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A Herculean Leap For The Hard Case Of Post-Acquisition Claims: Interpreting Fair Housing Act Section 3604(B) After Modesto, Mary Pennisi Jan 2011

A Herculean Leap For The Hard Case Of Post-Acquisition Claims: Interpreting Fair Housing Act Section 3604(B) After Modesto, Mary Pennisi

Fordham Urban Law Journal

On October 8, 2009, Committee Concerning Community Improvement v. City of Modesto created a split in federal circuit courts over whether FHA § 3604(b) applies to discrimination that occupants suffer after acquiring their dwelling. The question is whether the FHA only applies to discrimination in acquiring their property or afterwards as well. This Note examines the split in federal circuit courts created by Modesto. Part I examines the history of the FHA and theories of statutory interpretation. Part II discusses the split in federal authority and both sides’ interpretative methodologies and rationales. . Part III.A maintains that meaning-based and intent-based ...


Thinking About Fairness & Achieving Balance In Mediation, Sarah E. Burns Jan 2008

Thinking About Fairness & Achieving Balance In Mediation, Sarah E. Burns

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Article identifies five sources of bias present in mediation practice: (1) categorization, (2) attribution, (3) metaphorical expression, (4) norming, and (5) framing. For each of these "cognitive efficiencies," which contribute to bias in mediation, the author provides practice recommendations. Finally, the author suggests that the Article be read as a proposal for further thought and inquiry to improve the fairness of mediators.


A Price On Volunteerism:The Public Has A Higher Duty To Accommodate Volunteers, Lauren Attard Jan 2007

A Price On Volunteerism:The Public Has A Higher Duty To Accommodate Volunteers, Lauren Attard

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Comment first examines the issues presented in Bauer (including the holding that the Americans with Disabilities Act does not protect these volunteers from discrimination) and the court’s rationale for finding that volunteers are not protected under Title III. Part II explores the requirements and differences between Title I and Title III and provides some history of the definitions of “volunteer” and “employee.” Part III presents a public duty thesis arguing that the responsibility of providing accommodations should not belong solely to employers in the context of employees, or public accommodations in the context of patrons, but to all ...


The Judicial Betrayal Of Blacks - Again: The Supreme Court's Destruction Of The Hopes Raised By Brown V. Board Of Education, Nathaniel R. Jones Jan 2004

The Judicial Betrayal Of Blacks - Again: The Supreme Court's Destruction Of The Hopes Raised By Brown V. Board Of Education, Nathaniel R. Jones

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Article discusses the history of school desegregation beginning with the pivotal decision in Brown v. Board of Education and noting the hopes that the case raised for black americans. The Article notes the resistance that Brown faced, especially from political forces who began to subvert the desegregation process, and examines the Supreme Court's subsequent decisions which aimed to secure Brown's objectives. The Article also examines the desegregation attempts in the North and discusses the difficulties plaintiffs faced in proving racial discrimination in school districts. The Article concludes by stating that the commitment to desegregation is waring and ...


The Conception Of Brown, Robert L. Carter Jan 2004

The Conception Of Brown, Robert L. Carter

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Article discusses the pervasive racism that continues to exist in the United States and examines the critical role that the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education played in transforming race relations. The Article stresses the need to find a way to rid the country of race and color differentiation and emphasizes the deleterious effect that segregated school systems have on black school childrens ability to learn. The Article examines how Brown came about and states that the Court's rejection of Plessy v. Ferguson is what makes the case so significant. The Article discusses some of the ...


Emotional Harm In Housing Discrimination Cases: A New Look At A Lingering Problem, Victor M. Goode, Conrad A. Johnson Jan 2003

Emotional Harm In Housing Discrimination Cases: A New Look At A Lingering Problem, Victor M. Goode, Conrad A. Johnson

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Article explores relevant social science data and examines how it affects the analysis and understanding of evidence of emotional harm. Part I provides an overview of the current state of emotional harm cases. Part II discusses the issue of bias in the process of reviewing discrimination cases from the perspective of critical race theory and recent social science data. In Part III, this Article examines the cycles of ignorance that have contributed to an under-valuation of emotional harm in housing discrimination litigation. Finally, suggestions are made about how to gather relevant psychological and medical information on the effects of ...


Emotional Harm In Housing Discrimination Cases: A New Look At A Lingering Problem, Victor M. Goode, Conrad A. Johnson Jan 2003

Emotional Harm In Housing Discrimination Cases: A New Look At A Lingering Problem, Victor M. Goode, Conrad A. Johnson

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Article explores relevant social science data and examines how it affects the analysis and understanding of evidence of emotional harm. Part I provides an overview of the current state of emotional harm cases. Part II discusses the issue of bias in the process of reviewing discrimination cases from the perspective of critical race theory and recent social science data. In Part III, this Article examines the cycles of ignorance that have contributed to an under-valuation of emotional harm in housing discrimination litigation. Finally, suggestions are made about how to gather relevant psychological and medical information on the effects of ...


Protection Of Domestic Violence Victims Under The New York City Human Rights Law's Provisions Prohibiting Discrimination On The Basis Of Disability, Marta B. Varela Jan 2000

Protection Of Domestic Violence Victims Under The New York City Human Rights Law's Provisions Prohibiting Discrimination On The Basis Of Disability, Marta B. Varela

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Article analyzes the need to create a new protected class of domestic violence victims to shield them from discrimination in employment. The Article examines arguments for and against proposed legislation to revise the human rights law governing disability, section 8-107 of the New York City Administration Code. The Article concludes that this legislation is unnecessary because the law already provides sufficient protection to domestic violence victims without requiring that victims disclose their domestic violence status to their employers.


Risk Reduction In Office Workplace Encounters Between Newly-Disabled Employees And Management Of New York City Companies, Marta B. Varela Jan 2000

Risk Reduction In Office Workplace Encounters Between Newly-Disabled Employees And Management Of New York City Companies, Marta B. Varela

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Article describes potential pitfalls for employers arising from the ADA protections afforded to employees with no prior record of disability returning to work after medical certification of a disability requiring accommodation. The Article describes Federal laws protecting disabled employees from unnecessary intrusion in their private lives (such as the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Family Medical Leave Act of 1993, and the Occupation Health and Safety Act of 1970) and sets out the requirements imposed on employers. The Article also describes New York City disability laws enforced by the New York City Commission on Human Rights. Finally ...


Developments In Housing Law And Reasonable Accommodations For New York City Residents With Disabilities, John P. Herrion Jan 2000

Developments In Housing Law And Reasonable Accommodations For New York City Residents With Disabilities, John P. Herrion

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Essay examines the New York Human Rights Law, which prohibits discrimination in the sale or rental of a housing accommodation and provides persons with disabilities the right to request and receive reasonable accommodations from their housing providers. The Essay concludes that the recent interpretation of this law by New York City Commission on Human Rights Law is a move toward protecting the rights of persons with disabilities and removing unnecessary discrimination from their lives.


The Price Of Landlord's "Free" Exercise Of Religion: Tenant's Rights To Discrimination-Free Housing And Privacy, Maureen E. Markey Jan 1995

The Price Of Landlord's "Free" Exercise Of Religion: Tenant's Rights To Discrimination-Free Housing And Privacy, Maureen E. Markey

Fordham Urban Law Journal

No precedent from the United States Supreme Court or other jurisprudence supports an individual, court-ordered free exerciseexemption for a landlord who violates the antidiscrimination laws while engaged in the business of rental housing. The fair housing laws are designed specifically to protect tenants from discrimination based on a landlord's personal biases. Although neither courts nor legislatures can dictate the morals of the marketplace, neither should they condone discriminatory acts that are clothed in the respectable shroud of the free exercise of religion. An exemption based not upon the landlord's own conduct, but on the landlord's disapproval of ...


The Myth Of The Superspade: The Persistence Of Racism In College Athletics, Timothy Davis Jan 1995

The Myth Of The Superspade: The Persistence Of Racism In College Athletics, Timothy Davis

Fordham Urban Law Journal

As is true of society in general, untrue stereotypes underlie the subtle forms of racism prevalent in college sport. Despite its covert nature, persistent racism in college athletics inflicts real injury on its African-American participants. Their academic needs suffer as a result of misconceptions propelled by myths concerning their intellectual and athletic abilities. Long-term solutions to the harm inflicted upon student- athletes and other African-American participants in college sport will require honest and creative approaches that may transcend traditional doctrinal boundaries. In the short term, this Article identifies potential approaches for providing some modicum of relief for the harm caused ...


The Meaning Of Urban Environmental Justice, Michel Gelobter, Ph.D. Jan 1994

The Meaning Of Urban Environmental Justice, Michel Gelobter, Ph.D.

Fordham Urban Law Journal

Environmental justice is redress for the structures and situations arising from environmental discrimination and, particularly, environmental racism. Environmental discrimination is actions and practices, arising from both individual ideologies and social structures that preserve and reinforce domination of subordinate groups with respect to the environment, while such discrimination with respect to race is environmental racism. Part I of this Essay discusses how environmental injustice is a three-dimensional nexus of economic injustice, social injustice and an unjust incidence of environmental quality, all of which overwhelmingly assures the continued oppression of communities of color and low-income communities on environmental matters. Part II of ...


Urban Criminal Justice: No Fairer Than The Larger Society, Joanne Page Jan 1993

Urban Criminal Justice: No Fairer Than The Larger Society, Joanne Page

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Essay reflects the author's personal perspective on the fairness of the criminal justice system. She argues that the key to assessing the fairness of the system is to examine it, not in isolation, but within a larger social context. The criminal justice system is part of the larger society, shares its values and is shaped by its allocation of resources. The criminal justice system is consistent with the values of that larger society: It treats the lives of poor people and people of color as being of inferior worth, skewing its intervention toward control and punishment rather than ...


Promoting Fairness: A Proposal For A More Reasonable Standard Of Constructive Discharge In Title Vii Denial Of Promotion Cases , Richard M. Deagazio Jan 1992

Promoting Fairness: A Proposal For A More Reasonable Standard Of Constructive Discharge In Title Vii Denial Of Promotion Cases , Richard M. Deagazio

Fordham Urban Law Journal

The constructive discharge rule states that if intolerable working conditions associated with the employer's discrimination force the employee to resign, then the employee will be considered to have been "constructively" discharged on the date of resignation. The employee will be treated as if he or she had been fired by the employer and therefore is eligible for remedies traditionally associated with wrongful termination, such as reinstatement and backpay past the date of "discharge." If the employee has not been constructively discharged, then under the general rule the employee will only be entitled to preresignation backpay. In examples similar to ...


Private Clubs And Employment Discrimination: Does Federal Law Apply?, Elyse Hilton Jan 1987

Private Clubs And Employment Discrimination: Does Federal Law Apply?, Elyse Hilton

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Note examines the general history and function of Title VII and section 1981 of the civil rights law. The author discusses the problems inherent in defining an organization as a private club, for purposes of employment non-discrimination efforts. The Note examines statutory construction and legislative history, as well as case law to assess arguments as to whether Title VII impliedly amends section 1981 with respect to the private club exemption. The author argues that membership discrimination cases in the case law differ radically from employment discrimination cases, which address entirely different sets of rights. The argument concludes therefore that ...


The Rights Of Unmarried Cohabiting Couples To Housing In New York, Matthew G. Connolly Jan 1983

The Rights Of Unmarried Cohabiting Couples To Housing In New York, Matthew G. Connolly

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This Note examines the protections available to unmarried couples against housing discrimination under the marital status provision of the New York City and New York State Human Rights Laws. After a brief examnitation of cohabitation, this Note will review judicial and administrative construction of the Human Rights Law since its inception. This Note concludes by proposing that unwed couples be given the same protection as married couples under the marital status provision in the New York Human Rights Law. This proposition finds support in: (1) the statutory mandate that the Human Rights Law be liberally construed to accomplish its purspose ...


Labor Law- Seniority Rules- An Otherwise Bona Fide Seniority System That Perpetuates Effects Of Pre-Title Vii Discrimination Is Not Unlawful , Marjorie London Jan 1978

Labor Law- Seniority Rules- An Otherwise Bona Fide Seniority System That Perpetuates Effects Of Pre-Title Vii Discrimination Is Not Unlawful , Marjorie London

Fordham Urban Law Journal

Article summarizes International Brotherhood of Teamsters v United States and says that the Supreme Court has carved out an exception to the mandate of the Civil Rights Act that the courts remedy the effects of past employment discrimination that has produced a result that is contrary to the framework and intent of the Act.


Challenging New York Grand Jury Composition: The Barrier Of The "Systematic And Intentional Exclusion" Requirement, Pearl Zuchlewski Jan 1978

Challenging New York Grand Jury Composition: The Barrier Of The "Systematic And Intentional Exclusion" Requirement, Pearl Zuchlewski

Fordham Urban Law Journal

Note examines the statutory law which provides for a grand jury in New York, the background of federal constitutional requirements, and New York court decisions which have interpreted the statutes when defendants or witnesses have challenged a grand jury for failing to conform to "the very idea of a jury," which is a body "composed of the peers or equals of the persons whose rights it is selected or summoned to determine his neighbors, fellows and associates.


Employers' Garnishment Policies - Do They Engender Racial Discrimination In Violation Of Title Vii And The Civil Rights Act Of 1866?, Amy S. Vance Jan 1977

Employers' Garnishment Policies - Do They Engender Racial Discrimination In Violation Of Title Vii And The Civil Rights Act Of 1866?, Amy S. Vance

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This note evaluates the hypothesis that employment policies which mandate suspension or discharge for multiple garnishments are racially discriminatory. It considers the methods of challenge such as a claim under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the lack of consensus between the courts and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), and also emerging issues. The note finds that the legality of employment practices imposing disciplinary action against garnished employees is left uncertain. Proof of a disproportionate effect on minorities employees may be adequate, although a satisfactory showing of business necessity may be a defense against a claim ...


Third Party Suits Under Section 3612 Of The Fair Housing Act Of 1968, Gary A. Grasso Jan 1977

Third Party Suits Under Section 3612 Of The Fair Housing Act Of 1968, Gary A. Grasso

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This note examines the Fair Housing Act of 1968 (1968 Act) which makes it unlawful, with certain exceptions, to discriminate in the sale or rental of private housing. In particular, the note examines the remedies available under Sections 3610 and 3612, which provide for the enforcement of the statute by private complainants. The note focuses on the issue of standing and the question of alternative use involving sections 3610 and 3612 of the 1968 Act, especially as to third party complainants. The note concludes that just as section 3610 was opened to plaintiffs arguing for the rights of third parties ...


Selecting A Remedy For Private Racial Discrimination: Statutes In Search Of Scope, John M. Peterson Jan 1976

Selecting A Remedy For Private Racial Discrimination: Statutes In Search Of Scope, John M. Peterson

Fordham Urban Law Journal

Racial discrimination in the United States has been effectively attacked in both the legislatures and the courts for over a hundred years. Enslavement of blacks in the American South prompted adoption of the thirteenth amendment and the Reconstruction Civil Rights Acts enacted pursuant to the amendment’s enabling clause. These laws sought primarily to elevate the status of the black freedman by granting him rights equal to those enjoyed by white citizens. The most far-reaching of these statutes is 42 U.S.C. § 1981, derived from the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which insures to all persons the same right ...


After Albemarle: Class-Wide Recovery Of Back Pay Under Title Vii, B. Martin Druyan Jan 1976

After Albemarle: Class-Wide Recovery Of Back Pay Under Title Vii, B. Martin Druyan

Fordham Urban Law Journal

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provides administrative and judicial remedies for victims of discrimination in employment. Employers, engaged in “an industry affecting commerce” and having fifteen or more employees who work at least twenty weeks out of the year, are subject to the statutes strictures. Unions are also subject to the statute if they have fifteen or more members, operate an office or hiring hall, and represent employees. One remedy available under Title VII is an award of back pay from the date of the alleged violation. Back pay may be defined as court-awarded compensation for ...


Civil Rights - Housing Discrimination - Federal Courts May Order Metropolitan Area Remedy To Correct Wrongs Committed Solely Against City Residents Where Agencies Have Statutory Authority To Conduct Activities Outside The City Limits, Andres J. Valdespino Jan 1976

Civil Rights - Housing Discrimination - Federal Courts May Order Metropolitan Area Remedy To Correct Wrongs Committed Solely Against City Residents Where Agencies Have Statutory Authority To Conduct Activities Outside The City Limits, Andres J. Valdespino

Fordham Urban Law Journal

This case note examines the United States Supreme Court's decision in Hills v. Gautreaux, 96 S. Cy. 1538 (1976), specifically the approval of a metropolitan area remedy as a valid form of federal relief. The case resulted from a class action suit against the Chicago Housing Authority (CHA) and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), alleging racially discriminatory public housing policies and practices. Although violations of the Fourteenth Amendment occurred within the Chicago city limits, the Supreme Court held that a metropolitan remedy which included the surrounding areas outside of the city boundaries was valid and that ...


The Infirmities Of Affirmative Action: The New York City Plan Jan 1974

The Infirmities Of Affirmative Action: The New York City Plan

Fordham Urban Law Journal

The regulations announced by Mayor John Lindsay that propose new contract bid regulations designed to eliminate discrimination in employment in New York City were implemented and are the basics of the city's present program. New York City's present affirmative action attempts to increase the number of minorities employed in city-financed construction projects. But, how viable are these programs in light of the expected attacks based on the federal preemption doctrine? Questions of due process and equal protection must be examined when affirmative action programs require contractors to make good faith efforts to meet these goals. Affirmative action programs ...


Civil Rights - Discrimination In Placement Of Low-Rent Housing- Statute's Requirement That Locality's Governing Body Agree To Cooperate With Hud Used As A Shield To Protect Suburbs From Integration By Low Income Blacks Jan 1974

Civil Rights - Discrimination In Placement Of Low-Rent Housing- Statute's Requirement That Locality's Governing Body Agree To Cooperate With Hud Used As A Shield To Protect Suburbs From Integration By Low Income Blacks

Fordham Urban Law Journal

The constitutionality of certain sections of the National Housing Act that required a community to consent to the construction of federally assisted low income housing was challenged. The plaintiffs alleged that the consent requirement gave white suburbs the power to bar this construction resulting in limited low incoming housing offered in predominantly black areas. Plaintiffs proposed that a new agreement between the City of Cleveland and the Cuyahoga Metropolitan Housing Authority be reached that would better reflect low income housing needs. At trial, the court rejected the plaintiff's contentions and on remand, the court held that absent a rational ...