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Articles 1 - 30 of 97

Full-Text Articles in Law

A Comprehensive Framework For Conflict Preemption In Federal Insolvency Proceedings, Robert W. Miller Dec 2020

A Comprehensive Framework For Conflict Preemption In Federal Insolvency Proceedings, Robert W. Miller

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Low Usage Of Bankruptcy Procedures: A Cultural Problem? Lessons From Spain, Aurelio Gurrea-Martínez Jul 2020

The Low Usage Of Bankruptcy Procedures: A Cultural Problem? Lessons From Spain, Aurelio Gurrea-Martínez

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

While filing for bankruptcy does not seem appealing for any debtor regardless of the jurisdiction, the reluctance to use the bankruptcy system varies across countries. This article explores the underlying reasons and economic effects of the low usage of bankruptcy procedures in Spain, where the rate of business bankruptcies is one of the lowest in the world. Some authors have argued that the low usage of bankruptcy procedures in Spain is due to a “cultural” problem faced by Spanish entrepreneurs. According to this hypothesis, the lack of a “bankruptcy culture” makes Spanish entrepreneurs afraid to use the bankruptcy system. In ...


Bankruptcy Courts Are Largely Unavailable To Cannabis-Related Debtors But Not Off-Limits, Cameron Purcell Jan 2020

Bankruptcy Courts Are Largely Unavailable To Cannabis-Related Debtors But Not Off-Limits, Cameron Purcell

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Although title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) does not explicitly prohibit cannabis businesses from filing for bankruptcy, there are many hurdles that continue to preclude cannabis industry participants from obtaining bankruptcy relief. Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code provides a debtor with an opportunity to reorganize its financial affairs in order to continue to operate while providing the fair and equitable distribution among creditors. When the continuation of the debtor’s business is not viable, chapter 7 of the Bankruptcy Code provides a court-supervised procedure for liquidating the debtor’s assets to pay creditors. Under ...


Christianity And Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr. Dec 2019

Christianity And Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Although the term “bankruptcy” is nowhere to be found in the Bible, debt and the consequences of default are a major theme both in the Hebrew Bible and in the New Testament. In Israel, as in the ancient Near East generally, a debtor who defaulted on his obligations was often sold into slavery or servitude. Biblical law moderated the harshness of this system by prohibiting Israelites from charging interest on loans to one another, thus diminishing the risk of default, and by requiring the release of slaves after seven years of service. Jesus alluded to the lending laws at least ...


Optimal Deterrence And The Preference Gap, Brook E. Gotberg Jan 2018

Optimal Deterrence And The Preference Gap, Brook E. Gotberg

Faculty Publications

This Article is the first of its kind to argue that preference law is ineffective as a deterrent of collection behavior based on empirical evidence, drawn from interviews of actors within the field-debtors, creditors, and the attorneys who represented them in bankruptcy proceedings. This Article reports on interviews of sampled individuals who participated in successful 7 Chapter 11 reorganization cases involving preference actions. The overwhelming and indisputable conclusion from these interviews is that creditors may adjust their behavior in response to preference law, but not in ways that further the purported goal of preference deterrence. Accordingly, if preference law is ...


Ending Litigation And Financial Windfalls On Time-Barred Debts, Marc C. Mcallister Jan 2018

Ending Litigation And Financial Windfalls On Time-Barred Debts, Marc C. Mcallister

Washington and Lee Law Review

A trap for unsophisticated debtors, debt collectors often attempt to collect time-barred debts through written offers to settle those debts for a fraction of what is owed. Debtors typically respond to such offers in one of four ways. First, some debtors simply pay the offered settlement amount, usually 10%–40% of the total outstanding debt, thereby satisfying the debt in full. Second, those who wish to eliminate the debt but cannot pay the entire offered settlement amount will instead make a small payment, unwittingly reviving the statute of limitations on collections and making the entire debt judicially enforceable for several ...


Balancing Consumer Protection And Commercial Viability: The Impact Of The New Hardship Provisions In The Nccp Enhancements Act, Francina Cantatore May 2015

Balancing Consumer Protection And Commercial Viability: The Impact Of The New Hardship Provisions In The Nccp Enhancements Act, Francina Cantatore

Francina Cantatore

This paper considers the impact of the new Hardship Provisions in the Consumer Credit Legislation Amendment (Enhancements) Bill 2012 (“the Bill”) on credit providers. It focuses on, firstly, identifying the scope of the amendments, which are distinctly consumer orientated; secondly, it examines problematic issues arising from the wording and application of the new provisions, including a discussion of refusals of and disagreements on hardship variations; and, lastly, it considers the impact of complaint fees charged by the External Dispute Resolution schemes, Financial Ombudsman Services (“FOS”) and Credit Ombudsman Services (“COSL”) [now Credit and Investments Ombudsman (“CIO”)].


A Sea Change In Creditor Priorities, Kristen Van De Biezenbos Apr 2015

A Sea Change In Creditor Priorities, Kristen Van De Biezenbos

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article argues that the operation of maritime law undermines a primary justification for creditor priorities under U.S. law. Under current law, when a debtor becomes insolvent, its secured creditors will be paid the full amount of their debt to the extent of their security interest, even if that leaves nothing to pay unsecured creditors. This is controversial with respect to involuntary unsecured creditors, particularly those with tort claims against the debtor. Defenders of this scheme of priorities have argued that allowing greater priority to involuntary creditors would hinder the availability or increase the cost of credit. However, involuntary ...


Cancellation Of Debt And Related Transactions, Douglas A. Kahn, Jeffrey H. Kahn Jan 2015

Cancellation Of Debt And Related Transactions, Douglas A. Kahn, Jeffrey H. Kahn

Articles

If a taxpayer borrows money, the borrowed funds are not included in the taxpayer's gross income. That treatment is proper even though the taxpayer has increased his assets by the amount he borrowed because he also has created a corresponding liability to pay back the loan. The taxpayer's net: wealth has not increased. 'The more difficult and interesting questions arise when the taxpayer fails to repay the loan. At first blush, it would appear that upon cancellation of a loan, the taxpayer should have income for the amount that was cancelled. However, the current tax treatment is not ...


Discharging Student Loans Via Bankruptcy: Undue Hardship Doctrine In The First Circuit, Anthony Bowers Dec 2014

Discharging Student Loans Via Bankruptcy: Undue Hardship Doctrine In The First Circuit, Anthony Bowers

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Student loans are presumptively non-dischargeable through bankruptcy, but the undue hardship doctrine provides an equitable “safety valve” for the indigent. To date, the United States First Circuit Court of Appeals has yet to select a single legal test for determining undue hardship under the United States Bankruptcy Code (“Bankruptcy Code”). Within the jurisdiction of the First Circuit, bankruptcy courts are free to choose an approach to evaluate undue hardship. In an effort to ensure consistency throughout the bankruptcy courts within the First Circuit, it would be ideal if the First Circuit would choose one of the undue hardship tests. However ...


The Changing Practice Of Bankruptcy Law: An Analysis Of How Bankruptcy Practice Has Changed In The Last Decade, Michael Goldstein, Samantha Einhorn, Jill L. Phillips Dec 2014

The Changing Practice Of Bankruptcy Law: An Analysis Of How Bankruptcy Practice Has Changed In The Last Decade, Michael Goldstein, Samantha Einhorn, Jill L. Phillips

University of Massachusetts Law Review

The practice of bankruptcy law has changed drastically over the last decade. An attorney starting out in the field in 2009 faces different issue than one who began in 1999. However, it’s not just the issues that come up with clients that make the practice so different, but the law of bankruptcy itself has changed. The economic downturn of the last eighteen months has changed the way the public views bankruptcy. The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2005 and In re Bateman, a case decided in 2008, altered the landscape of bankruptcy practice forever. This article will walk through a ...


Meaningful Involvement In Collections: Should Ethics Or The Fdcpa Govern?, Jeffrey S. Peters Dec 2014

Meaningful Involvement In Collections: Should Ethics Or The Fdcpa Govern?, Jeffrey S. Peters

Pace Law Review

This Note will explain and analyze the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) and its case law. It will also discuss the interplay between the FDCPA case law and its ethical overtones. To understand the basis of this issue, Part II of this Note will begin by briefly developing the history and background of the FDCPA and discuss specific sections of the law designed to protect debtors from abusive debt collection practices. Notably, these sections relate to the prevention of improper practices for misleading debtors, and are the focus of the lawsuits that this Note will discuss. Accordingly, Part III ...


House Swaps: A Strategic Bankruptcy Solution To The Foreclosure Crisis, Lynn M. Lopucki Mar 2014

House Swaps: A Strategic Bankruptcy Solution To The Foreclosure Crisis, Lynn M. Lopucki

Michigan Law Review

Since the price peak in 2006, home values have fallen more than 30 percent, leaving millions of Americans with negative equity in their homes. Until the Supreme Court’s 1993 decision in Nobelman v. American Savings Bank, the bankruptcy system would have provided many such homeowners with a remedy. They could have filed bankruptcy, discharged the negative equity, committed to pay the mortgage holders the full values of their homes, and retained those homes. In Nobelman, however, the Court misinterpreted reasonably clear statutory language and invented legislative history to resolve a three-to-one split of circuits in favor of the minority ...


A Capital Market, Corporate Law Approach To Creditor Conduct, Mark J. Roe, Frederico Cenzi Venezze Oct 2013

A Capital Market, Corporate Law Approach To Creditor Conduct, Mark J. Roe, Frederico Cenzi Venezze

Michigan Law Review

The problem of creditor conduct in a distressed firm—-for which policymakers ought to have the distressed firm’s economically sensible repositioning as a central goal—-has vexed courts for decades. Because courts have not come to coherent, stable doctrine to regulate creditor behavior and because they do not focus on building doctrinal structures that would facilitate the sensible repositioning of the distressed firm, social costs arise and those costs may be substantial. One can easily see why developing a good rule here has been hard to achieve: A rule that facilitates creditor intervention in the debtor’s operations beyond ...


The Borrower's Tale: A History Of Poor Debtors In Lochner Era New York City, Anne Fleming Nov 2012

The Borrower's Tale: A History Of Poor Debtors In Lochner Era New York City, Anne Fleming

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This study adds to the recent scholarship on Progressivism in practice—fine-grained, place-based studies of reform at the local level—but focuses closely on the relationships among reformers, industry, and the law that an earlier generation of historians studied at the national level and outlined in broad brushstrokes. This study also builds upon the creditor-centered work of historians such as Mark H. Haller and John V. Alviti, but moves beyond their reliance upon distinctions and categories, such as those separating profit making credit providers from philanthropic credit providers, which were less important to borrowers than they have been for historians ...


The Law Of Ponzi Payouts, Spencer A. Winters Oct 2012

The Law Of Ponzi Payouts, Spencer A. Winters

Michigan Law Review

When a Ponzi scheme collapses, there will typically be net winners and net losers. The bankruptcy trustee will often seek to force the net winners - those who received more money back from the Ponzi scheme than they invested - to disgorge their profits. Courts diverge on whether they should compel disgorgement in this instance. This Note argues that under prevailing fraudulent transfer law, net winners in a Ponzi scheme need not disgorge their profits. This is because the investor's dollar-for-dollar discharge of a preexisting debt constitutes the transfer of value in exchange for the payout. There are two exceptions to ...


Bankruptcy And The Myth Of "Uniform Laws", Daniel Austin May 2012

Bankruptcy And The Myth Of "Uniform Laws", Daniel Austin

Daniel A. Austin

The Bankruptcy Clause of the Constitution empowers Congress to enact “uniform Laws on the subject of bankruptcies.” Common definitions of the word uniform include “always the same” and “not variable.” Yet the rights and remedies of debtors and creditors in a bankruptcy case vary significantly depending upon the state and federal jurisdiction in which the case is filed. Rather than a single uniform law of bankruptcy, the U.S. has multiple bankruptcy laws and regimes based upon geography.

The cause of bankruptcy nonuniformity lies in the structure of our bankruptcy system. Many sections of the Bankruptcy Code incorporate state law ...


Undocumented Debtors, Chrystin Ondersma Apr 2012

Undocumented Debtors, Chrystin Ondersma

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Undocumented immigrants in financial distress are barred from seeking many forms of assistance. Bankruptcy is one tool that is, in theory, available to undocumented debtors because legal status is not a prerequisite to bankruptcy relief. This Article explores undocumented debtors' interactions with the bankruptcy system. Undocumented debtors face both formal and informal barriers to bankruptcy filing, including fear of deportation, misinformation, and the legal requirement that the debtor produce financial records. It is both possible and desirable to ease many of these barriers. Bankruptcy relief facilitates the rehabilitation of debtors in financial distress, contributes to the economic well-being of the ...


Considerations For Private Equity Firms When Utilizing Chapter 11 New Value Deals, Alexandra Wilde Jan 2012

Considerations For Private Equity Firms When Utilizing Chapter 11 New Value Deals, Alexandra Wilde

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The new value exception to the Chapter 11 absolute priority rule provides a narrow avenue for equity holders to retain an equity interest in a reorganized company over the objections of senior creditors and interest holders. With the increasing number of Chapter 11 reorganization filings by private equity owned companies, private equity firms may be interested in exploring ways to retain their equity ownership in the debtor company. This Note explores the unique implications a private equity firm may encounter when attempting to utilize the new value exception as a last resort to maintain ownership in a debtor company. Part ...


A New Approach To Section 363(F)3, Evan F. Rosen Jun 2011

A New Approach To Section 363(F)3, Evan F. Rosen

Michigan Law Review

Section 363(f) of the Bankruptcy Code provides five circumstances in which a debtor may be permitted to sell property free of all claims and interests, outside of the ordinary course of business, and prior to plan confirmation. One of those five circumstances is contained in § 363(f)(3), which permits such a sale where the "interest is a lien and the price at which such property is to be sold is greater than the aggregate value of all liens on such property." While it is far from certain whether § 363(f)(3) requires a price "greater than the aggregate ...


The Rise In Elder Bankruptcy Filings And The Failure Of U.S. Bankruptcy Law, John A. E. Pottow Jan 2011

The Rise In Elder Bankruptcy Filings And The Failure Of U.S. Bankruptcy Law, John A. E. Pottow

Articles

Recent empirical legal scholarship on the consumer bankruptcy system has uncovered a marked rise in the proportion of elder Americans filing for relief under the Bankruptcy Code. But these studies have not probed the reasons behind that rise, an omission this Article seeks to address. Professor John Pottow and colleagues recently assembled the new dataset of the Consumer Bankruptcy Project (CBP), the largest national sample of consumer debtors in this country, which he uses to explore the sources of elder bankruptcy. The findings are both striking and ominous. While multiple factors, such as health problems and medical debts, contribute to ...


A New Role For Secondary Proceedings In International Bankruptcies, John A. E. Pottow Jan 2011

A New Role For Secondary Proceedings In International Bankruptcies, John A. E. Pottow

Articles

Secondary proceedings-the ugly stepsisters to main proceedings-get short shrift in international bankruptcy scholarship. This article seeks to remedy that deficiency. First, it describes what it argues are the traditional conceptions-both stated and implicit-of secondary proceedings in international bankruptcies. Second, it offers a revised way of thinking about secondary proceedings, proposing to restrict their scope through the use of "synthetic" hearings. Third, it addresses some problems with the proposed new role of secondary proceedings and sketches a possible solution involving the creation of an international priorities registry.


State Laws, Court Splits, Local Practice Make Consumer Bankruptcy Anything But "Uniform", Daniel Austin Dec 2010

State Laws, Court Splits, Local Practice Make Consumer Bankruptcy Anything But "Uniform", Daniel Austin

Daniel A. Austin

The Bankruptcy Clause allows Congress to establish “uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States.” Pursuant to this authority, the Bankruptcy Code, 11 U.S.C. §101 et seq., governs consumer bankruptcy in the U.S. As a federal statute, it might be expected that the Code would be applied in a relatively uniform manner throughout the U.S. However, state laws, judicial interpretation, and local practice can vary so significantly, that the relief and procedures available to a debtor in one state can be entirely different from what is available in another state.


Marriage And Law Reform: Lessons From The Nineteenth Century Michigan Married Women’S Property Acts, Ellen Dannin Apr 2010

Marriage And Law Reform: Lessons From The Nineteenth Century Michigan Married Women’S Property Acts, Ellen Dannin

Ellen Dannin

If law reform had the neat trajectory of a bullet from a smoking gun, life and law would be neater – but less interesting. This article began as a simple empirical study to test whether Michigan’s 1844 Married Women’s Property Act affected conveyancing.

When the results showed that it had no effect – that married women were included as grantors even before the MWPA made it legal for them to own property – the study expanded into a quest to identify the processes that led to its enactment and explained its operation on the family, a fundamental social institution. In that ...


Government Involvement In Chrysler Bankruptcy: The Least-Worst Alternative?, John A. E. Pottow Jan 2010

Government Involvement In Chrysler Bankruptcy: The Least-Worst Alternative?, John A. E. Pottow

Articles

As usual, my colleague Jim White has hit many nails on many heads. Also as usual, however, I’m going to be a pain and part ways with him a bit. First, was Chrysler’s bankruptcy “suspicious” in its use of section 363 of the Bankruptcy Code? You bet. Leaving aside the proliferation of 363 sales to swallow Chapter 11 as we once knew it, Chrysler was out in left field. Not only was it a “sale” of everything meaningful in the company, it was to a seller—Fiat—that put in no money. (To be fair, Fiat agreed to ...


Interpreting Data: A Reply To Professor Pardo, Robert M. Lawless, Angela K. Littwin, Katherine M. Porter, John A. E. Pottow, Deborah K. Thorne, Elizabeth Warren Jan 2009

Interpreting Data: A Reply To Professor Pardo, Robert M. Lawless, Angela K. Littwin, Katherine M. Porter, John A. E. Pottow, Deborah K. Thorne, Elizabeth Warren

Articles

Professor Pardo has published a pointed critique to our Report, raising three major complaints. First, he claims that we make two predicating assumptions in our study that are flawed. Second, he contends that we misunderstand the means test and fail to appreciate with sufficient "nuance" its "operative effect." Third, he maintains that our Report suffers from methodological problems. We can address the two impugned assumptions quickly. The first one - that BAPCPA's means test is the sole causal agent driving 800,000 putative filers from the bankruptcy courts - is not one we make. The second - regarding the income profiles of ...


Bankruptcy Vérité, Lynn M. Lopucki, Joseph W. Doherty Feb 2008

Bankruptcy Vérité, Lynn M. Lopucki, Joseph W. Doherty

Michigan Law Review

In the empirical study we report in Bankruptcy Fire Sales, we compared the recoveries from the going-concern bankruptcy sales of twenty-five large, public companies with the recoveries from the bankruptcy reorganizations of thirty large, public companies. We found that, controlling for the asset size of the company and its presale or pre-reorganization earnings ("EBITDA"), reorganization recoveries were more than double sale recovenes. We are honored that Professor James J. White has chosen to comment on our study. White is an eloquent defender of the status quo, pulls no punches, and always has something interesting to say. Bankruptcy Noir is no ...


Bankruptcy Noir, James J. White Jan 2008

Bankruptcy Noir, James J. White

Articles

In Bankruptcy Fire Sales, Professor LoPucki and Dr. Doherty do two things. First, they present provocative data about the relative payoff to be had in Chapter 11 by a full reorganization compared with the payoff from a section 363 sale without a full reorganization. Second, they give a yet more provocative explanation for their data. Taking a page from Professor LoPucki's recent book, they blame the meager return that they observe on 363 sales on the unprincipled behavior of the lawyers, managers, creditors, investment bankers, and even judges involved in the sales. Messrs. LoPucki and Doherty's data appear ...


Did Bankruptcy Reform Fail? An Empirical Study Of Consumer Debtors, Robert M. Lawless, Angela K. Littwin, Katherine M. Porter, John A. E. Pottow, Deborah K. Thorne, Elizabeth Warren Jan 2008

Did Bankruptcy Reform Fail? An Empirical Study Of Consumer Debtors, Robert M. Lawless, Angela K. Littwin, Katherine M. Porter, John A. E. Pottow, Deborah K. Thorne, Elizabeth Warren

Articles

Before 2005, many people went broke and many filed for bankruptcy. After 2005, many people still go broke, but not so many file for bankruptcy. Why has the number of bankruptcies declined? Surely it is not the economy. All throughout the 2000s, families have been under increasing economic pressure. Median family incomes have declined, basic expenses have risen, and families are shouldering unprecedented debt loads. Defaults remain high for credit cards and car loans, while mortgage foreclosures have soared. By 2008, over half of all Americans reported that their incomes were falling behind their cost of living. These data all ...


Individual Voluntary Arrangements And Consumer Debtors: Past, Present And Future, Adrian Walters Dec 2007

Individual Voluntary Arrangements And Consumer Debtors: Past, Present And Future, Adrian Walters

Adrian J Walters

No abstract provided.