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Discrimination

1994

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Law

Caste And The Civil Rights Laws: From Jim Crow To Same-Sex Marriages, Richard A. Epstein Aug 1994

Caste And The Civil Rights Laws: From Jim Crow To Same-Sex Marriages, Richard A. Epstein

Michigan Law Review

In this essay I address the notion of caste in two separate contexts: in the traditional disputes over race and sex, and in the more modem disputes over sexual orientation. In both cases the idea of caste and its kindred notions of subordination and hierarchy are used to justify massive forms of government intervention. In all cases I think that these arguments are incorrect. In their place, I argue that the idea of caste should be confined to categories of formal, or legal, distinctions between persons before the law. This more limited notion of caste supplies no justification for the ...


If Black Is So Special, Then Why Isn't It In The Rainbow?, Sharon E. Rush Jul 1994

If Black Is So Special, Then Why Isn't It In The Rainbow?, Sharon E. Rush

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the modern day, defining "family" becomes less of a theoretical debate when one's own family unit is different from the traditional married, middle-class mother and father with their biological children. For non-traditional families, redefining family takes on enormous practical significance and may actually enable people to create families. Laws permitting transracial adoptions and surrogacy are illustrative. Moreover, a broader definition of family provides greater legal security to non-traditional families. Without such legal protection, non-traditional families live in fear of traditional laws tearing them apart. Rather than using a standard that promotes hegemony in custody disputes, decisionmakers should become ...


Title Ii Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964 And Membership Organizations Unconnected To A Physical Facility, Sandra J. Colhour Jun 1994

Title Ii Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964 And Membership Organizations Unconnected To A Physical Facility, Sandra J. Colhour

Missouri Law Review

In Welsh v. Boy Scouts of America, the Seventh Circuit interpreted Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. At the time of the 1964 Act, almost ninety years had passed since Congress last focused on civil rights legislation in public accommodations? While Congress clearly intended for Title II to end racial and certain other types of discrimination in public accommodations,4 congressional intent with regard to entities that do not clearly resemble any of Title II's specific examples is less clear. This Note examines the sources behind the court's decision, evaluates the court's theory of ...


A Postmodern Constitutionalism: Equality Rights, Identity Politics, And The Canadian National Imagination, Carl F. Stychin Apr 1994

A Postmodern Constitutionalism: Equality Rights, Identity Politics, And The Canadian National Imagination, Carl F. Stychin

Dalhousie Law Journal

In the 1990s, "identity" has become the centrepiece of theoretical work in a variety of disciplines. We now know that, in the conditions of late modem (or postmodem) society, identity is complex-it is fragmented, intersected, subject to alteration, socially constructed and it exhibits only a partial fixity at any moment. Most important, identities are to be valued, respected, and understood on their own terms. However, we also have relearned (if we ever forgot) that identities can be dangerous and fatal, especially when they coalesce in the form of nationalism. In this article, I will explore the intersection of nationalism and ...


Lesbians, Gays And The Struggle For Equality Rights: Reversing The Progressive Hypothesis, Mary Eaton Apr 1994

Lesbians, Gays And The Struggle For Equality Rights: Reversing The Progressive Hypothesis, Mary Eaton

Dalhousie Law Journal

The tale often told of Canadian law's advancement in the field of sexual orientation rights is simple but sublime: law has moved, however ploddingly and not without substantial prodding, out of an epoch of almost total repression, into an evermore enlightened era. Castigated by criminal law, pushed to the perimeter by administrative law, and ignored by human rights law, the "homosexual"' had once been law's quintessential "other." In recent years, however, legislatures and courts have increasingly been willing to recognize "homosexuals" as a constituency too long held down by the heavy hand of legal control. Most penal prohibitions ...


Ethnicity And Prejudice: Reevaluating "National Origin" Discrimination Under Title Vii, Juan F. Perea Mar 1994

Ethnicity And Prejudice: Reevaluating "National Origin" Discrimination Under Title Vii, Juan F. Perea

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Alternative Grounds: Epstein's Discrimination Analysis In Other Market Settings, Ian Ayres Feb 1994

Alternative Grounds: Epstein's Discrimination Analysis In Other Market Settings, Ian Ayres

San Diego Law Review

This Article focuses on how Richard Epstein's discrimination analysis in his book Forbidden Grounds: The Case Against Employment Discrimination Laws plays out in four other market contexts. The author analyzes historical labor markets (circa 1964), public accommodations, housing, and new car markets. He concludes that applying Epstein's theory to these different market settings exposes limitations of Epstein's analysis.


Standing Firm, On Forbidden Grounds, Richard A. Epstein Feb 1994

Standing Firm, On Forbidden Grounds, Richard A. Epstein

San Diego Law Review

This introductory Article to the Title VII Symposium contained in this issue of the San Diego Law Review addresses the critiques leveled at the book Forbidden Grounds: The Case Against Employment Discrimination Laws. Richard Epstein, the author of the book, recognizes the disagreement expressed in the Articles in the Symposium, and attempts to defend his thesis in this Article. He argued in Forbidden Grounds that the best set of overall social outcomes would come from eliminating antidiscrimination laws which prohibit employer discrimination on the grounds of race, creed, sex, age, handicap, or anything else. In this Article, he addresses several ...


Reality, Drew S. Days, Iii Feb 1994

Reality, Drew S. Days, Iii

San Diego Law Review

This Article applies the economic theory of regulation to laws forbidding discrimination or requiring affirmative action. It argues for using transferable rights in order to achieve diversity rather than quotas. Based on economic theories, the Article finds that the most efficient remedies for discrimination are the ones already developed by economists for other problems. The author suggests that discriminatory cartels can be prohibited or undermined, discriminatory signals can be overcome by supplementing market information, and external effects of prejudice can be internalized by tax subsidies. He concludes that perfect competition causes discriminators to pay for segregation, and some current antidiscrimination ...


Epstein's Premises, Evan Tsen Lee Feb 1994

Epstein's Premises, Evan Tsen Lee

San Diego Law Review

This Article criticizes Richard Epstein's argument that Congress should repeal Title VII expressed in his book Forbidden Grounds: The Case Against Employment Discrimination. The author's criticisms of Epstein's argument are the product of disagreement with some of Epstein's premises, and disagreement with some of Epstein's choices about where to stop his analyses. The author disputes Epstein's premise that governmental intervention into otherwise accessible markets is justifiable only in cases of force or fraud. The author also notes some of Epstein's empirical suppositions that are inconsistent with one another.


Small Numbers, Black Men, Precipitous Responses, Big Problems, Michael A. Middleton Jan 1994

Small Numbers, Black Men, Precipitous Responses, Big Problems, Michael A. Middleton

Faculty Publications

Professor Culp has aptly warned us that in our discussion of employment discrimination we should not lose sight of the need to address the spectrum of policies affecting the status of African-Americans. Without serious efforts in all aspects of American life (e.g., housing, education, health care, political and economic empowerment) our chances of significantly improving the future for African-American men are slim.


Gender Law, Katharine T. Bartlett Jan 1994

Gender Law, Katharine T. Bartlett

Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy

The inauguration of the DUKE JOURNAL OF GENDER LAW & POLICY represents an exciting step in the institutionalization of a subject area in academic law formerly found only at the fringe of legal scholarship and law school curriculums. Often shunned as a political activity inappropriate to institutions committed to academic rigor, objectivity, and neutrality, gender law has begun to lay down roots as a disciplined set of inquiries that enhance the rigor of conventional legal study and offer tools for improving the objectivity and neutrality of law, even as it challenges the conventional meanings of those concepts. There are two principal ...


Pay Equity And Women’S Wage Increases: Success In The States, A Model For The Nation, Heidi I. Hartmann, Stephanie Aaronson Jan 1994

Pay Equity And Women’S Wage Increases: Success In The States, A Model For The Nation, Heidi I. Hartmann, Stephanie Aaronson

Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy

By 1989, twenty states had implemented programs to raise the wages of workers in female-dominated job classes in their state civil services. A study of these pay equity programs, conducted by the Institute for Women's Policy Research and the Urban Institute, found that all twenty states were successful in closing the female/male wage gap without substantial negative side effects such as increased unemployment. The extent to which the states succeeded depended on many factors including how much money was spent, the proportion of women affected, and the standard to which female wages were raised. As women's responsibilities ...


From Crippled To Disabled: The Legal Empowerment Of Americans With Disabilities, Michael Ashley Stein Jan 1994

From Crippled To Disabled: The Legal Empowerment Of Americans With Disabilities, Michael Ashley Stein

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Key To Unlocking The Clubhouse Door: The Application Of Antidiscrimination Laws To Quasi-Private Clubs, Sally Frank Jan 1994

The Key To Unlocking The Clubhouse Door: The Application Of Antidiscrimination Laws To Quasi-Private Clubs, Sally Frank

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

This article focuses on discrimination in quasi-private clubs and the impact of laws and the United States Constitution on that discrimination. For the purposes of this article, a quasi-private club is any organization that claims to be private but which might in fact be viewed as public. The term "quasi-private" is used because litigation concerning discrimination in such organizations often rests on whether the entity is private, and therefore cannot be regulated.


Forshadowing Future Changes: Implications Of The Aids Pandemic For International Law And Policy Of Public Health, Ilise Levy Feitshans Jan 1994

Forshadowing Future Changes: Implications Of The Aids Pandemic For International Law And Policy Of Public Health, Ilise Levy Feitshans

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of AIDS in the Industrialized Democracies: Passions, Politics and Policies (Ronald Bayer & David L. Kirp eds.) and The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States (Albert R. Jonsen & Jeff Stryker eds.)


Extremist Threats To Fragile Democracies: A Proposal For An East European Marshall Plan, Victor Williams Jan 1994

Extremist Threats To Fragile Democracies: A Proposal For An East European Marshall Plan, Victor Williams

Michigan Journal of International Law

Review of Black Hundred: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia by Walter Laquer, and Free to Hate: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia by Paul Hockenos


Employment Discrimination: Recent Developments In The Supreme Court, Eileen Kaufman Jan 1994

Employment Discrimination: Recent Developments In The Supreme Court, Eileen Kaufman

Scholarly Works

No abstract provided.


The Meaning Of Urban Environmental Justice, Michel Gelobter, Ph.D. Jan 1994

The Meaning Of Urban Environmental Justice, Michel Gelobter, Ph.D.

Fordham Urban Law Journal

Environmental justice is redress for the structures and situations arising from environmental discrimination and, particularly, environmental racism. Environmental discrimination is actions and practices, arising from both individual ideologies and social structures that preserve and reinforce domination of subordinate groups with respect to the environment, while such discrimination with respect to race is environmental racism. Part I of this Essay discusses how environmental injustice is a three-dimensional nexus of economic injustice, social injustice and an unjust incidence of environmental quality, all of which overwhelmingly assures the continued oppression of communities of color and low-income communities on environmental matters. Part II of ...


Condescending Contradictions: Richard Posner's Pragmatism And Pregnancy Discrimination, Ann C. Mcginley, Jeffrey W. Stempel Jan 1994

Condescending Contradictions: Richard Posner's Pragmatism And Pregnancy Discrimination, Ann C. Mcginley, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Scholarly Works

Richard Posner’s, the Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, judicial actions have been criticized, primarily for inconsistently commingling economic analysis with other approaches to decisionmaking in an effort to reach personally pleasing results that are at odds with Posner's professed commitment to methodological rigor. Although criticism of Posner's judging is diverse, a common theme is that he too frequently marshals his argumentative force merely to uphold the economic rights of the powerful. In other words, according to the critics, after the rush of intellectual excitement subsides, litigants and the justice ...


Legal Indeterminacy, Judicial Discretion And The Mexican-American Litigation Experience: 1930-1980, George A. Martinez Jan 1994

Legal Indeterminacy, Judicial Discretion And The Mexican-American Litigation Experience: 1930-1980, George A. Martinez

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

This article explores a jurisprudential point: legal indeterminacy in the context of Mexican-American civil rights litigation. The article argues that because of legal uncertainty or indeterminacy the resolution of key issues was not inevitable. Judges often had discretion to reach their conclusions. In this regard, the article concludes that the courts generally exercised their discretion by taking a position on key issues against Mexican-Americans. The article points out that exposing the exercise of judicial discretion and the lack of inevitability in civil rights cases is important for two major reasons. At one level, exposing the exercise of judicial discretion is ...


Stress And Health In 1st-Year Law Students: Women Fare Worse, Daniel N. Mcintosh, Julie Keywell, Alan Reifman, Phoebe C. Ellsworth Jan 1994

Stress And Health In 1st-Year Law Students: Women Fare Worse, Daniel N. Mcintosh, Julie Keywell, Alan Reifman, Phoebe C. Ellsworth

Articles

The social and psychological consequences of being a female law student may include greater stress and worse health than that experienced by male students. First-year law students at a major state university were surveyed about their physical and psychological health prior to, in the middle of, and at the end of the school year. They were also asked about specific sources of strain (e.g., grades, time pressure) at mid-year. Relative to men, women reported greater strain due to sexism, lack of free time, and lack of time to spend with one’s spouse/partner. Women also displayed more depression ...


Divergent Strategies: Union Organizing And Alternative Dispute Resolution, Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 1994

Divergent Strategies: Union Organizing And Alternative Dispute Resolution, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Articles

The Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations, the so-called "Dunlop Commission," is focusing on three principal subjects: (1) union organizing, (2) worker participation in management decision making, and (3) alternative dispute resolution (ADR). I am going to concentrate on the last, but first I would like to say a few words about union organizing. After all, unionization and collective bargaining - and for that matter, worker participation as well - can fairly be viewed as special forms of alternative dispute resolution.


No Time For Trumpets: Title Vii, Equality, And The Fin De Siecle, D. Marvin Jones Jan 1994

No Time For Trumpets: Title Vii, Equality, And The Fin De Siecle, D. Marvin Jones

Articles

No abstract provided.


Recognizing Violence Against Women: Gender And The Hate Crimes Statistics Act, Elizabeth Pendo Jan 1994

Recognizing Violence Against Women: Gender And The Hate Crimes Statistics Act, Elizabeth Pendo

All Faculty Scholarship

This article argues that acts of gender-based violence should be recognized under the Hate Crimes Statistics Act of 1990, and that certain types of violence against women, such as rape, are fundamentally gender-based. Part I examines the existing definition of hate crimes under the HCSA, and the exclusion of the majority of violence against women. Part II suggests gender should be included as a category under the HCSA because of the similar effects of violence directed at women due to gender, and violence directed at members of other groups because of their group identity. Using acquaintance rape as an example ...


"Who, Me?": A Supervisor's Individual Liability For Discrimination In The Workplace, Christopher Greer Jan 1994

"Who, Me?": A Supervisor's Individual Liability For Discrimination In The Workplace, Christopher Greer

Fordham Law Review

No abstract provided.