -V- Stokes, Mel Cousins

Mel Cousins

This note examines the recent Irish equality officer and Circuit Court decisions in CBS High School Clonmel v Stokes which concerned whether the rules for admission to the school – in particular a rule giving priority to children whose parents had attended the school - were compatible with the Equal Status Acts 2000-2008. The equality officer held that the rule was indirectly discriminatory and in breach of the Act. However, on appeal the Court held that while the rule had a disproportionate impact on Travellers, it was objectively justified.


Rethinking Abortion: Equal Choice, The Constitution, And Reproductive Politics, Mark Graber Nov 2011

Rethinking Abortion: Equal Choice, The Constitution, And Reproductive Politics, Mark Graber

Mark Graber

Mark Graber looks at the history of abortion law in action to argue that the only defensible, constitutional approach to the issue is to afford all women equal choice--abortion should remain legal or bans should be strictly enforced. Steering away from metaphysical critiques of privacy, Graber compares the philosophical, constitutional, and democratic merits of the two systems of abortion regulation witnessed in the twentieth century: pre-Roe v. Wade statutory prohibitions on abortion and Roe's ban on significant state interference with the market for safe abortion services. He demonstrates that before Roe, pro-life measures were selectively and erratically administered ...


When Is Discrimination Wrong?, Deborah Hellman Nov 2011

When Is Discrimination Wrong?, Deborah Hellman

Deborah Hellman

A law requires black bus passengers to sit in the back of the bus. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves a drug for use by black heart failure patients. A state refuses to license drivers under age 16. A company avoids hiring women between the ages of 20 and 40. We routinely draw distinctions among people on the basis of characteristics that they possess or lack. While some distinctions are benign, many are morally troubling. In this boldly conceived book, Deborah Hellman develops a much-needed general theory of discrimination. She demonstrates that many familiar ideas about when discrimination ...


Disparate Impact Is Not Unconstitutional, Michael Evan Gold Nov 2011

Disparate Impact Is Not Unconstitutional, Michael Evan Gold

Michael Evan Gold

[Excerpt] In Ricci v. DeStefano, the "New Haven Firefighters" case, whitefirefighters and one Hispanic firefighter sued the city of New Haven, Connecticut and city officials under Title VII. The plaintiffs claimed the city had committed intentional discrimination or disparate treatment against them when the city disregarded the results of promotion examinations that had an adverse effect on black and Hispanic applicants. The Supreme Court sustained the claim. In his concurring opinion, Justice Scalia invited attorneys in subsequent cases to consider arguing that the disparate impact theory of employment discrimination is unconstitutional. He reasoned as follows: • The Constitution prohibits the government ...


Ncaa Transgender Student-Athlete 'Policy': Analysis, Shawn Crincoli Nov 2011

Ncaa Transgender Student-Athlete 'Policy': Analysis, Shawn Crincoli

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


The Girl Who Cried Pain: A Bias Against Women In The Treatment Of Pain, Diane E. Hoffmann, Anita J. Tarzian Oct 2011

The Girl Who Cried Pain: A Bias Against Women In The Treatment Of Pain, Diane E. Hoffmann, Anita J. Tarzian

Diane Hoffmann

In general, women report more severe levels of pain, more frequent incidences of pain, and pain of longer duration than men, but are nonetheless treated for pain less aggressively. The authors investigate this paradox from two perspectives: Do men and women in fact experience pain differently - whether biologically, cognitively, and/or emotionally? And regardless of the answer, what accounts for the differences in the pain treatment they receive, and what can we do to correct this situation?


Trade Justice And Security, Frank J. Garcia Oct 2011

Trade Justice And Security, Frank J. Garcia

Frank J. Garcia

[Refers to Revised Draft, December 9, 2005] The social psychology literature on justice suggests that the perception of injustice produces the strongest human emotional response. Perceptions of injustice can lead to conflicts over the justice of social outcomes, threatening social cohesion and security. Trade law, and globalization more generally, are increasingly perceived as unjust with respect to the interests of developing countries and of the poor in all countries. To the extent that the various stakeholders in globalization perceive a lack of reciprocity between their investment and their return, they will naturally address their claims of injustice towards the global ...


The Role Of Fault And Motive In Defining Discrimination: The Seniority Question Under Title Vii, Mark S. Brodin Oct 2011

The Role Of Fault And Motive In Defining Discrimination: The Seniority Question Under Title Vii, Mark S. Brodin

Mark S. Brodin

Seniority systems play an important role in American industry, often governing rights to promotion, pay scales, layoff, and relative entitlement to ancillary benefits. Seniority based decision making protects employees from arbitrary employer action, yet seniority's same protective feature often may frustrate minorities' efforts to achieve actual equal employment opportunity Relying on Title Vii's section 703(h), the Supreme Court has held that seniority systems are immune from attack unless discriminatory intent is shown. In this Article, Professor Brodin reviews the evolution of the intent standard now governing seniority system challenges. He contrasts the Supreme Court's restrictive definition ...


To Catch A Criminal, To Cleanse A Profession: Exposing Deceptive Practices By Attorneys To The Sunlight Of Public Debate And Creating An Express Investigation Deception Exception To The Aba Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Tory L. Lucas Oct 2011

To Catch A Criminal, To Cleanse A Profession: Exposing Deceptive Practices By Attorneys To The Sunlight Of Public Debate And Creating An Express Investigation Deception Exception To The Aba Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Tory L. Lucas

Faculty Publications and Presentations

“In undertaking the privilege to practice law, I do solemnly swear that I will lie, deceive, misrepresent, and engage in fraud in order to serve my client’s and my own personal interests.”

It is doubtful that any American attorney believes that he or she has sworn such an oath (or openly advocates the use of such an oath for newly sworn attorneys). But does every American attorney share the same understanding of whether attorneys may ethically engage in deception? The issue of attorney deception has not enjoyed a thorough, open discussion necessary for a consistently applied standard on that ...


Race, Class, And Katrina : Human Rights And (Un)Natural Disaster, Hope Lewis Sep 2011

Race, Class, And Katrina : Human Rights And (Un)Natural Disaster, Hope Lewis

Hope Lewis

This essay reflects on the international human rights implications of Hurricane Katrina. For those of us in the human rights movement, it seemed natural to see Katrina and its aftermath as both a massive international humanitarian disaster and a human rights crisis. This was not just the awful result of a huge storm having hit a densely populated area and thereby necessitating the marshalling of public and private humanitarian aid. It also revealed government inaction and affirmatively abusive actions before, during, and after the storm hit that implicate international human rights standards. We know that Katrina was not the last ...


Women (Under)Development : The Relevance Of The "Right To Development" To Poor Women Of Color In The United States, Hope Lewis Sep 2011

Women (Under)Development : The Relevance Of The "Right To Development" To Poor Women Of Color In The United States, Hope Lewis

Hope Lewis

This essay, written during a time of Clinton-era welfare reform, was an attempt to reimagine South-North roles. What if "right to development" analysis were applied to poor women of color living in the United States? Some see the right to development as an anachronism in the face of the apparent globalization of market-based economic development. However, “development” in the narrow form of a thriving industrial sector, reliable infrastructure, and steady economic growth, remains beyond the reach of many nations - particularly the poorest African nations. More important, the broader goals of human development - access to basic needs and an improved quality ...


Network Neutrality: The Global Dimension, Pierre Larouche Sep 2011

Network Neutrality: The Global Dimension, Pierre Larouche

Pierre Larouche

This paper first sets out a framework for understanding network neutrality, by organizing the various issues raised in the course of the network neutrality debate. Secondly, recent US legal and regulatory initiatives are briefly reviewed. Thirdly, the situation under EU law is surveyed. Finally, the conclusion compares the two regulatory responses and considers how the global network neutrality debate could unfold. In the short term, ISPs must take measures to deal with imbalances and congestion on their networks. Beyond that, in the longer term, ISPs are looking to introduce differentiated Quality of Service (QoS) offerings, so as to turn their ...


Beyond Common Sense: A Social Psychological Study Of Iqbal's Effect On Claims Of Race Discrimination, Victor D. Quintanilla Sep 2011

Beyond Common Sense: A Social Psychological Study Of Iqbal's Effect On Claims Of Race Discrimination, Victor D. Quintanilla

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 8(a) once operated as a notice pleading rule, requiring plaintiffs to set forth only a "short and plain" statement of their claim. In Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, and then Ashcroft v. Iqbal, the United States Supreme Court recast Rule 8(a) into a plausibility pleading standard. To survive a motion to dismiss, a complaint must contain sufficient factual matter "to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face." Iqbal requires federal courts, when deciding whether a complaint is plausible, to draw on their "judicial experience and common sense." Courts apply ...


Fair Lending 2.0: A Borrower-Based Solution To Discrimination In Mortgage Lending, Jared Ruiz Bybee Sep 2011

Fair Lending 2.0: A Borrower-Based Solution To Discrimination In Mortgage Lending, Jared Ruiz Bybee

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Fair lending laws promise that borrowers with similar credit profiles will receive similar loan products-regardless of their race. Yet, studies reveal that black and Latino borrowers consistently receive loan products that are inferior to those of white borrowers with similar credit characteristics. Despite frequent amendments since their passage during the Civil Rights Era, the Fair Lending Laws that opened doors for minority borrowers are unable to root out the subtle discrimination that persists in today's mortgage lending market. These traditional Fair Lending Laws are built on an outdated framework that focuses exclusively on punishing lenders and righting past wrongs ...


Outsiders Inside The Beltway: Latcrit Xiv - Critical Outsider Theory And Praxis In The Policymaking Of The New American Regime, Anthony E. Varona Aug 2011

Outsiders Inside The Beltway: Latcrit Xiv - Critical Outsider Theory And Praxis In The Policymaking Of The New American Regime, Anthony E. Varona

Anthony E. Varona

A substantive foreword to the symposium book for the Fourteenth Annual Latino/Latina Critical Legal Theory Scholarship Conference hosted by the American University Washington College of Law. The foreword includes information about the conference theme, its planning and execution, and includes excerpts from the presentations of a number of prominent plenary and keynote speakers, including Congresswoman Linda Sanchez (D-CA), Caroline Fredrickson (the executive director of the American Constitution Society for Law and Policy), Robert Raben (the president of the Raben Group), Jarrett Barrios (the president of the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation), Prof. Jenny Rivera (professor of law and ...


New Governance And Rights-Claims, Vlad F. Perju Aug 2011

New Governance And Rights-Claims, Vlad F. Perju

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

I. Ideas as catalysts: Rights and the struggle for recognition of persons with disabilities

II. Strategic and communicative components of rights-claims

III. Two conceptions of responsiveness: An excursus into constitutional theory

Conclusion: The not-so-strange alchemy of new governance and “old government”


Freedom Of Religion In Practice: Exemptions Under Antidiscrimination Laws On The Basis Of Religion., Neil J. Foster Jul 2011

Freedom Of Religion In Practice: Exemptions Under Antidiscrimination Laws On The Basis Of Religion., Neil J. Foster

Neil J Foster

Recognition of “human rights” often involves the need to balance one set of rights against another. While anti‐discrimination laws generally are designed to outlaw decision‐making on irrelevant grounds, recognition of “freedom of religion” (a clear human right acknowledged in the international covenants on the area) requires acknowledging that decision‐making in many areas on religious grounds is not irrelevant, and hence requires careful crafting of appropriate exemptions to otherwise blanket prohibitions against discrimination. But in many ways there has been a subtle shift in recent decades away from a fully‐orbed recognition of human rights, towards an absolutist ...


Law And Racism In An Asian Setting: An Analysis Of The British Rule Of Hong Kong, Richard Klein Jul 2011

Law And Racism In An Asian Setting: An Analysis Of The British Rule Of Hong Kong, Richard Klein

Richard Daniel Klein

No abstract provided.


Immigration Laws As Instruments Of Discrimination: Legislation Designed To Limit Chinese Immigration Into The United Kingdom, Richard Klein Jul 2011

Immigration Laws As Instruments Of Discrimination: Legislation Designed To Limit Chinese Immigration Into The United Kingdom, Richard Klein

Richard Daniel Klein

No abstract provided.


Delinking Disproportionality From Discrimination: Procedural Burdens As Proxy For Substantive Visions, Maxwell O. Chibundu Jul 2011

Delinking Disproportionality From Discrimination: Procedural Burdens As Proxy For Substantive Visions, Maxwell O. Chibundu

Maxwell O. Chibundu

No abstract provided.


Discrimination Cases In The 2001 Term Of The Supreme Court (Symposium: The Fourteenth Annual Supreme Court Review), Eileen Kaufman Jul 2011

Discrimination Cases In The 2001 Term Of The Supreme Court (Symposium: The Fourteenth Annual Supreme Court Review), Eileen Kaufman

Eileen Kaufman

No abstract provided.


Discrimination Cases (The Supreme Court And Local Government Law: The 1995-1996 Term), Eileen Kaufman Jul 2011

Discrimination Cases (The Supreme Court And Local Government Law: The 1995-1996 Term), Eileen Kaufman

Eileen Kaufman

No abstract provided.


Disability Law - Americans With Disabilities Act Of 1990 - Title Ii And Title Iii And The Expansion Of Captioning For The Deaf: From Televisions And Movie Theaters To Stadiums And Arenas, Daniel Haney Jul 2011

Disability Law - Americans With Disabilities Act Of 1990 - Title Ii And Title Iii And The Expansion Of Captioning For The Deaf: From Televisions And Movie Theaters To Stadiums And Arenas, Daniel Haney

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Islam In The Secular Nomos Of The European Court Of Human Rights, Peter G. Danchin Jul 2011

Islam In The Secular Nomos Of The European Court Of Human Rights, Peter G. Danchin

Michigan Journal of International Law

If, with the benefit of hindsight, Mr. Choudhury's case was a harbinger of the emergence of various problems associated with Islam and the rights of Muslim minorities in European nation-states, then the events of September 11, 2001 have propelled these issues to the forefront of law and politics in a way unimaginable even a decade earlier. In Denmark, cartoons depicting the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a suicide bomber have been published leading to protests and violence across Europe and the Islamic world; a law prohibiting students in public schools from wearing symbols or attire through which they conspicuously exhibit ...


The Iaaf Hyperandrogenism Regulations And Discrimination, Shawn Crincoli Jun 2011

The Iaaf Hyperandrogenism Regulations And Discrimination, Shawn Crincoli

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


Who Am I And Who Do You Want Me To Be? Effectively Defining A Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Social Group In Asylum Applications, Keith Southam Jun 2011

Who Am I And Who Do You Want Me To Be? Effectively Defining A Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Social Group In Asylum Applications, Keith Southam

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Asylum law provides an area within immigration law that is unexpectedly friendly to lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgender persons. Persons who suffer persecution on account of "membership in a particular social group" are eligible to live and work in the United States. This encompasses lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgender persons who suffer persecution. However, United States law does not clearly define applicable standards in this area. As a result, different adjudicators in the asylum process focus on different methodological approaches and sometimes inject bias into the process. In addition, because the terms "lesbian," "gay," "bisexual," and "transgender" are ...


Ely At The Altar: Political Process Theory Through The Lens Of The Marriage Debate, Jane S. Schacter Jun 2011

Ely At The Altar: Political Process Theory Through The Lens Of The Marriage Debate, Jane S. Schacter

Michigan Law Review

Political process theory, closely associated with the work of John Hart Ely and footnote four in United States v. Carolene Products, has long been a staple of constitutional law and theory. It is best known for the idea that courts may legitimately reject the decisions of a majority when the democratic process that produced the decision was unfair to a disadvantaged social group. This Article analyzes political process theory through the lens of the contemporary debate over same-sex marriage. Its analysis is grounded in state supreme court decisions on the constitutionality of barring same-sex marriage, as well as the high-profile ...


Perpetuating The Marginalization Of Latinos: A Collateral Consequence Of The Incorporation Of Immigration Law Into The Criminal Justice System, Yolanda Vazquez Jun 2011

Perpetuating The Marginalization Of Latinos: A Collateral Consequence Of The Incorporation Of Immigration Law Into The Criminal Justice System, Yolanda Vazquez

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Latinos currently represent the largest minority in the United States. In 2009, we witnessed the first Latina appointment to the United States Supreme Court. Despite these events, Latinos continue to endure racial discrimination and social marginalization in the United States. The inability of Latinos to gain political acceptance and legitimacy in the United States can be attributed to the social construct of Latinos as threats to national security and the cause of criminal activity.

Exploiting this pretense, American government, society and nationalists are able to legitimize the subordination and social marginalization of Latinos, specifically Mexicans and Central Americans, much to ...