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Full-Text Articles in Law

Taiwan's Medical Injury Law In Action, Chih-Ming Liang, Robert B Leflar, Chih-Cheng Wu Jan 2024

Taiwan's Medical Injury Law In Action, Chih-Ming Liang, Robert B Leflar, Chih-Cheng Wu

Emory International Law Review

Taiwan’s healthcare system, lauded internationally for its universal insurance coverage, moderate costs, and high quality of care, has one significant group of detractors: its physicians. Overworked, squeezed financially by the nation’s global budgeting system’s annual payment restrictions, and oppressed by both criminal prosecutions and civil malpractice actions, doctors and hospitals raised criticisms that culminated in legislative reforms enacted in 2017 and 2022. Are the reforms making any difference?

This Article offers the first comprehensive examination in English of how Taiwan’s medical injury law works. The Article is based on interviews with judges, attorneys, physicians, scholars, and other citizens, literature reviews, …


Criminal Subsidiaries, Andrew K. Jennings Jan 2024

Criminal Subsidiaries, Andrew K. Jennings

Faculty Articles

Corporate groups comprise parent companies and one or more subsidiaries, which parents use to manage liabilities, transactions, operations, and regulation. Those subsidiaries can also be used to manage criminal accountability when multiple entities within a corporate group share responsibility for a common offense. A parent, for instance, might reach a settlement with prosecutors that requires its subsidiary to plead guilty to a crime, without conviction of the parent itself—a subsidiary-only conviction (SOC). The parent will thus avoid bearing collateral consequences—such as contracting or industry bars—that would follow its own conviction. For the prosecutor, such settlements can respond to criminal law’s …


Criminal Liability For Artificial Intelligence Crimes, Yahya Ibrahim Dahshan Jun 2023

Criminal Liability For Artificial Intelligence Crimes, Yahya Ibrahim Dahshan

مجلة جامعة الإمارات للبحوث القانونية UAEU LAW JOURNAL

Artificial intelligence crimes are considered near future crimes If not some of them have now begun, Technological development has helped in recent years - Which accelerated in the current period - In the emergence of many of these crimes, The advanced programming of some Artificial intelligence machines has given the ability to build self-experience, Enabling them to make individual decisions in any situations they face like human beings; So we aim from this study legalization of Artificial intelligence crimes To determine the responsible for those crimes and the penalty is imposed on it; The importance of the subject lies in …


Proceed With Caution: Criminal Responsibility For Non-Participating Actors In University Hazing Incidents, Charlie Penrod Jan 2023

Proceed With Caution: Criminal Responsibility For Non-Participating Actors In University Hazing Incidents, Charlie Penrod

Touro Law Review

Hazing in university fraternities has become an epidemic. Most hazing involves new pledges who are coerced to endure physical, emotional, or psychological harm to prove themselves worthy of admission to the group. Sadly, many students suffer severe injuries from hazing, up to and including death. Many states have passed specific laws banning hazing and expanded the universe of persons guilty of hazing to possibly include non-participants who aided the hazing. In 2020, a Florida appellate court broadened this further, potentially holding a fraternity president responsible for hazing for making the mistake of allowing liquor at an off-campus party. The fraternity …


Negligence And Culpability: Reflections On Alexander And Ferzan, Mitchell N. Berman Oct 2022

Negligence And Culpability: Reflections On Alexander And Ferzan, Mitchell N. Berman

All Faculty Scholarship

Philosophers of criminal punishment disagree about whether infliction of punishment for negligence can be morally justified. One contending view holds that it cannot be because punishment requires culpability and culpability requires, at a minimum, advertence to the facts that make one’s conduct wrongful. Larry Alexander and Kim Ferzan are prominent champions of this position. This essay challenges that view and their arguments for it. Invoking a conceptual distinction between an agent’s being blameworthy for an act and their deserving punishment (or suffering) for that act, it explains that an agent can be blameworthy for negligent conduct, and thus liable to …


Criminal Liability For The Destruction Of Cultural Property: The Prosecutor V. Bosco Ntaganda, Emma A. O'Connell May 2022

Criminal Liability For The Destruction Of Cultural Property: The Prosecutor V. Bosco Ntaganda, Emma A. O'Connell

DePaul Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Nohwere, Peter A. Alces, Robert M. Sapolsky Mar 2022

Nohwere, Peter A. Alces, Robert M. Sapolsky

William & Mary Law Review

Imagine the frustration of Samuel Butler’s protagonist, Higgs, with the strange society he encounters in Erewhon:

"Was there nothing which I could say to make them feel that the constitution of a person’s body was a thing over which he or she had had at any rate no initial control whatever, while the mind was a perfectly different thing, and capable of being created anew and directed according to the pleasure of its possessor? Could I never bring them to see that while habits of mind and character were entirely independent of initial mental force and early education, the body …


Deepfakes, Shallowfakes, And The Need For A Private Right Of Action, Eric Kocsis Jan 2022

Deepfakes, Shallowfakes, And The Need For A Private Right Of Action, Eric Kocsis

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

For nearly as long as there have been photographs and videos, people have been editing and manipulating them to make them appear to be something they are not. Usually edited or manipulated photographs are relatively easy to detect, but those days are numbered. Technology has no morality; as it advances, so do the ways it can be misused. The lack of morality is no clearer than with deepfake technology.

People create deepfakes by inputting data sets, most often pictures or videos into a computer. A series of neural networks attempt to mimic the original data set until they are nearly …


Reexamining The Vicarious Criminal Liability Of Corporations For The Willful Crimes Of Their Employees, Evan Tuttle Nov 2021

Reexamining The Vicarious Criminal Liability Of Corporations For The Willful Crimes Of Their Employees, Evan Tuttle

Cleveland State Law Review

Corporate compliance programs in the United States have evolved substantially in the past several decades, expanding exponentially in both number and scope. Yet, our legal standard of corporate criminal liability for the acts of employees has remained largely unchanged for the past fifty years. United States v. Hilton Hotels established that a corporation can be held liable for the acts of its employee, even though the employee’s conduct may be contrary to their actual instructions or contrary to the employer’s stated policies. That holding, cited with favor by the Supreme Court, was based on a deeply flawed interpretation of precedent, …


The Criminal Responsibility Of Rumors Promoters Through Social Networks “Jurisprudent A Legal Study”, سِيرين جَرادَات, مُحَمّد القضَاة Jul 2021

The Criminal Responsibility Of Rumors Promoters Through Social Networks “Jurisprudent A Legal Study”, سِيرين جَرادَات, مُحَمّد القضَاة

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

This study address one of the important issues recently raised "The criminal responsibility of the rumors promoters through social networks". Many people who visit social networks do not realize the negative effect of their rumors, or know the extent of criminal responsibility which may fall upon them as a result of these rumors. This issue has been addressed to know what the Islamic rules, with regards to Islamic legislations and Jordanian law.

In order to address that issue, this study includes several aspects, such as: types of rumors and the negative effects of rumors. Also it explain the position of …


Criminal Liability Of Covid-19 Carriers (Lebanon), Tarteel Turki Darwish Apr 2021

Criminal Liability Of Covid-19 Carriers (Lebanon), Tarteel Turki Darwish

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Since the spread of COVID-19, all governments tried to cape with this international pandemic which was classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March, 11 as a pandemic. Lebanese ministry of health, recommended in a statement issued on 21.03.2020 the date of the beginning of COVID-19 spread, that all of individuals with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 be quarantined at home and those who don’t follow the preventive precautions will be legally punished. On 04.03.2020 the Lebanese ministry of health issued an announcement no. 42 about “defining COVID-19 cases which are classified as transmitted and infectious diseases cases which …


Criminal Responsibility Of The Doctor: Critical Assessment Study Of The Rules Of Public And Private In Both The Jordanian And Uae Laws, Moayyad Mohamed Al Qudat, Mamun Mohamed Abu Zaytoun Feb 2021

Criminal Responsibility Of The Doctor: Critical Assessment Study Of The Rules Of Public And Private In Both The Jordanian And Uae Laws, Moayyad Mohamed Al Qudat, Mamun Mohamed Abu Zaytoun

UAEU Law Journal

There is no special law regulating criminal liability of doctors in Jordan, and therefore such liability is governed by the general rules as stated in the Jordanian Penal Code 1960 No 16 (JPC), which apply to all types of offenders regardless of their professions. As the nature of medical professions and practices entails the enactment of a special law setting the relevant legal rules by which doctors criminal liability should be governed, this paper seeks to provide an evaluative, critical and comparative study of the current laws of Jordan and United Arab Emirates (UAE) on this issue. Central to the …


Criminal Liability For Artificial Intelligence Crimes, Yahya Ibrahim Dahshan Jan 2021

Criminal Liability For Artificial Intelligence Crimes, Yahya Ibrahim Dahshan

UAEU Law Journal

Artificial intelligence crimes are considered near future crimes If not some of them have now begun, Technological development has helped in recent years - Which accelerated in the current period - In the emergence of many of these crimes, The advanced programming of some Artificial intelligence machines has given the ability to build self-experience, Enabling them to make individual decisions in any situations they face like human beings; So we aim from this study legalization of Artificial intelligence crimes To determine the responsible for those crimes and the penalty is imposed on it; The importance of the subject lies in …


Defining Crime, Delegating Authority – How Different Are Administrative Crimes?, Daniel C. Richman Jan 2021

Defining Crime, Delegating Authority – How Different Are Administrative Crimes?, Daniel C. Richman

Faculty Scholarship

As the Supreme Court reconsiders whether Congress can so freely provide for criminal enforcement of agency rules, this Article assesses the critique of administrative crimes though a federal criminal law lens. It explores the extent to which this critique carries over to other instances of mostly well-accepted, delegated federal criminal lawmaking – to courts, states, foreign governments, and international institutions. By considering these other delegations through the lens of the administrative crime critique, the Article destabilizes the critique’s doctrinal foundations. It then suggests that if one really cares about liberty – not the abstract “liberty” said to be protected by …


Opioid Settlement Funds: Do Not Neglect Patients With Pain, Mark C. Bicket, Barbara Mcquade, Chad M. Brummett Jan 2021

Opioid Settlement Funds: Do Not Neglect Patients With Pain, Mark C. Bicket, Barbara Mcquade, Chad M. Brummett

Articles

The opioid crisis has escalated in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic to new extremes and has claimed more than half a million lives in the US since 2000. Lawsuits to address the civil and criminal liability of drug companies and other groups have originated from federal, state, local, and tribal jurisdictions. When successful, there will likely be billions of dollars and significant discretion as to how these funds are spent. Several groups have produced reports with principles to address the toll of addiction using settlement funds. However, they lack actionable strategies to address the needs of patients with pain, …


Metaphysics & Morals In Canadian Criminal Justice: A Pragmatic Analysis Of The Conflict Between Neuroscience And Retributive Folk Psychology, Sarah Greenwood Oct 2020

Metaphysics & Morals In Canadian Criminal Justice: A Pragmatic Analysis Of The Conflict Between Neuroscience And Retributive Folk Psychology, Sarah Greenwood

LLM Theses

The retributive justification of Canadian criminal law contains several assumptions about human nature that conflicts with what neuroscience has established regarding human behavior and the function of rationality. Interdisciplinary discourse on this conflict between law and neuroscience has unnecessarily implicated the free will debate and is further stagnated by epistemic cultural differences between the two disciplines. To avoid these roadblocks, this thesis applies the methodological principles of pragmatic philosophy. Rather than asking which description of human nature is true, pragmatic inquiry focuses on the difference either would make in practice. This analysis reveals that retributive folk psychology in practice causes …


It's Complicated: The Challenge Of Prosecuting Tncs For Criminal Activity Under International Law, Jena Martin Jul 2019

It's Complicated: The Challenge Of Prosecuting Tncs For Criminal Activity Under International Law, Jena Martin

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

This essay aims to tackle an increasingly thorny and relevant issue: what do you do if a Transnational Corporation (TNC) commits a crime? The question raises a number of challenges, both philosophically and practically. First, what does it mean to prosecute an organization? Although there are some limited examples (the United States’ prosecution of accounting firm Arthur Andersen being among the most note-worthy), we have relatively little precedence regarding what this would entail; how exactly do you put a corporation on trial? Second, practically speaking, where do you hold the trial? This challenge is magnified by the fact that, by …


Does Situationism Excuse? The Implications Of Situationism For Moral Responsibility And Criminal Responsibility, Ken Levy Mar 2019

Does Situationism Excuse? The Implications Of Situationism For Moral Responsibility And Criminal Responsibility, Ken Levy

Ken Levy

Criminal responsibility is almost universally thought to require moral responsibility. Using the psychological theory of "situationism,'" however, I will argue that criminal responsibility can survive-and therefore that defendants can be justly punished-without moral responsibility.


Special Issue, December 2018 Jan 2019

Special Issue, December 2018

International Journal on Responsibility

Contents:

5 – 7 Terry Beitzel, Gjylbehare Muharti, and Hysen Nimani, Responsibility in the Balkans: Justice, Media and Arts.

8 – 22 Mujë Ukaj and Qendresa Jasharaj, International Criminal Responsibility in Kosovo: Establishment of the International Criminal Court - de lege lata, de lege ferenda.

23 – 41 Avdullah Robaj and Sabiha Shala, Responsibility in Building Rule of Law: Kosovo Challenges.

42 – 54 Mujë Ukaj, The Irresponsible Persons: the Imposition and Execution of the Mandatory Treatment Measures on Criminal Procedure of Kosovo.

55 – 64 Gani Asllani, Bedri Statovci, and Gentiana Gega, Development and Protection of Economic …


The Rise Of The Extreme Right And The Crime Of Terrorism: Ideology, Mobilization, And The Case Of Golden Dawn, Nadia Banteka Jan 2019

The Rise Of The Extreme Right And The Crime Of Terrorism: Ideology, Mobilization, And The Case Of Golden Dawn, Nadia Banteka

Scholarly Publications

The past decade has witnessed the rise in popularity of organizations and political parties founded on the extreme nationalism and populism that characterized the interwar period's fascist and Nazi parties. These organizations have become known as the "alt-right" and include white supremacists, neo-Nazis, neo-fascists, and other extreme right-wing fringe groups. Extreme right-wing political parties have also enjoyed electoral victories while promulgating xenophobia and hatred based on race, religion, ethnicity, nationality, and sexual orientation. This article examines the resurgence of such extreme right-wing political parties and the relationship between right-wing extremism, political parties, and terrorism. The goal of this article is …


Robot Criminals, Ying Hu Jan 2019

Robot Criminals, Ying Hu

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

When a robot harms humans, are there any grounds for holding it criminally liable for its misconduct? Yes, provided that the robot is capable of making, acting on, and communicating the reasons behind its moral decisions. If such a robot fails to observe the minimum moral standards that society requires of it, labeling it as a criminal can effectively fulfill criminal law’s function of censuring wrongful conduct and alleviating the emotional harm that may be inflicted on human victims.

Imposing criminal liability on robots does not absolve robot manufacturers, trainers, or owners of their individual criminal liability. The former is …


From Aspirational To Prescriptive Capacity Building: Post-Conflict States, Rule Of Law, And Hybrid International Justice, Daimeon Dean Shanks Jan 2019

From Aspirational To Prescriptive Capacity Building: Post-Conflict States, Rule Of Law, And Hybrid International Justice, Daimeon Dean Shanks

University of Colorado Law Review

Mass-atrocity crimes present unique accountability challenges, challenges that are often exacerbated by the social and political conditions that facilitated the commitment of the crimes in the first place. International accountability mechanisms were developed to address these obstacles by providing a means of holding individuals accountable for international crimes when their host states were incapable of doing so or unwilling to do so. The first iteration of these tribunals, the international military tribunals, gained prominence following World War II, and a second-generation of non-military international tribunals were created in response to the mass atrocities committed in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. …


“Collusion” And The Criminal Law, Robert M. Sanger Sep 2018

“Collusion” And The Criminal Law, Robert M. Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

The journalistic use of the term “collusion” in the air; it might be a good time for a refresher. This article will make an effort to cover the general framework of federal crimes in which a potential target (i.e., a would be defendant if a case were filed) had a guilty mind but did not directly do the ultimate act. Looked upon from the “collusion” perspective, it is a situation where a person did something with others in which some illegal result was attempted or accomplished by some or all of the participants. Broadly construed, inchoate crimes would include attempt, …


Acknowledgments, Howard S. Carrier Apr 2018

Acknowledgments, Howard S. Carrier

International Journal on Responsibility

Serious work to bring the International Journal on Responsibility to life commenced during the summer of 2015. In the intervening period between conceptualization and publication, many organizations and individuals within James Madison University and the wider community have contributed enormously to bringing the journal to fruition.


Who Is Responsible For Ethical Legal Education, For What And To Whom? Case Of Kosovo, Sabiha Shala, Gjylbehare Muharti Apr 2018

Who Is Responsible For Ethical Legal Education, For What And To Whom? Case Of Kosovo, Sabiha Shala, Gjylbehare Muharti

International Journal on Responsibility

Legal education continues to be one of the most demanded areas of study from the younger generation in Kosovo. As result, the number of law graduates is quite high. On the other hand, the rule of law sector is quite fragile, judges and lawyers are perceived by parts of the society to be ethically dysfunctional. The trust in judicial institutions is quite low. The debate which is going on now is whose main responsibility for such a situation that is. Is the duty of the higher education institutions providing legal education, or is it a responsibility of educational institutions at …


Resolving The Paradox Of Holding People Responsible, Hal Pepinsky Apr 2018

Resolving The Paradox Of Holding People Responsible, Hal Pepinsky

International Journal on Responsibility

Regardless of justification, it is commonplace throughout the U.S. criminal justice system as in everyday life to teach our offenders and children alike that wrong actions “have consequences,” namely, those authority figures promise to impose upon them. We do so in the name of holding people responsible for their actions, or in legal parlance in civil law, holding them accountable or liable. I noticed that in Norwegian, responsibility, accountability and liability translate into one word, ansvar, which I have translated from Germanic to Latin roots as “responsiveness.” In practice, the state of being responsive to others with whom one conflicts …


Political Flip-Flopping, Political Responsibility, Current Governance, And The Disenfranchised, T.Y. Okosun Apr 2018

Political Flip-Flopping, Political Responsibility, Current Governance, And The Disenfranchised, T.Y. Okosun

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


What Does Responsibility Mean To Me?, Arun Gandhi Apr 2018

What Does Responsibility Mean To Me?, Arun Gandhi

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


Who Is Responsible To Do What For Whom? A Letter From The Editor-In-Chief, Terry Beitzel Apr 2018

Who Is Responsible To Do What For Whom? A Letter From The Editor-In-Chief, Terry Beitzel

International Journal on Responsibility

No abstract provided.


Foreseeably Unclear: The Meaning Of The "Reasonably Foreseeable" Criterion For Access To Medical Assistance In Dying In Canada, Jocelyn Downie, Kate Scallion Apr 2018

Foreseeably Unclear: The Meaning Of The "Reasonably Foreseeable" Criterion For Access To Medical Assistance In Dying In Canada, Jocelyn Downie, Kate Scallion

Dalhousie Law Journal

Canada's medical assistance in dying legislation contains the eligibility criterion "naturaldeath has become reasonably foreseeable." The phrase "reasonably foreseeable" is unfamiliar and unclear. As a result of ongoing confusion about its meaning, there is reason to be concerned that under- or over-inclusive interpretations of the phrase are adversely affecting access to MAID. With critical interests at stake (eg access to MAiD and potential criminal liability), it is essential that the meaning of the phrase be clarified. Furthermore, the meaning of "reasonably foreseeable" will be at issue in the Charter challenges to the federal MAiD legislation currently before the courts in …