Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Constitutional Law

None

Discipline
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 173

Full-Text Articles in Law

Targeted Killing: A Legal And Political History, Markus Gunneflo Dec 2015

Targeted Killing: A Legal And Political History, Markus Gunneflo

Markus Gunneflo

Looking beyond the current debate’s preoccupation with the situations of insecurity of the second intifada and 9/11, this book reveals how targeted killing is intimately embedded in both Israeli and US statecraft and in the problematic relation of sovereign authority and lawful violence underpinning the modern state system. The book details the legal and political issues raised in targeted killing as it has emerged in practice including questions of domestic constitutional authority, the norms on the use of force in international law, the law of targeting and human rights. The distinctiveness of Israeli and US targeted killing is ...


Mandatory Immigration Detention For U.S. Crimes: The Noncitizen Presumption Of Dangerousness, Mark Noferi Dec 2015

Mandatory Immigration Detention For U.S. Crimes: The Noncitizen Presumption Of Dangerousness, Mark Noferi

Mark L Noferi

Today in the United States, mandatory immigration detention imposes extraordinary deprivations of liberty following ordinary crimes—if the person convicted is not a U.S. citizen. Here, I explore that disparate treatment, in the first detailed examination of mandatory detention during deportation proceedings for U.S. crimes. I argue that mandatory immigration detention functionally operates on a “noncitizen presumption” of dangerousness. Mandatory detention incarcerates noncitizens despite technological advances that nearly negate the risk of flight, with that risk increasingly seen as little different regarding noncitizens, at least those treated with dignity. Moreover, this “noncitizen presumption” of danger contravenes empirical evidence ...


Evolving Contours Of Immigration Federalism: The Case Of Migrant Children, Elizabeth Keyes Aug 2015

Evolving Contours Of Immigration Federalism: The Case Of Migrant Children, Elizabeth Keyes

Elizabeth Keyes

In a unique corner of immigration law, a significant reallocation of power over immigration has been occurring with little fanfare. States play a dramatic immigration gatekeeping role in the process for providing protection to immigrant youth, like many of the Central American children who sought entry to the United States in the 2014 border “surge.” This article closely examines the history of this Special Immigrant Juvenile Status provision, enacted in 1990, which authorized a vital state role in providing access to an immigration benefit. The article traces the series of shifts in allocation of power between the federal government and ...


Ex Post Modernism: How The First Amendment Framed Nonrepresentational Art, Sonya G. Bonneau Aug 2015

Ex Post Modernism: How The First Amendment Framed Nonrepresentational Art, Sonya G. Bonneau

Sonya G Bonneau

Nonrepresentational art repeatedly surfaces in legal discourse as an example of highly valued First Amendment speech. It is also systematically described in constitutionally valueless terms: nonlinguistic, noncognitive, and apolitical. Why does law talk about nonrepresentational art at all, much less treat it as a constitutional precept? What are the implications for conceptualizing artistic expression as free speech?

This article contends that the source of nonrepresentational art’s presumptive First Amendment value is the same source of its utter lack thereof: modernism. Specifically, a symbolic alliance between abstraction and freedom of expression was forged in the mid-twentieth century, informed by social ...


A “Modern” Interpretation Of The 3rd Amendment: Unconstitutional Militarized Police, Sarah York Feb 2015

A “Modern” Interpretation Of The 3rd Amendment: Unconstitutional Militarized Police, Sarah York

Sarah York

This paper suggests that the 3rd Amendment has not been properly analyzed by the Court to reflect its broad basis and the intent of the founding fathers concerning the limitations on the use of military force on the civilian population. The paper specifically examines the 1033 program that streamlines the process for domestic police forces to take possession of military surplus weapons, vehicles, and tactical gear. The Posse Comitatus and the documented discussions of the founding fathers are used to support the argument that the 3rd Amendment was not meant to be limited to a strict interpretation of ...


Demanding Individual Rights And Civil Liberties: An Iranian Approach, Zahra Takhshid Dec 2014

Demanding Individual Rights And Civil Liberties: An Iranian Approach, Zahra Takhshid

Zahra Takhshid

Iran has a long history of social movements and revolutions. The 1906 Constitutional Revolution led to the recognition of individual rights as part of Iran’s first Constitution. With the Islamic Revolution of 1979, a new constitution was enacted, which devoted one chapter to “the Rights of the Nation.”

The Constitution has introduced several methods to protect the recognized rights: the Guardian Council, the Tribunal of Administrative Justice, and the Commission of Article 90.

In addition to the institutions introduced in the Constitution, the Legislature and the Executive branch proposed new safeguarding procedures and adopted new statutes, which recognized broader ...


Constitutional Law In Social Choice Perspective, Maxwell Stearns Dec 2014

Constitutional Law In Social Choice Perspective, Maxwell Stearns

Maxwell L. Stearns

Constitutional scholars do not typically employ spatial reasoning in their work. And yet, constitutional jurisprudence implicitly rests on a set of assumptions that can best be cast in spatial terms. This includes assuming that debated positions respecting constitutional issues, along with the views of Supreme Court justices, rest along a common liberal-to-conservative ideological dimension. Political scientists who embrace the Attitudinal Model are more explicit in this framing, which is itself a premise of those who code the Supreme Court Database upon which much quantitative work in the field of Judicial Politics takes place.

The assumption of a single analytical dimension ...


Demystifying Secondary Effects Analysis: The Example Of The "Explosive" Combination Of Erotic Entertainment And Alcohol, Leslie Jacobs Aug 2014

Demystifying Secondary Effects Analysis: The Example Of The "Explosive" Combination Of Erotic Entertainment And Alcohol, Leslie Jacobs

Leslie Gielow Jacobs

Under secondary effects analysis, regulations that target erotic entertainment are subject to deferential “intermediate” judicial review rather than the strict scrutiny that usually applies to government actions that target protected speech activities based on their content. According to the Justices’ articulations, lesser scrutiny is appropriate because secondary effects are “unrelated to the impact of the speech on its audience.” Although the determination that an effect is “secondary” is critical to moving an ostensibly content based regulation into deferential scrutiny, the Court has never explained how the abstract definition applies to specific asserted “secondary effects” and, following the Court’s lead ...


The Lost Takings Test, Josh Eagle Aug 2014

The Lost Takings Test, Josh Eagle

Josh Eagle

In recent decades, the Supreme Court has used oceanfront property as a principal vehicle for the development of Fifth Amendment takings law. Cases alleging that a state government has taken oceanfront land have produced landmark opinions such as Nollan v. California Coastal Commission (1987), Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council (1992), and Stop the Beach Renourishment v. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2010).

In each of these cases, the Court has applied its standard, positivist takings analysis: first, identifying the rights of the landowner; then, weighing the extent to which the government’s action has limited those rights. This Article ...


Discrimination In Customer Segmentation Marketing Practices, Jude A. Thomas Jun 2014

Discrimination In Customer Segmentation Marketing Practices, Jude A. Thomas

Jude A Thomas

Customer segmentation is a powerful analytical marketing practice that is employed by a wide range of businesses to segregate customers with similar characteristics into subgroups in order to inform operational business processes. Such practices allow firms to better allocate their resources in order to form more profitable customer relationships, but they also have the capacity to lead to unfair discriminatory impact upon customer groups. Current legislation is largely unprotective of customers so positioned, but recent trends in the insurance and lending industries suggest that a broader application of anti-discrimination laws could foretell a future of greater restrictions on the implementation ...


Panelist, "Who Will Be Exempted From The Affordable Care Act? Hobby Lobby, Little Sisters And The Other Religious Exemption Cases Before The Supreme Court", Michael Helfand Feb 2014

Panelist, "Who Will Be Exempted From The Affordable Care Act? Hobby Lobby, Little Sisters And The Other Religious Exemption Cases Before The Supreme Court", Michael Helfand

Michael A Helfand

No abstract provided.


The Future We Want And Constitutionally Enshrined Procedural Rights In Environmental Matters, James May, Erin Daly Dec 2013

The Future We Want And Constitutionally Enshrined Procedural Rights In Environmental Matters, James May, Erin Daly

Erin Daly

No abstract provided.


Inclusionary Eminent Domain, Gerald S. Dickinson Dec 2013

Inclusionary Eminent Domain, Gerald S. Dickinson

Gerald S. Dickinson

This article proposes a paradigm shift in takings law, namely “inclusionary eminent domain.” This new normative concept – paradoxical in nature – rethinks eminent domain as an inclusionary land assembly framework that is equipped with multiple tools to help guide municipalities, private developers and communities construct or preserve affordable housing developments. Analogous to inclusionary zoning, inclusionary eminent domain helps us think about how to fix the “exclusionary eminent domain” phenomenon of displacing low-income families by assembling and negotiating the use of land – prior to, during or after condemnation proceedings – to accommodate affordable housing where condemnation threatens to decrease the supply of and ...


Living The Lifo: Why California Teachers Unions Should Reconsider Last In First Out, Nathan K. Low Jul 2013

Living The Lifo: Why California Teachers Unions Should Reconsider Last In First Out, Nathan K. Low

Nathan K Low

California is one of the most dynamic battleground states where education reformers, teachers’ unions, and school districts are locked in combat to further their respective interests. Over the past several decades, teachers’ unions have been so vilified that support for union-backed policies, no matter how effective, are shunned by the public. A strategic retreat is necessary in order to illustrate flexibility and to show a prioritization of students’ education rights. Within Los Angeles Unified School district, the second largest school district in the country, reformers are fighting for more teacher accountability through both legislation and litigation. The upcoming, paramount case ...


Fifteen Years And Death: Double Jeopardy, Multiple Punishments, And Extended Stays On Death Row, Michael J. Johnson Jul 2013

Fifteen Years And Death: Double Jeopardy, Multiple Punishments, And Extended Stays On Death Row, Michael J. Johnson

Michael P. Johnson

Fifteen Years and Death is a Note that considers a completely novel application of the Double Jeopardy Clause to excessive time on death row. Traditionally, death penalty opponents have attacked the now fifteen-year average wait time on death row as a violation of the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition on cruel and unusual punishments, but this argument has fallen flat time and time again as courts have been reluctant to find merely living in prison to be “cruel” or “unusual.” Most courts do admit, however, that such time on death row does constitute some sort of punishment. As originally imagined, the ...


Federal Habeas Corpus: Executive Detention And Post-Conviction Litigation, Brandon Garrett, Lee Kovarsky May 2013

Federal Habeas Corpus: Executive Detention And Post-Conviction Litigation, Brandon Garrett, Lee Kovarsky

Lee Kovarsky

This casebook is the first to cover federal habeas corpus comprehensively, presenting post-conviction review and executive detention litigation in an accessible way. It is designed both for standalone courses on habeas corpus, and for courses focusing on post-conviction litigation, wrongful convictions, and national security detention. The first two chapters introduce students to the habeas privilege and the Suspension Clause. A four-chapter unit on post-conviction litigation carefully explores cognizability, procedural doctrines, and merits adjudication. Two chapters develop the role habeas plays in review of immigration and other types of civil detention. A substantial two-chapter unit examines habeas review of military custody.


The Implausibility Of Secrecy, Mark Fenster Feb 2013

The Implausibility Of Secrecy, Mark Fenster

Mark Fenster

Government secrecy frequently fails. Despite the executive branch’s obsessive hoarding of certain kinds of documents and its constitutional authority to do so, recent high-profile events—among them the WikiLeaks episode, the Obama administration’s celebrated leak prosecutions, and the widespread disclosure by high-level officials of flattering confidential information to sympathetic reporters—undercut the image of a state that can classify and control its information. The effort to control government information requires human, bureaucratic, technological, and textual mechanisms that regularly founder or collapse in an administrative state, sometimes immediately and sometimes after an interval. Leaks, mistakes, open sources—each of ...


Originalism & Same-Sex Marriage, Grant R. Darwin Feb 2013

Originalism & Same-Sex Marriage, Grant R. Darwin

Grant R Darwin

Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia has repeatedly asserted that same-sex marriage is an easy question for originalism; it is clearly not within the Constitution’s purview. The purpose of this Article is to challenge that claim by illustrating how an originalist could find that denying same-sex marriage contravenes the original public meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. It seeks first to ascertain the original public meaning of Section One of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Article finds that Section One may serve as a prohibition on systems of caste and class legislation or alternatively as a ban on partial or special class ...


Janus Capital Group, Inc. V. First Derivative Traders: The Culmination Of The Supreme Court’S Evolution From Liberal To Reactionary In Rule 10b-5 Actions, Charles W. Murdock Feb 2013

Janus Capital Group, Inc. V. First Derivative Traders: The Culmination Of The Supreme Court’S Evolution From Liberal To Reactionary In Rule 10b-5 Actions, Charles W. Murdock

Charles W. Murdock

“Political” decisions such as Citizens United and National Federation of Independent Business (“Obamacare”) reflect the reactionary bent of several Supreme Court justices. But this reactionary trend is discernible in other areas as well. With regard to Rule 10b-5, the Court has handed down a series of decisions that could be grouped into four trilogies. The article examines the trend over the past 40 years which has become increasingly conservative and finally reactionary.

The first trilogy was a liberal one, arguably overextending the scope of Rule 10b-5. This was followed by a conservative trilogy which put a brake on such extension ...


Constitutional Transitions In The Middle East, Sujit Choudhry Dec 2012

Constitutional Transitions In The Middle East, Sujit Choudhry

Sujit Choudhry

No abstract provided.


Beyond Interpretation: The "Cultural Approach" To Understanding Extra-Formal Change In Religious And Constitutional Law (Invited Symposium Contribution), Mark Rosen Dec 2012

Beyond Interpretation: The "Cultural Approach" To Understanding Extra-Formal Change In Religious And Constitutional Law (Invited Symposium Contribution), Mark Rosen

Mark D. Rosen

No abstract provided.


A Constitutional Theory Of Habeas Power, Lee B. Kovarsky Dec 2012

A Constitutional Theory Of Habeas Power, Lee B. Kovarsky

Lee Kovarsky

Modern habeas corpus law generally favors an idiom of individual rights, but the Great Writ’s central feature is judicial power. Throughout the seventeenth-century English Civil Wars, the Glorious Revolution, and the war in the American colonies, the habeas writ was a means by which judges consolidated authority over the question of what counted as 'lawful' custody. Of course, the American Framers did not simply copy the English writ - they embedded it in a Constitutional system of separated powers and dual sovereignty. 'A Constitutional Theory of Habeas Power' is an inquiry into the newly-minted principle that the federal Constitution guarantees ...


American Constitutionalism: Volume Ii: Rights & Liberties, Howard Gillman, Mark Graber, Keith Whittington Dec 2012

American Constitutionalism: Volume Ii: Rights & Liberties, Howard Gillman, Mark Graber, Keith Whittington

Mark Graber

Constitutionalism in the United States is not determined solely by decisions made by the Supreme Court. Moving beyond traditional casebooks, renowned scholars Howard Gillman, Mark A. Graber, and Keith E. Whittington take a refreshingly innovative approach in American Constitutionalism. Organized according to the standard two-semester sequence--in which Volume I covers Structures of Government and Volume II covers Rights and Liberties--this text is unique in that it presents the material in a historical organization within each volume, as opposed to the typical issues-based organization.


Bankruptcy And The Myth Of "Uniform Laws", Daniel A. Austin May 2012

Bankruptcy And The Myth Of "Uniform Laws", Daniel A. Austin

Daniel A. Austin

The Bankruptcy Clause of the Constitution empowers Congress to enact “uniform Laws on the subject of bankruptcies.” Common definitions of the word uniform include “always the same” and “not variable.” Yet the rights and remedies of debtors and creditors in a bankruptcy case vary significantly depending upon the state and federal jurisdiction in which the case is filed. Rather than a single uniform law of bankruptcy, the U.S. has multiple bankruptcy laws and regimes based upon geography.

The cause of bankruptcy nonuniformity lies in the structure of our bankruptcy system. Many sections of the Bankruptcy Code incorporate state law ...


The Ecuadorian Exemplar: The First Ever Vindications Of Constitutional Rights Of Nature, Erin Daly Mar 2012

The Ecuadorian Exemplar: The First Ever Vindications Of Constitutional Rights Of Nature, Erin Daly

Erin Daly

The 'Sala de le Corte Provincial' - a provincial court in Ecuador - became the first court ever to vindicate the recently constitutionalized rights of nature. Recognizing the indisputable importance of the rights of nature for present and future generations, the court held the provincial government liable for flooding damages caused by dumping of construction debris. This judicial victory is arguably overshadowed by challenges facing the plaintiffs in seeing the courts order enforced, however. A subsequent case bears witness to the judiciary’s vindication of rights of nature in Ecuador with ever increasing legal effect.


Judicial Mediation, The Judicial Process And Ch Iii Of The Constitution, Iain Field Jan 2012

Judicial Mediation, The Judicial Process And Ch Iii Of The Constitution, Iain Field

Iain Field

What is judicial mediation, and is it something that Australian judges can or should be doing? A number of commentators have addressed these questions, and a variety of conflicting views have been expressed. This article re-examines judicial mediation from a constitutional perspective. It demonstrates that judicial mediation will ordinarily satisfy the procedural requirements implied by Ch III, and that judges may therefore mediate as a function incidental to the exercise of judicial power. Even to the extent that judicial mediation might not, in practice, satisfy these requirements, it is argued that a constitutional challenge to legislation or rules of court ...


A Step Back For Rights: Supreme Court Failed To Take Bold Action On Civil Liberties In Gps Monitoring Decision, Renée Mcdonald Hutchins Jan 2012

A Step Back For Rights: Supreme Court Failed To Take Bold Action On Civil Liberties In Gps Monitoring Decision, Renée Mcdonald Hutchins

Renée M. Hutchins

Why does it matter that the court reached back to early trespass notions to justify its decision? Because nearly a half-century ago, the court walked away from physical trespass as the touchstone of Fourth Amendment protection.


Strategies And Techniques For Teaching Constitutional Law, Robert Power Dec 2011

Strategies And Techniques For Teaching Constitutional Law, Robert Power

Robert C Power

No abstract provided.


Upside-Down Judicial Review, Corinna Lain Dec 2011

Upside-Down Judicial Review, Corinna Lain

Corinna Lain

The countermajoritarian difficulty assumes that the democratically elected branches are majoritarian and the unelected Supreme Court is not. But sometimes just the opposite is true. Sometimes it is the democratically elected branches that are out of sync with majority will, and the Supreme Court that bridges the gap—turning the conventional understanding of the Court’s function on its head. Instead of a countermajoritarian Court checking the majoritarian branches, we see a majoritarian Court checking the not-so-majoritarian branches, enforcing prevailing norms when the representative branches do not. The result is a distinctly majoritarian, upside-down understanding of judicial review. This Article ...


Why (And To What Extent) Political Liberalism Should Accommodate Perfectionist Religious Groups (Forthcoming), Mark Rosen Dec 2011

Why (And To What Extent) Political Liberalism Should Accommodate Perfectionist Religious Groups (Forthcoming), Mark Rosen

Mark D. Rosen

No abstract provided.