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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Law

State Income Taxation Of Multijurisdictional Corporations, Part Ii: Reflections On Asarco And Woolworth, Walter Hellerstein Nov 1982

State Income Taxation Of Multijurisdictional Corporations, Part Ii: Reflections On Asarco And Woolworth, Walter Hellerstein

Michigan Law Review

The first part of this Article, State Income Taxation of Multijurisdictional Corporations: Reflections on Mobil, Exxon, and H.R. 5076, did not contemplate a sequel. The Supreme Court's decisions last term in two state corporate income tax cases, however, created an irresistible opportunity to write one. The Court's opinions in ASARCO and Woolworth picked up where its opinions in Mobil and Exxon left off. Yet the direction taken by these more recent decisions veers sharply from the course ostensibly set by their predecessors. This Article will consider the Court's latest pronouncements in this area in a continuing if quixotic effort to …


Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen Oct 1982

Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that greater appreciation for the nature and importance of national treatment obligations will compel tribunals fashioning antitrust relief to provide more suitably for foreign firms, and thus avoid straining international trade relations. Moreover, because antitrust relief and national treatment objectives are mutually reinforcing, greater recognition of national treatment requirements should improve remedial orders from the standpoint of antitrust economics. Meeting national treatment requirements should place little added burden on the antitrust tribunal; it must merely extend impartial economic analysis to all market suppliers, not just domestic firms.

This Note explores methods to ensure that antitrust relief orders …


Toward Understanding Unlawful Organizational Behavior, Diane Vaughan Jun 1982

Toward Understanding Unlawful Organizational Behavior, Diane Vaughan

Michigan Law Review

The emergence and growth of regulatory agencies charged with controlling organizational misconduct has been so widespread that the monitoring and regulation of corporate interactions has itself become "big business," with the complexity of the regulatory agencies at times matching or even exceeding that of the organizations they regulate. The effectiveness of these efforts to control unlawful organizational behavior has been assessed in many different ways. The records of agency investigations, administrative hearings, and judicial proceedings provide data on enforcement actions, court decrees, trials, convictions, penalties, and other indicators that allow empirical estimates to be made. A realistic assessment of agency …


The Organization As Weapon In White-Collar Crime, Stanton Wheeler, Mitchell Lewis Rothman Jun 1982

The Organization As Weapon In White-Collar Crime, Stanton Wheeler, Mitchell Lewis Rothman

Michigan Law Review

This Article explores the advantages of using organization or occupation in the more typical case. Our inquiry takes this as its central question: What difference does it make when a white-collar crime is committed in the course of one's occupation or when acting on behalf, or with the assistance, of an organization? If we are becoming, as some have argued, an organizational society, then we should see the results of this change reflected in illicit as well as licit behavior. The organizational form may be used for either social or antisocial ends. Our principal hypothesis, as the title suggests, is …


The Sentencing Of White-Collar Criminals In Federal Courts: A Socio-Legal Exploration Of Disparity, Ilene H. Nagel, John L. Hagan Jun 1982

The Sentencing Of White-Collar Criminals In Federal Courts: A Socio-Legal Exploration Of Disparity, Ilene H. Nagel, John L. Hagan

Michigan Law Review

This Article addresses that question by examining judicial sentencing philosophy as applied to white-collar criminality and reporting data that illuminate the operation of that philosophy. Part I of the Article argues that the traditional purposes and limits of criminal sentencing may plausibly justify either disparate or comparable sentences in cases of white-collar and common criminality. Part II describes the obstacles to an accurate empirical inquiry into how judges resolve these uncertainties in the theory of punishment. Part III presents a study designed to overcome as many of these obstacles as possible. What is most dramatic is that the resulting data …


Enforced Self-Regulation: A New Strategy For Corporate Crime Control, John Braithwaite Jun 1982

Enforced Self-Regulation: A New Strategy For Corporate Crime Control, John Braithwaite

Michigan Law Review

Part I outlines the concept of enforced self-regulation, sketches its theoretical underpinnings, and illustrates its application in the context of corporate accounting standards. Part II argues the merits of enforced self-regulation. Part III dispels notions that the proposal is a radical departure from existing regulatory practice and points to areas in which necessary empirical research could be conducted by discussing incipient manifestations of partial enforced self-regulation models in the aviation, mining, and pharmaceutical industries. Part IV considers in some detail the weaknesses of the proposed model. The final Part considers the importance of determining an optimal mix of regulatory strategies; …


The Criminal Liability Of Corporations And Other Groups: A Comparative View, L. H. Leigh Jun 1982

The Criminal Liability Of Corporations And Other Groups: A Comparative View, L. H. Leigh

Michigan Law Review

Briefly, three positions concerning corporate liability may be identified. First, there are systems of full corporate criminal liability, such as those in England and the United States. Second, there are systems that recognize only partial corporate criminal liability, for example Denmark, Belgium, and France. Finally, some systems do not permit such liability at all, or permit it only under the guise of administrative offenses. Italy and West Germany afford examples of this restrictive view of corporate liability.

This Article will sketch each of these positions in some detail, beginning, in Part I, with those systems that authorize full liability. Part …


Antitrust Suits By Targets Of Tender Offers, Frank H. Easterbrook, Daniel R. Fischel May 1982

Antitrust Suits By Targets Of Tender Offers, Frank H. Easterbrook, Daniel R. Fischel

Michigan Law Review

We explore in this Article the basis and consequences of the target's suit under the antitrust laws. We approach the question from the perspective of federal antitrust law and state corporation law.

We argue in Part I that the target is a singularly poor "private attorney general" because it is a beneficiary, not a victim, of any violation. An antitrust suit thus must be understood as an attempt by managers to defend their own positions, not as an attempt to vindicate the public interest. In the jargon of antitrust, the target is not a victim of "antitrust injury" and therefore …


The Effect Of Insider Trading Rules On The Internal Efficiency Of The Large Corporation, Robert J. Haft Apr 1982

The Effect Of Insider Trading Rules On The Internal Efficiency Of The Large Corporation, Robert J. Haft

Michigan Law Review

Academics have hotly debated these justifications for years, and none of the three has achieved universal acclaim. This Article suggests another perspective: Prohibiting insider trading may enhance business decision-making in large corporations. With the exception of proponents of the Business Property view, analysts have focused on how an insider trading rule affects the national securities markets and traders in those markets. The internal governance of the large corporation is a different matter, one deserving separate consideration.


Another Theory Of Nonprofit Corporations, Ira Mark Ellman Apr 1982

Another Theory Of Nonprofit Corporations, Ira Mark Ellman

Michigan Law Review

This Article argues that the distinction between donors and customers is critical, and that the contract failure model is therefore seriously flawed. It distinguishes two types of nonprofit corporations - those structured to satisfy donors' needs ("donative nonprofits") and those structured to satisfy customers' needs ("mutual benefit nonprofits"). This dichotomy suggests a very different nonprofit corporation law than the one urged by Hansmann. Once the concept of contract failure is limited to donors, it can be refined to serve as part of the rationale for donative nonprofits. Refining the concept of contract failure reveals, however, that it confuses the analysis …


The Continuing Debate On Corporate Governance, J. Kirkland Grant Mar 1982

The Continuing Debate On Corporate Governance, J. Kirkland Grant

Michigan Law Review

A Review of The Modern Corporate Manager: Responsibility and Regulation by William A. Groening and The Limits of Corporate Power: Existing Constraints on the Exercise of Corporate Discretion by Ira M. Millstein and Salem M. Katsh


Corporate Crime, Michigan Law Review Mar 1982

Corporate Crime, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Corporate Crime by Marshall B. Clinard and Peter C. Yeager


Corporations And Information: Secrecy, Access, And Disclosure, Michigan Law Review Mar 1982

Corporations And Information: Secrecy, Access, And Disclosure, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Corporations and Information: Secrecy, Access, and Disclosure by Russell B. Stevenson, Jr.


Union Representatives As Corporate Directors: The Challenge To The Adversarial Model Of Labor Relations, Robert A. Mccormick Jan 1982

Union Representatives As Corporate Directors: The Challenge To The Adversarial Model Of Labor Relations, Robert A. Mccormick

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article addresses these questions first by discussing the predominant philosophical approach adopted by unions in their dealings with management, and then describing several ways in which the labor laws reflect this traditional model of employment relations by showing, first, that the influence of unions has been limited to circumscribed categories of business decisions. The Article next examines decisions made by the National Labor Relations Board ("NLRB") and the courts that have carefully sought to separate employer from employee, assuming their interests to be inherently antagonistic. Then follows an evaluation of the NLRB's treatment of deviations from the traditional model …