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Full-Text Articles in Law

Beyond Finality: How Making Criminal Judgments Less Final Can Further The Interests Of Finality, Andrew Chongseh Kim Oct 2013

Beyond Finality: How Making Criminal Judgments Less Final Can Further The Interests Of Finality, Andrew Chongseh Kim

Andrew Chongseh Kim

Courts and scholars commonly assume that granting convicted defendants more liberal rights to challenge their judgments would harm society’s interests in “finality.” According to conventional wisdom, finality in criminal judgments is necessary to conserve resources, encourage efficient behavior by defense counsel, and deter crime. Thus, under the common analysis, the extent to which convicted defendants should be allowed to challenge their judgments depends on how much society is willing to sacrifice to validate defendants’ rights. This Article argues that expanding defendants’ rights on post-conviction review does not always harm these interests. Rather, more liberal review can often conserve state ...


Punishment And Rights, Benjamin L. Apt Feb 2013

Punishment And Rights, Benjamin L. Apt

Benjamin L. Apt

Prevalent theories of criminal punishment lack a rationale for the precise duration and nature of state-ordered criminal punishment. In practice, too, criminal penalization suffers from inadequate evidence of punitive efficacy. These deficiencies, in theory and in fact, would not be so grave were the state to enjoy unfettered power over the disposition of criminal penalties. However, in societies that recognize legal rights, criminal punishments must be consistent with rights. Efficacy, even where demonstrable, does not suffice as a legal justification for punishment. This article analyzes the source of rights and how they function as primary rules in a legal system ...


Forfeitures Revisited: Bringing Principle To Practice In Federal Court, David Pimentel Jan 2012

Forfeitures Revisited: Bringing Principle To Practice In Federal Court, David Pimentel

David Pimentel

Dramatically expanded use of federal forfeitures since the 1980s has raised persistent concerns about government overreaching in the seizure of private property. The Supreme Court failed to address the problem in Bennis v. Michigan (1996), upholding the forfeiture of property of an entirely innocent owner, relying on the ancient and unconvincing principle that the property itself is guilty. Congress stepped in to curb law enforcement’s worst abuses of this lucrative practice in 2000, but the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act was a patchwork effort that tweaked the rules without revisiting the unsatisfying policies behind them. Thus a comprehensive, policy-based ...


How Shareholder Litigations Deter Directors And Officers. U.S. And Italy, A Comparative Analysis, Federico Pastre Sep 2011

How Shareholder Litigations Deter Directors And Officers. U.S. And Italy, A Comparative Analysis, Federico Pastre

Federico Pastre

This paper focuses on the issue of whether shareholder litigations brought in the U.S. - namely, derivative suits and securities class actions – and their equivalent in the Italian law system, achieve their principal regulatory goal of deterring corporate directors and officers from engaging in unlawful conduct, in addition to compensating shareholders and investors for the harm they suffered.

In the U.S., effective derivative suits and securities class actions, contingency fees, and the rule concerning legal expenses, create an entrepreneurial system in which directors and officers are ultimately deterred by the private enforcement of the law. Nevertheless, the presence of ...


Criminal Affirmance: Going Beyond The Deterrence Paradigm To Examine The Social Meaning Of Declining Prosecution Of Elite Crime, Mary Kreiner Ramirez Aug 2011

Criminal Affirmance: Going Beyond The Deterrence Paradigm To Examine The Social Meaning Of Declining Prosecution Of Elite Crime, Mary Kreiner Ramirez

mary k ramirez

Recent financial scandals and the relative paucity of criminal prosecutions in response suggest a new reality in the criminal law system: some wrongful actors appear above the law and immune from criminal prosecution. As such, the criminal prosecutorial system affirms much of the wrongdoing giving rise to the crisis. This leaves the same elites undisturbed at the apex of the financial sector, and creates perverse incentives for any successors. Their position of power results in massive deadweight losses for the entire economy as a result of their crimes. Further, this undermines the legitimacy of the rule of law and encourages ...


Criminal Affirmance: Going Beyond The Deterrence Paradigm To Examine The Social Meaning Expressed By Exercising Discretion To Decline Prosecution Of Elite Crime, Mary K. Ramirez Apr 2011

Criminal Affirmance: Going Beyond The Deterrence Paradigm To Examine The Social Meaning Expressed By Exercising Discretion To Decline Prosecution Of Elite Crime, Mary K. Ramirez

mary k ramirez

Criminal Affirmance: Going Beyond the Deterrence Paradigm to Examine the Social Meaning Expressed by Exercising Discretion to Decline Prosecution of Elite Crime Professor Mary Kreiner Ramirez Article Abstract Recent financial scandals and the relative paucity of criminal prosecutions in response suggest a new reality in the criminal law system: some wrongful actors appear above the law and immune from criminal prosecution. As such, the criminal prosecutorial system affirms much of the wrongdoing giving rise to the crisis. This leaves the same elites undisturbed at the apex of the financial sector, and creates perverse incentives for any successors. Further, this undermines ...


Does Tort Law Deter?, W. Jonathan Cardi, Randy Penfield, Albert H. Yoon Mar 2011

Does Tort Law Deter?, W. Jonathan Cardi, Randy Penfield, Albert H. Yoon

W. Jonathan Cardi

For nearly four decades, economic analysis has dominated academic discussion of tort law. Courts also have paid increasing attention to the potential deterrent effects of their tort decisions. But at the center of each economic model and projection of cost and benefit lies a widely-accepted but grossly under-tested assumption that tort liability in fact deters tortious conduct. This article reports the results of a behavioral science study that tests this assumption as it applies to individual conduct. Surveying over 700 first-year law students, the study presented a series of vignettes, asking subjects to rate the likelihood that they would engage ...


Deferred Prosecution Agreements: Prosecutorial Balance In Times Of Economic Meltdown, Sharon Oded Jan 2011

Deferred Prosecution Agreements: Prosecutorial Balance In Times Of Economic Meltdown, Sharon Oded

Sharon Oded

At times when the American economy faces enormous challenges, traditional prosecutorial measures that involve high public spending and immense collateral risks may hamper economic recovery. Economic meltdowns, such as the one we have been experiencing in recent years, call for a refreshment of the prosecutorial toolkit aimed at controlling corporate misconduct. This paper discusses the newly emerged enforcement mechanism, Deferred Prosecution Agreements (DPAs), in light of the current national goal of economic recovery. It portrays the evolution of DPAs and the stimulus for its expansion that followed recent Corporate America scandals. Based on the evaluation of the major promises and ...


"Terror Among The Gum Trees" - Is Our Criminal Legal Framework Adequate To Curb The Peril Of Bushfire Arson In Australia, John L. Anderson Jan 2011

"Terror Among The Gum Trees" - Is Our Criminal Legal Framework Adequate To Curb The Peril Of Bushfire Arson In Australia, John L. Anderson

John L Anderson

No abstract provided.


12 Unnecessary Men: The Case For Eliminating Jury Trials In Drunk Driving Cases, Adam Gershowitz Feb 2010

12 Unnecessary Men: The Case For Eliminating Jury Trials In Drunk Driving Cases, Adam Gershowitz

Adam M. Gershowitz

Over the last few decades, states have imposed tougher punishments on drunk drivers. This article argues that increasing punishments is counterproductive. If legislatures are seeking to hold guilty offenders accountable and deter drunk driving, they should keep punishments low and instead abolish the right to jury trials. Under the petty offense doctrine, the Supreme Court has authorized states to abolish jury trials when defendants face a maximum sentence of six months' incarceration. Social science evidence has long demonstrated that judges are more likely to convict than juries, particularly in drunk driving cases. And researchers have also found that the certainty ...


The Need To Overrule Mapp V. Ohio, William T. Pizzi Feb 2010

The Need To Overrule Mapp V. Ohio, William T. Pizzi

William T. Pizzi

This Article argues that it is time to overrule Mapp v. Ohio. It contends, first of all, that a tough deterrent sanction is difficult to reconcile with a system where victims are increasingly seen to have a stake in criminal cases. Secondly, the Article maintains that a tough exclusionary sanction is also inappropriate given what police are asked to do on the street and the fact that concepts such as probable cause or reasonable suspicion are inevitably matters of judgment on which opinions will differ. Thirdly, the Article challenges one of the Court’s main epistemological assumptions, namely, the insistence ...


The Instrumental Justice Of Private Law, Alan Calnan Jan 2010

The Instrumental Justice Of Private Law, Alan Calnan

Alan Calnan

Instrumentalists and deontologists have long battled for an exclusive theory of private law. The instrumentalists have argued that private law is merely a means to achieving any number of political or social ends. Deontologists, by contrast, have contended that the law seeks only the moral end of justice and cannot be used for anything else. In this article, I critique these extreme positions and offer an intermediate theory called “instrumental justice.” I show that the absolute instrumental view is elusive, illusory, and illiberal, while the absolute deontological view is incoherent, implausible, and in one critical respect, impossible. Instrumental justice avoids ...


Free Movement Of Judgments: Increasing Deterrence Of International Cartels Through Jurisdictional Reliance, Michal Gal Jan 2010

Free Movement Of Judgments: Increasing Deterrence Of International Cartels Through Jurisdictional Reliance, Michal Gal

Michal Gal

This article challenges the conventional wisdom that not much can be done under the existing atomistic system of antitrust enforcement to solve the problem of sub-optimal deterrence of international cartels. Low deterrence results from two main facts: first, international cartels are generally prosecuted by only a fraction of the jurisdictions harmed by them. Second, monetary sanctions imposed by those jurisdictions are generally based only on the harm incurred to their domestic markets. To solve this problem, this article proposes a novel legal tool that would enable countries to adopt and rely upon foreign findings of international hard-core cartels, provided that ...


Inducing Corporate Compliance: A Law And Economics Analysis Of Corporate Liability Regimes By Sharon Oded: Discussion, Carlo Drago Sep 2009

Inducing Corporate Compliance: A Law And Economics Analysis Of Corporate Liability Regimes By Sharon Oded: Discussion, Carlo Drago

Carlo Drago

No abstract provided.


Penalizing Punitive Damages: Why The Supreme Court Needs A Lesson In Law & Economics, Steve P. Calandrillo Jul 2009

Penalizing Punitive Damages: Why The Supreme Court Needs A Lesson In Law & Economics, Steve P. Calandrillo

Steve P. Calandrillo

Last fall’s landmark Supreme Court decision addressing punitive damages in the infamous Exxon Valdez oil spill case has brought the issue of punitive awards back into the legal limelight. Modern Supreme Court jurisprudence, most notably BMW, State Farm, Philip Morris, and now Exxon Valdez in 2008, have concluded that such judgments are justified to punish morally reprehensible behavior and to “send a message” to evildoers. However, the Court has increasingly emphasized that the U.S. Constitution’s Due Process Clause presumptively limits punitive awards, drawing an arbitrary line in the sand of no more than ten times actual damages ...


Exporting Class Actions To The European Union, Tiana Leia Russell Apr 2009

Exporting Class Actions To The European Union, Tiana Leia Russell

Tiana Leia Russell

In this paper, I present the theoretical debates regarding the value of class action litigation, both with respect to compensation and deterrence. I begin by reviewing the class action litigation model in the United States. The paper then explores the current state of private antitrust enforcement in the European Union, with specific focus on the availability of class action litigation within Europe. I discuss recent calls within the European Union for greater private enforcement of competition law and outline steps the Commission has taken in addressing that need, including the recently published White Paper on Damages for Breach of EC ...


The Non-Proliferation Treaty As A Non-Factor: The True Foundations Of The Nonproliferation Regime, Kenneth J. Duvall Mar 2009

The Non-Proliferation Treaty As A Non-Factor: The True Foundations Of The Nonproliferation Regime, Kenneth J. Duvall

Kenneth J Duvall

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is apparently one of the more crucial legal tools in the world. Yet even the most ardent supporters of the NPT now acknowledge its deficiencies. The NPT’s failings have led to a situation where neither states with nuclear weapons nor those without such armament are pleased with the current state of affairs. Nonetheless, virtually all scholars and policy-makers continue to maintain that the NPT can and must be fixed in order to sustain the nonproliferation regime. This Note contends that the inadequacy of the NPT exists at such a fundamental ...


Happiness And Punishment (With J. Bronsteen & J. Masur), Christopher J. Buccafusco Jan 2009

Happiness And Punishment (With J. Bronsteen & J. Masur), Christopher J. Buccafusco

Christopher J. Buccafusco

This article continues our project to apply groundbreaking new literature on the behavioral psychology of human happiness to some of the most deeply analyzed questions in law. Here we explain that the new psychological understandings of happiness interact in startling ways with the leading theories of criminal punishment. Punishment theorists, both retributivist and utilitarian, have failed to account for human beings' ability to adapt to changed circumstances, including fines and (surprisingly) imprisonment. At the same time, these theorists have largely ignored the severe hedonic losses brought about by the post-prison social and economic deprivations (unemployment, divorce, and disease) caused by ...


In With The New, Out With The Old: Expanding The Scope Of Retroactive Amelioration, S. David Mitchell Jan 2009

In With The New, Out With The Old: Expanding The Scope Of Retroactive Amelioration, S. David Mitchell

S. David Mitchell

The legislative decision to amend a statute and reduce a sentence but not to apply it retroactively to pending prosecutions or to finalized convictions is in accord with the principles of retroactivity, but contrary to legitimate goals of punishment, i.e. deterrence and retributivism. Genarlow Wilson, convicted at seventeen of aggravated child molestation, a felony, for consensual oral sex with a fifteen-year old classmate, was sentenced to a mandatory minimum of ten years. While his appeal was pending, the Georgia Legislature reclassified the conduct as a misdemeanor and reduced the sentence to a maximum of one year but decided not ...


Reforming Securities Litigation Reform: A Proposal For Restructuring The Relationship Between Public And Private Enforcement Of Rule 10b-5, Amanda M. Rose Oct 2008

Reforming Securities Litigation Reform: A Proposal For Restructuring The Relationship Between Public And Private Enforcement Of Rule 10b-5, Amanda M. Rose

Amanda M Rose

Forthcoming in Columbia Law Review, Vol. 108, No. 6 (Oct. 2008)

For years, commentators have debated how to reform the controversial Rule 10b-5 class action, without pausing to ask whether the game is worth the candle. Is private enforcement of Rule 10b-5 worth preserving, or might we be better off with exclusive public enforcement? This fundamental and neglected question demands attention today more than ever. An academic consensus has now emerged that private enforcement of Rule 10b-5 cannot be defended on compensatory grounds, at least in its most common form (a fraud-on-the-market class action brought against a non-trading issuer). That ...


Entrapment And Terrorism, Dru Stevenson Mar 2007

Entrapment And Terrorism, Dru Stevenson

Dru Stevenson

The thesis of this article is that the unique nature of terrorist crime requires a tweaking of the entrapment rules. The entrapment defense is our legal system’s primary mechanism for regulating government sting operations. I argue that sting operations and surveillance are conceptually distinct (or rival) methods of law enforcement, which compete for resource allocation. If an enforcement agency favors one method, it shifts resources away from the other. To the extent that we dislike panoptic government surveillance, we can steer enforcement agencies away from it by encouraging targeted stings; and we can achieve this, in part, by adapting ...


Wrongful Abortion: A Wrong In Search Of A Remedy, Ronen Perry, Yehuda Adar Aug 2005

Wrongful Abortion: A Wrong In Search Of A Remedy, Ronen Perry, Yehuda Adar

Ronen Perry

Wrongful abortion is an abortion that a pregnant woman is induced to undergo by a negligent conduct (usually a medical misrepresentation). For example, early in her pregnancy a woman is told by her physician that a medication that she had taken would cause her baby to be born with a severe birth defect. Based on the expert opinion, she decides to undergo an abortion. Only after the abortion does she learn that the advice regarding the baby's health was a negligent misrepresentation, and that the termination of the pregnancy was unnecessary. Underlying our article is a fundamental intuition that ...