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Full-Text Articles in Law

Understanding Intellectual Property: Expression, Function, And Individuation, Mala Chatterjee Jan 2023

Understanding Intellectual Property: Expression, Function, And Individuation, Mala Chatterjee

Faculty Scholarship

Underlying the fundamental structure of intellectual property law — specifically, the division between copyright and patent law — are at least two substantive philosophical assumptions. The first is that artistic works and inventions are importantly different, such that they warrant different legal systems: copyright law on the one hand, and patent law on the other. And the second is that particular artistic works and inventions can be determinately individuated from each other, and can thereby be the subjects of distinct and delineated legal rights. But neither the law nor existing scholarship provides a comprehensive analysis of these categories, what distinguishes …


Misreading Campbell: Lessons For Warhol, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell Jan 2023

Misreading Campbell: Lessons For Warhol, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell

Faculty Scholarship

In Andy Warhol Foundation (AWF) v. Goldsmith, the Supreme Court is set to revisit its most salient fair use precedent that introduced the idea of a “transformative use.” Purporting to rely on the Court’s adoption of “transformative use” as a way of understanding the fair use doctrine in Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., many lower courts, including the district court below, have effectively substituted an amorphous “transformativeness” inquiry for the full statutory framework and factors that Congress and Campbell prescribe. At the oral argument in AWF, the Justices focused on how the transformativeness of a work might …


Learned Hand's Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Jan 2023

Learned Hand's Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship

Learned Hand is often described as the greatest copyright judge to have ever sat on the bench. By the 1950s, the most important parts of U.S. copyright law had been his creation, all from his time as a judge on the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. Despite all of this, there has been little systematic analysis of Hand’s approach to copyright and of the reasons why his jurisprudence in multiple areas of copyright law have survived the test of time. This Article argues that the longevity, influence and canonical status of Hand’s contributions to copyright are closely tied to his …


Comments On Preliminary Draft 8 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg Oct 2022

Comments On Preliminary Draft 8 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

PD8 represents a great deal of labor, for which the Reporters deserve recognition. As detailed below, however, PD8’s occasional departures from or omissions of statutory text may not only be misleading or confusing, but – as has been the case with prior drafts – often have the result, if not the purpose, of whittling down the scope of copyright protection. In addition to identifying those instances and explaining their consequences, the following comments will suggest clarifications to some of the Comments and Illustrations.


Kernochan Center News - Spring 2022, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2022

Kernochan Center News - Spring 2022, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


Kernochan Center News - Fall 2022, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2022

Kernochan Center News - Fall 2022, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


The Last Line Of Defense: Addressing Section 512(G)’S Dwindling Capacity To Protect Educational Fair Users On The Internet, Gersham Johnson Jan 2022

The Last Line Of Defense: Addressing Section 512(G)’S Dwindling Capacity To Protect Educational Fair Users On The Internet, Gersham Johnson

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly transformed education from one of the least digitized sectors in the U.S. economy to a largely online phenomenon, with up to 93% of households with school-age children relying on distance learning. The value of online educational opportunities has extended beyond traditional purveyors of education as well, with online service providers (OSPs) like YouTube reporting an increase in average daily views for educational videos produced by subscribers (“users”).

The rise of user-generated content in online education (“educational content”) is merely part of a larger sea change as more content is uploaded to OSPs than ever before. …


The Case For The Ccb: A Defense Of The Constitutionality Of The Copyright Claims Board, Adam Vischio Jan 2022

The Case For The Ccb: A Defense Of The Constitutionality Of The Copyright Claims Board, Adam Vischio

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

Copyright litigation is expensive. Since copyright is federal law, disputes must be heard in federal court. Federal litigation can be prohibitively costly for creators bringing small claims, essentially leaving them with a right without a remedy against infringement of their work. Congress sought to alleviate this financial burden in 2020 when it passed the Copyright Alternative in Small-Claims Enforcement (“CASE”) Act, thus creating the Copyright Claims Board (“CCB”) to adjudicate small copyright disputes.

Opponents raised constitutional concerns about the CCB throughout the legislative process. The concerns included the fact that the CCB officers would wield unreviewable power and that Congress …


Proving Copying, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell Jan 2022

Proving Copying, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell

Faculty Scholarship

Proof that a defendant actually copied from a copyrighted work is a critical part of a claim for copyright infringement. Indeed, absent such copying, there is no infringement. The most common method of proving copying involves the use of circumstantial evidence, consisting of proof that a defendant had “access” to the protected work, and a showing of “similarities” between the copy and the protected work. In inferring copying from the combination of such evidence, courts have for many decades developed a framework known as the “inverse ratio rule,” which allows them to modulate the level of proof needed on access …


Copyright, Creativity, Big Media And Cultural Value: Incorporating The Author, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2022

Copyright, Creativity, Big Media And Cultural Value: Incorporating The Author, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Copyright, Creativity, Big Media and Cultural Value is a wide-ranging work of immense erudition and archival research, combining several historical studies of the ‘incorporation’ of the author in different sectors of the ‘creative industries’. The book’s subtitle, ‘Incorporating the Author’, astutely encompasses multiple meanings, whose implications the book works through. These include the author as an initiating participant in a larger economic structure (Chapter 3 (print publishing)). But also, the author as a bit player enveloped by a larger economic structure (Chapter 5 (film industry)). And the author (or performer) as an autonomous object of economic value (Chapters …


Comments On Council Draft 6 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek Jan 2022

Comments On Council Draft 6 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek

Faculty Scholarship

We appreciate the Reporters’ incorporation of some of our comments on recent drafts. There remain, however, certain flaws in CD6 that should be addressed. We explain the issues, below.


Comments On Preliminary Draft 7 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek Oct 2021

Comments On Preliminary Draft 7 [Black Letter And Comments], Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek

Faculty Scholarship

PD7 is often confusing, largely as a result of failure to provide important explanations or definitions, or to tell the reader where that information can be found. Key terms, such as “edicts of law” and “formalities” remain undefined. Formalities are a principal topic of PD7; they deserve a more thorough description than the draft contains, addressing what formalities are, whether every declaratory obligation (or option) is a “formality,” or only those that go to the existence or enforcement of copyright (this is the Berne Convention meaning of “formality”).


Unspoken Criticism: Audiovisual Forms Of Critique As Fair Use, Alec Fisher Jan 2021

Unspoken Criticism: Audiovisual Forms Of Critique As Fair Use, Alec Fisher

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

This Note argues that the traditional legal framework for analyzing a work of alleged criticism as fair use is particularly constraining for YouTube reaction videos and other audiovisual forms of criticism that largely critique or comment on an original work in a non-spoken, visual manner. It discusses the emphasis that the current fair use jurisprudence places on spoken and written critical elements when undertaking a fair use analysis of a work of criticism, then advocates for a new conception of fair use criticism that incorporates film-specific analytical techniques and concepts when analyzing the critical elements of online audiovisual works. Part …


Comment On Andy Warhol Found. For The Visual Arts, Inc. V. Goldsmith, 992 F.3d 99 (2d Cir. 2021), Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2021

Comment On Andy Warhol Found. For The Visual Arts, Inc. V. Goldsmith, 992 F.3d 99 (2d Cir. 2021), Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

The Second Circuit’s decision in Andy Warhol Foundation v. Goldsmith retreats both from its prior caselaw’s generous characterization of artistic reuse as “transformative,” and from the outcome-determinacy of a finding of “transformativeness.” The decision suggests both that courts may be applying a more critical understanding of what “transforms” copied content, and that courts may be reforming “transformative use” to reinvigorate the other statutory factors, particularly the inquiry into the impact of the use on the potential markets for or value of the copied work. The court also provided an important explanation of copyrightable authorship in photographs.

In addition to analyzing …


Kernochan Center News - Spring 2021, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2021

Kernochan Center News - Spring 2021, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


Kernochan Center News - Winter 2021, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2021

Kernochan Center News - Winter 2021, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


Kernochan Center News - Fall 2021, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2021

Kernochan Center News - Fall 2021, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


Kernochan Center News - Early Summer 2021, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2021

Kernochan Center News - Early Summer 2021, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


Conundra Of The Berne Convention Concept Of The Country Of Origin, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2021

Conundra Of The Berne Convention Concept Of The Country Of Origin, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

This essay explores one of the most important, but occasionally intractable, issues under the Berne Convention, the concept of Country of Origin. Article 5(4) of that treaty defines a work’s country of origin, but leaves out several situations, leaving those who interpret and apply the treaty without guidance in ascertaining the country of origin. I will call those situations the “Conundra of the country of origin,” and will explore two of them here. First, what is the country of origin of an unpublished work whose authors are nationals of different countries? Second, what is the country of origin of a …


Letter To Council Members Regarding Council Draft 5, Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek Jan 2021

Letter To Council Members Regarding Council Draft 5, Jane C. Ginsburg, June M. Besek

Faculty Scholarship

We understand that the ALI Council will consider Council Draft 5 (CD5) of the Restatement of the Law, Copyright (Copyright Restatement) project at its meeting on January 20-21, 2021. We appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on CD5. We hope that you will give careful consideration to these comments and send CD5 back to the Reporters to address the problems we describe below.


Authoring The Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Jan 2021

Authoring The Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship

Copyright law denies protection to legal texts through a rule known as the “government edicts doctrine”. Entirely a creation of nineteenth century courts, the government edicts doctrine treats expression produced by lawmakers in the exercise of their lawmaking function as altogether uncopyrightable. Despite having been in existence for over a century, the doctrine remains shrouded in significant mystery and complexity. Lacking statutory recognition, the doctrine has come to be seen as driven by open-ended considerations of “public policy” that draw on the overarching importance of public access to laws. In its decision in Georgia v. Public.Resource.Org., Inc., the Supreme …


International Law Association's Guidelines On Intellectual Property And Private International Law ("Kyoto Guidelines"): Applicable Law, Marie-Elodie Ancel, Nicolas Binctin, Josef Drexl, Mireille Van Eechoud, Jane C. Ginsburg, Toshiyuki Kono, Gyooho Lee, Rita Matulionyte, Edouard Treppoz, Dário Moura Vicente Jan 2021

International Law Association's Guidelines On Intellectual Property And Private International Law ("Kyoto Guidelines"): Applicable Law, Marie-Elodie Ancel, Nicolas Binctin, Josef Drexl, Mireille Van Eechoud, Jane C. Ginsburg, Toshiyuki Kono, Gyooho Lee, Rita Matulionyte, Edouard Treppoz, Dário Moura Vicente

Faculty Scholarship

The chapter “Applicable Law” of the International Law Association’s Guidelines on In­tellectual Property and Private International Law (“Kyoto Guidelines”) provides principles on the choice of law in international intellectual property matters. The Guidelines confirm the traditional principle of the lex loci protectionis for the existence, transferabil­ity, scope and infringement of intellectual property rights. The law applicable to the initial ownership of registered rights is governed by the lex loci protec­tionis whereas the law of the closest connection is applied to determine the ownership of copyright. For contracts, freedom of choice is acknowledged. With regard to ubiquitous or multi-state infringement and …


Fair Use Factor Four Revisited: Valuing The "Value Of The Copyrighted Work", Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2020

Fair Use Factor Four Revisited: Valuing The "Value Of The Copyrighted Work", Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Recent caselaw has restored the prominence of the fourth statutory factor – “the effect of the use upon the market for or value of the copyrighted work” – in the fair use analysis. The revitalization of the inquiry should also occasion renewed reflection on its meaning. As digital media bring to the fore new or previously under-examined kinds of harm, courts not only need to continue refining their appreciation of a work’s markets. They must also expand their analyses beyond the traditional inquiry into whether the challenged use substitutes for an actual or potential market for the work. Courts should …


Lockean Copyright Versus Lockean Property, Mala Chatterjee Jan 2020

Lockean Copyright Versus Lockean Property, Mala Chatterjee

Faculty Scholarship

Locke’s labor theory, the most familiar of property theories, has faced centuries of philosophical criticism. Nonetheless, recent legal scholars have applied it to intellectual property while overlooking these philosophical critiques. Philosophers, on the other hand, are largely absent in IP theorizing, thus not asking whether Locke’s resilient intuition is salvageable in copyright’s domain. This Article argues that Lockean copyright is actually far more plausible than Lockean property, for it avoids the most devastating objections the latter faces. It then defends a surprising doctrinal implication of this theoretical conclusion: a workable Lockean copyright favors rights far more limited than present law.


Kernochan Center News - Spring 2020, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2020

Kernochan Center News - Spring 2020, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


Kernochan Center News - Winter 2020, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts Jan 2020

Kernochan Center News - Winter 2020, Kernochan Center For Law, Media And The Arts

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

No abstract provided.


Copyright Infringement Liability Of Online Content Sharing Platforms In The Us And In The Eu After The Digital Single Market Directive: A Case Study, Teresa García-Barrero Jan 2020

Copyright Infringement Liability Of Online Content Sharing Platforms In The Us And In The Eu After The Digital Single Market Directive: A Case Study, Teresa García-Barrero

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

The EU copyright liability regime for internet service providers has significantly changed after the enactment of article 17 of the Digital Single Market Directive. Where two fairly similar systems once existed in the US and in the EU, there are now significant differences between the regimes with which service providers must comply in each region. This paper seeks to offer a practical view of the differences between both systems through a comparative analysis of the result that the application of each legal framework would have on an identical factual case. Specifically, this paper contrasts the decision reached by US courts …


Overlapping Copyright And Trademark Protection In The United States: More Protection And More Fair Use?, Jane C. Ginsburg, Irene Caboli Jan 2020

Overlapping Copyright And Trademark Protection In The United States: More Protection And More Fair Use?, Jane C. Ginsburg, Irene Caboli

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter addresses the phenomenon of overlapping rights under US law and complements Chapter 25 authored by Professors Derclay and Ng-Loy on the overlap of trademark, copyright, and design protection under several other Common Law and Civil Law jurisdictions. Because the United States does not provide sui generis protection for industrial design, but instead protects design through trademark law (notably by protecting trade dress) and design patents, this chapter focuses on the overlap between trademark and copyright protection. The Lalique bottles created for Nina Ricci perfumes, for example, may enjoy both trademark and copyright protection in the United States. Similarly, …


Foreign Contracts And U.S. Copyright Termination Rights: What Law Applies? – Comment, Richard Arnold, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2020

Foreign Contracts And U.S. Copyright Termination Rights: What Law Applies? – Comment, Richard Arnold, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

The U.S. Copyright Act gives authors the right to terminate assignments of copyrights in works other than works for hire executed on or after 1 January 1978 after 35 years, and to do so notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary. Given that agreements which are subject to the laws of other countries can assign U.S. copyrights, and purport to do so in perpetuity, U.S. law’s preclusion of agreements contrary to the author’s right to exercise her termination right can give rise to a difficult choice of law issue. Two recent cases which came before courts in the U.S. and England …


Fair Use In The United States: Transformed, Deformed, Reformed?, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2020

Fair Use In The United States: Transformed, Deformed, Reformed?, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Since the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1994 adoption of “transformative use” as a criterion for evaluating the first statutory fair use factor (“nature and purpose of the use”), “transformative use” analysis has engulfed all of fair use, becoming transformed, and perhaps deformed, in the process. A finding of “transformativeness” often foreordained the ultimate outcome, as the remaining factors, especially the fourth (impact of the use on the market for or value of the copied work), withered into restatements of the first. For a time, moreover, courts’ characterization of uses as “transformative” seemed ever more generous (if not in some instances credulous). …