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Full-Text Articles in Law

Defeat Fascism, Transform Democracy: Mapping Academic Resources, Reframing The Fundamentals, And Organizing For Collective Actions, Francisco Valdes Jan 2024

Defeat Fascism, Transform Democracy: Mapping Academic Resources, Reframing The Fundamentals, And Organizing For Collective Actions, Francisco Valdes

Seattle University Law Review

The information we gathered during 2021–2023 shows that critical faculty and other academic resources are present throughout most of U.S. legal academia. Counting only full-time faculty, our limited research identified 778 contacts in 200 schools equating to nearly four contacts on average per school. But no organized critical “core” had coalesced within legal academia or, more broadly, throughout higher education expressly dedicated to defending and advancing critical knowledge and its production up to now. And yet, as the 2021–2022 formation of the Critical (Legal) Collective (“CLC”) outlined below demonstrates, many academics sense or acknowledge the need for greater cohesion among …


The Uncertain Future Of Constitutional Democracy In The Era Of Populism: Chile And Beyond, Samuel Issacharoff, Sergio Verdugo Oct 2023

The Uncertain Future Of Constitutional Democracy In The Era Of Populism: Chile And Beyond, Samuel Issacharoff, Sergio Verdugo

University of Miami Law Review

Largely missing from the extensive discussions of populism and illiberal democracy is the emerging question of 21st century constitutionalism. Nowadays, it is hard to see relevant constitutional changes without a strong appeal to direct popular political participation. Institutional mechanisms such as referenda, citizens’ assemblies, and constitutional conventions emerge as near-universal parts of the canon of every academic and political discussion on how constitutions should be enacted and amended. This Article’s aim is to offer a cautionary approach to the way participatory mechanisms can work in constitution-making and to stress the difference between the power to ratify constitutional proposals and the …


Press Freedom Under Threat In Europe: A Case Study Analysis Of The Increasing Threat To Press Freedom In Greece, Italy, And Hungary, Maya O'Leary-Cyr Dec 2022

Press Freedom Under Threat In Europe: A Case Study Analysis Of The Increasing Threat To Press Freedom In Greece, Italy, And Hungary, Maya O'Leary-Cyr

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research critically examines the legal systems of European countries and their relationship to press freedom. This research focuses on the vexatious legal threats used by government officials and corporations to silence journalists. These legal threats are known as SLAPPs (strategic lawsuits against public participation) and their use has increased exponentially in the last decade. Considering the scope of the problem, this research analyzes the issue through the lens of European countries Greece, Italy, and Hungary. Being members of the European Union, each of these countries have an obligation to uphold the democratic standards put forth by the EU as …


The Role Of Recognition In Kelsen's Account Of Legal Obligation And Political Duty, David Ingram Sep 2022

The Role Of Recognition In Kelsen's Account Of Legal Obligation And Political Duty, David Ingram

Philosophy: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Kelsen’s critique of absolute sovereignty famously appeals to a basic norm of international recognition. However, in his discussion of legal obligation, generally speaking, he notoriously rejects mutual recognition as having any normative consequence. I argue that this apparent contradiction in Kelsen's estimate regarding the normative force of recognition is resolved in his dynamic account of the democratic generation of law. Democracy is embedded within a modern political ethos that obligates legal subjects to recognize each other along four dimensions: as contractors whose mutually beneficial cooperation measures esteem by fair standards of contribution; as autonomous agents endowed with equal rights; as …


Enforcing Interstate Compacts In Federal Systems, Michael Osborn Mar 2022

Enforcing Interstate Compacts In Federal Systems, Michael Osborn

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

The central goal of a federal system is for local government units to retain degrees of independence, specifically over matters of importance to that local unit. A logical corollary to that independence is the ability for local units to negotiate and contract with other local units on matters of importance. Therefore, it is not surprising that almost every federal system allows, either implicitly or explicitly, member states to form binding compacts with other states, the union government, or municipalities.1 Some federal democracies even allow member states to compact with foreign governments. Furthermore, almost every federal constitution includes a provision outlining …


Retooling Sanctions: China’S Challenge To The Liberal International Order, Timothy Webster Jan 2022

Retooling Sanctions: China’S Challenge To The Liberal International Order, Timothy Webster

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Tom Ginsburg has produced yet another classic of transnational law, political science, and international relations. Democracies and International Law yields important insights into the democratic nature of international law but cautions that authoritarian states can apply these very legal technologies for repressive or anti-democratic purposes. Building on Ginsburg’s theories of mimicry and repurposing, this contribution highlights the role of both techniques in the creation of China’s economic sanctions program. On the one hand, China has developed a basic set of tools to impose economic sanctions—a key instrument in the liberal international toolkit—on foreign entities and persons. In so doing, …


Pembubaran Partai Politik Di Indonesia, Ahmad Iskandar Nasution Jul 2021

Pembubaran Partai Politik Di Indonesia, Ahmad Iskandar Nasution

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

The indonesian state in democracy always tries to guarantee the rights of its citizens to freedom of association and assembly. This guarantee of human rights is enshrined in the constitution, Undang-Undang Dasar 1945. The right of association and assembly is a vehicle for establishing a political party. In the dynamics of the state, it is always related to the dynamics of political parties. This political party plays a major role in determining the policy direction and goals of a country. The development of a political party can also shake a country, so the need for restrictions on the establishment …


Rule Of Law And Human Rights: Strengthening Democratic Institutions, Claudia Martin, Diego Rodriguez-Pinzon Jan 2021

Rule Of Law And Human Rights: Strengthening Democratic Institutions, Claudia Martin, Diego Rodriguez-Pinzon

American University International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rise Of Illiberal Democracy, Weakening Of The Rule Of Law, & Implementation Of Human Rights In The Philippines, Gemmo Bautista Fernandez Jan 2021

Rise Of Illiberal Democracy, Weakening Of The Rule Of Law, & Implementation Of Human Rights In The Philippines, Gemmo Bautista Fernandez

American University International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fracking The Bedrock Of Democracy: The United States Policing Of Protests Violates The Right Of Peaceful Assembly Under The Iccpr, Olivia Moulds Jan 2021

Fracking The Bedrock Of Democracy: The United States Policing Of Protests Violates The Right Of Peaceful Assembly Under The Iccpr, Olivia Moulds

American University International Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Vulnerable Sovereign, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2021

The Vulnerable Sovereign, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

The connection between sovereignty and law is fundamental for both domestic (internal sovereignty) and the international (external sovereignty) purposes. As the dominant forms of government have evolved over time, so has the way in which we think about sovereignty. Consideration of the historical evolution of the concept of sovereignty offers insight into how we think of sovereignty today. A term that was born to represent the relationship between the governor and the governed has become a term that is used to represent the relationships between and among states in the global legal order. This article traces the history of the …


An Umbrella Of Autonomy: The Validity Of The Hong Kong Protests, Ciera Lehmann Dec 2020

An Umbrella Of Autonomy: The Validity Of The Hong Kong Protests, Ciera Lehmann

Senior Honors Theses

Hong Kong has been fighting for democracy and to retain its autonomy from China, and the world has been watching. Over time, Hong Kongers have seen Beijing blatantly tighten its grip before time was up for the fifty-year agreement since the handover in 1997. In 2014, and again in 2019, hundreds of thousands of citizens filled the streets to participate in pro-democracy demonstrations with the protests only gaining momentum and influence. While there has mostly been support for Hong Kong’s independence movement, there has been argument that Beijing’s actions are completely justified. Should Hong Kong remain autonomous from China, and …


Inter-American Commission On Human Rights' Observer At The Amia Bombing Trial, Claudio Grossman Jan 2020

Inter-American Commission On Human Rights' Observer At The Amia Bombing Trial, Claudio Grossman

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Book Review Of The Riddle Of All Constitutions: International Law, Democracy, And The Critique Of Ideology, Evan J. Criddle Sep 2019

Book Review Of The Riddle Of All Constitutions: International Law, Democracy, And The Critique Of Ideology, Evan J. Criddle

Evan J. Criddle

No abstract provided.


Extraterritoriality And The Regulatory Power Of The United States: Featured Issues Of Sovereignty, Legitimacy, Accountability, And Democracy, Alina Veneziano Jan 2019

Extraterritoriality And The Regulatory Power Of The United States: Featured Issues Of Sovereignty, Legitimacy, Accountability, And Democracy, Alina Veneziano

University of Baltimore Journal of International Law

Extraterritoriality is a negative form of transnationalism. It creates a paradox among state regulatory power because extraterritoriality can both govern the conduct of the state and also constrain the state in reacting to future transnational changes. In governing the state, extraterritoriality provides the state with the power to impose standards to control the activities within its borders. On the other hand, extraterritorialty constrains the state by hindering multi-state progression towards more efficient transnational developments. States have traditionally captured their autonomy in sovereignty, but extraterritorialty challenges this notion. This was an inevitable result, as extraterritoriality became a natural consequence that resulted …


Beyond Samuel Moyn's Countermajoritatian Difficulty As A Model Of Global Judicial Review, James T. Gathii Jan 2019

Beyond Samuel Moyn's Countermajoritatian Difficulty As A Model Of Global Judicial Review, James T. Gathii

Faculty Publications & Other Works

This Article responds to Samuel Moyn's critique of judicial review and his endorsement of judicial modesty as an alternative. By invoking the countermajoritarian difficulty, Moyn argues that judicial overreach has become an unwelcome global phenomenon that should be reexamined and curbed. I reject Moyn's claim that this kind of judicial modesty should define the role of courts for all time. By applying the countermajoritarian difficulty beyond its United States origins, Moyn assumes it is an unproblematic baseline against which to measure the role of courts globally. Moyn's vision says nothing about when it would be appropriate for courts to rule …


The Dual Lives Of The Emerging Right To Democratic Governance, Gregory H. Fox, Brad R. Roth Jan 2018

The Dual Lives Of The Emerging Right To Democratic Governance, Gregory H. Fox, Brad R. Roth

Law Faculty Research Publications

No abstract provided.


Jeremy I. Levitt's Africa: Mapping New Boundaries In International Law (Book Review), Makau Mutua Nov 2017

Jeremy I. Levitt's Africa: Mapping New Boundaries In International Law (Book Review), Makau Mutua

Makau Mutua

This is a review of Jeremy Levitt’s edited collection of chapters in Africa: Mapping the Boundaries of International Law, which is an impressive work to the dearth of scholarship on Africa’s contribution to the normative substance and theory of international law. The book explicitly seeks to counter the racist mythology that Africans were tabula rasa in international law. In his own introduction to the book, Levitt makes it clear that “Africa is a legal marketplace, not a lawless basket case.” The eight contributors to the book are renowned scholars who make the case that Africa is not stuck in pre-history …


Beyond Westphalia: Competitive Legalization In Emerging Transnational Regulatory Systems, Errol E. Meidinger Nov 2017

Beyond Westphalia: Competitive Legalization In Emerging Transnational Regulatory Systems, Errol E. Meidinger

Errol Meidinger

Published as Chapter 7 in Law and Legalization in Transnational Relations, Christian Brütsch & Dirk Lehmkuhl, eds.

This paper analyzes several emerging transnational regulatory systems that engage, but are not centered on state legal systems. Driven primarily by civil society organizations, the new regulatory systems use conventional technical standard setting and certification techniques to establish market-leveraged, social and environmental regulatory programs. These programs resemble state regulatory programs in many important respects, and are increasingly legalized. Individual sectors generally have multiple regulatory programs that compete with, but also mimic and reinforce each other. While forestry is the most developed example, similar …


Clash Of The Titans: A Comparative Approach To Reform Of Judicial Accountability In Egypt, Shams Al Din Al Hajjaji Oct 2017

Clash Of The Titans: A Comparative Approach To Reform Of Judicial Accountability In Egypt, Shams Al Din Al Hajjaji

Seattle University Law Review

This Article argues for the reform of judicial accountability rules in Egypt. The lack of a real separation of powers and “checks and balances” between the three powers often leads the judiciary to become a periphery in the executive body, rather than an independent authority that invigilates and monitors any violation of the law. Judges who refuse to comply with executive wishes are often subjected to persecution from the Ministry of Justice and its Judicial Inspection Department, which can reach up to the level of impeachment. The Ministry of Justice uses judicial accountability as a tool of retribution over disobedient …


Transnational Constitution-Making: The Contribution Of The Venice Commission On Law And Democracy, Paul Craig Jan 2017

Transnational Constitution-Making: The Contribution Of The Venice Commission On Law And Democracy, Paul Craig

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission. While part of the Council of Europe, the Venice Commission is much less understood than the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), notwithstanding the existing literature. This chapter therefore seeks to explicate and evaluate. It begins by explicating the organizational foundations of the Venice Commission, followed by analysis of its remit and role. The focus then shifts to triggering and working methodology.

The remainder of the article is concerned with evaluation of the Commission’s role in relation to constitution-making as broadly conceived, the analysis being situated within the literature …


Complexity Analysis: A Preliminary Step Toward A General Systems Theory Of International Law, James L. Hildebrand Jun 2016

Complexity Analysis: A Preliminary Step Toward A General Systems Theory Of International Law, James L. Hildebrand

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Expanding Standing To Develop Democracy: Third Party Public Interest Standing As A Tool For Emerging Democracies, Aparna Polavarapu Jan 2016

Expanding Standing To Develop Democracy: Third Party Public Interest Standing As A Tool For Emerging Democracies, Aparna Polavarapu

Faculty Publications

Standing doctrine can play an outsized role in marginalized groups' ability to protect their constitutional rights. The cultural and political dynamics in developing countries routinely undermine the proper functions of the democratic system and make it unlikely that those parties most directly deprived of their rights will be heard by elected legislatures or be able to directly access courts. The vindication of their rights and the rule of law itself depend on the ability of others to litigate on their behalf. Thus, this article argues for the expansion of standing doctrine to protect the democratic ideal in emerging democracies. Using …


Democracy And Torture, Patrick A. Maurer Jan 2016

Democracy And Torture, Patrick A. Maurer

Patrick A Maurer

September 11th spawned an era of political changes to fundamental rights. The focus of this discussion is to highlight Guantanamo Bay torture incidents. This analysis will explore the usages of torture from a legal standpoint in the United States.


Democracy And Torture, Patrick A. Maurer Oct 2015

Democracy And Torture, Patrick A. Maurer

Patrick A Maurer

September 11th spawned an era of political changes to fundamental rights. The focus of this discussion is to highlight Guantanamo Bay torture incidents. This analysis will explore the usages of torture from a legal standpoint in the United States.


Legal Standards For Intervention In Internal Conflicts, John N. Moore Apr 2015

Legal Standards For Intervention In Internal Conflicts, John N. Moore

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Descendants Of Realism?: Policy-Oriented International Lawyers As Guardians Of Democracy, Hengameh Saberi Feb 2015

Descendants Of Realism?: Policy-Oriented International Lawyers As Guardians Of Democracy, Hengameh Saberi

Hengameh Saberi

No abstract provided.


State Practice As Metaphor: A Reconciliation Approach, Patrick Kelly Jan 2015

State Practice As Metaphor: A Reconciliation Approach, Patrick Kelly

Patrick Kelly

State practice as metaphor is a broader idea than the empirical role of state practice in the formation of custom. State practice as used in this journal is a metaphor for all the methods and processes to increase the democratic legitimacy of international norms including not only the practices of states, but also other forms of representation by which citizens express their views. Increasingly norms are articulated and influenced by non-governmental organizations, private standard setting groups, quasi-public entities such as the Inter-Parliamentary Union and transgovernmental organizations such as the Basle Committee on Banking Supervision. With the advent of the internet, …


Property And Political Community: Democracy, Oligarchy, And The Case Of Ukraine, Monica E. Eppinger Jan 2015

Property And Political Community: Democracy, Oligarchy, And The Case Of Ukraine, Monica E. Eppinger

All Faculty Scholarship

Widening wealth gaps in Western democracies have brought new scrutiny to relationships between property and political community. For the prior quarter century, Western legal scholars have urged privatization around the globe as the key to a virtuous circle of "market democracy." This Article traces origins of the market democracy consensus to ideas that identify positive features of political community -- liberty, wealth, or democracy -- with private property ownership. Fieldwork in Ukraine, where Western privatization advice was followed at a time of founding a new polity, provides data to compare predictions with outcomes. Two unexpected figures -- the Oligarch and …


Democracy's Struggle Against Terrorism: The Powers Of Military Commanders To Decide Upon The Demolition Of Houses, The Imposition Of Curfews, Blockades, Encirclements And The Declaration Of An Area As A Closed Military Area, Emanuel Gross Oct 2014

Democracy's Struggle Against Terrorism: The Powers Of Military Commanders To Decide Upon The Demolition Of Houses, The Imposition Of Curfews, Blockades, Encirclements And The Declaration Of An Area As A Closed Military Area, Emanuel Gross

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.