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Comparative Law

2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 144

Full-Text Articles in Law

Consumers Want To Be In Europe; Corporations Want To Be In The U.S.: How To Reform Mandatory Consumer Arbitration Agreements To Be Fair To Both Parties, Kelly Parfitt Dec 2009

Consumers Want To Be In Europe; Corporations Want To Be In The U.S.: How To Reform Mandatory Consumer Arbitration Agreements To Be Fair To Both Parties, Kelly Parfitt

Kelly Parfitt

Arbitration is a popular method of resolving legal disputes between businesses. However, in the last few years, corporations have begun putting mandatory consumer arbitration agreements in small print on sales contracts and receipts for consumer goods, credit cards, and mortgages. Consumers are forced to pay fees much higher than court costs, depending on the case. An arbitrator will do hundreds of cases with the same corporations, be familiar with and even in some cases be affiliated with the corporation. This system results in the overwhelming majority of cases being won by corporations. But in the European Union, consumers are given ...


International Commercial Arbitration And The Transformation Of The Conflict Of Laws Theory, Markus A. Petsche Dec 2009

International Commercial Arbitration And The Transformation Of The Conflict Of Laws Theory, Markus A. Petsche

markus a petsche

No abstract provided.


Down The Rabbit Hole: The Madness Of State Film Incentives As As "Solution" To Runaway Production, Adrian H. Mcdonald Nov 2009

Down The Rabbit Hole: The Madness Of State Film Incentives As As "Solution" To Runaway Production, Adrian H. Mcdonald

Adrian H. McDonald

This working paper is a "sequel" to my first law review article on runaway productions called "Through the Looking Glass": Runaway Productions and "Hollywood Economics," published in The University of Pennsylvania Journal of Labor and Employment Law in August 2007.

Since 2007, there has been a race to the bottom as virtually every state has enacted significant, if not detrimentally generous, tax incentives to lure film and television production. The efficacy of these incentives is evaluated at length, with particular attention paid to the origin and implementation of tax incentives in California, Massachusetts and Louisiana - states with colorful backgrounds on ...


The Principle Of Equal Treatment In Triangular Relationships, Michael Gruenberger Nov 2009

The Principle Of Equal Treatment In Triangular Relationships, Michael Gruenberger

Michael Gruenberger

The European Court of Justice [ECJ] held in Coleman v. Attrigde Law, Case C-303/06, E.C.R. I- [2008], that the prohibition of direct discrimination laid down in Art. 1 and 2 Directive 2000/78/EC is not limited only to people who are themselves disabled, but includes a less favorable treatment of an employee which is based on the disability of her child, whose care is provided primarily by that employee. The Coleman case is the first noticeable case in European anti-discrimination law with facts involving a triangular relationship: the person who presumably discriminates, the injured party and ...


Gaiben & Bengoshi Llp: Cross-Border Legal Practice In Japan, Erich W. Struble Nov 2009

Gaiben & Bengoshi Llp: Cross-Border Legal Practice In Japan, Erich W. Struble

Erich W Struble

In 2005, reforms to Japan’s 1986 Foreign Lawyers Law became effective that permitted foreign law firms to fully merge with Japanese law firms. Several major international law firms immediately took advantage of this liberalization in order to provide more seamless and comprehensive service to their clients. Other international law firms chose not to fully merge with Japanese law firms, opting instead to remain in “joint venture” arrangements with Japanese firms or with individual Japanese bengoshi. Still other international law firms with a presence in Japan have decided to remain independent. After providing the necessary background, this Article explains why ...


Evaluation Of The Design Piracy Prohibition Act: Is The Cure Worse Than The Disease?, Silvia Beltrametti Nov 2009

Evaluation Of The Design Piracy Prohibition Act: Is The Cure Worse Than The Disease?, Silvia Beltrametti

Silvia Beltrametti

Abstract: Is the Design Piracy Prohibition Act a necessary addition to the Intellectual Property panorama of the United States? American designers and otherwise creative minds do not have any means to protect their innovative design creations because none of the existing intellectual property measures can be tailored to the protection of design rights. To explore this issue, I go back to the underlying reasons for prohibiting the trade of counterfeit goods and I argue that counterfeiting and design piracy are analytically similar and there is no reason justifying a different legal treatment, especially given the close interrelation of these two ...


Down The Rabbit Hole: The Madness Of State Film Incentives As As "Solution" To Runaway Production, Adrian H. Mcdonald Nov 2009

Down The Rabbit Hole: The Madness Of State Film Incentives As As "Solution" To Runaway Production, Adrian H. Mcdonald

Adrian H. McDonald

This working paper is a "sequel" to my first law review article on runaway productions called "Through the Looking Glass": Runaway Productions and "Hollywood Economics," published in The University of Pennsylvania Journal of Labor and Employment Law in August 2007.

Since 2007, there has been a race to the bottom as virtually every state has enacted significant, if not detrimentally generous, tax incentives to lure film and television production. The efficacy of these incentives is evaluated at length, with particular attention paid to the origin and implementation of tax incentives in California, Massachusetts and Louisiana - states with colorful backgrounds on ...


Public Interest Litigation In India: Overreaching Or Underachieving?, Varun Gauri Nov 2009

Public Interest Litigation In India: Overreaching Or Underachieving?, Varun Gauri

Varun Gauri

Public interest litigation has historically been an innovative judicial procedure for enhancing the social and economic rights of disadvantaged and marginalized groups in India. In recent years, however, a number of criticisms of public interest litigation have emerged, including concerns related to separation of powers, judicial capacity, and inequality. These criticisms have tended to abstraction, and the sheer number of cases has complicated empirical assessments. This paper finds that public interest litigation cases constitute less than 1 percent of the overall case load. The paper argues that complaints related to concerns having to do with separation of powers are better ...


How Do Local-Level Legal Institutions Promote Development?, Varun Gauri Nov 2009

How Do Local-Level Legal Institutions Promote Development?, Varun Gauri

Varun Gauri

This paper develops a framework and some hypotheses regarding the impact of local-level, informal legal institutions on three economic outcomes: aggregate growth, inequality, and human capabilities. It presents a set of stylized differences between formal and informal legal justice systems, identifies the pathways through which formal systems promote economic outcomes, reflects on what the stylized differences mean for the potential impact of informal legal institutions on economic outcomes, and looks at extant case studies to examine the plausibility of the arguments presented. The paper concludes that local-level, informal legal institutions can support social substitutes for the enforcement of contracts, although ...


Cooperation Before Contract: The Law And Policy Of Expenses Incurred During Negotiations In Comparative Perspective, Luigi Russi Oct 2009

Cooperation Before Contract: The Law And Policy Of Expenses Incurred During Negotiations In Comparative Perspective, Luigi Russi

Luigi Russi

Pending negotiations for a contract, one party may begin to incur expenses in fulfilment of the proposed economic operation in anticipation of the finalisation of a formal contract, which is a common practice in many settings, from building and lease contracts to contracts for services in general. This book, therefore, focuses on controversies that may arise when an expected contract collapses after one party withdraws from negotiations, with an ensuing attempt to determine what liability, if any, the withdrawing party should face regarding expenses incurred by the other. The laws of England and Italy, along with several non-legislative codifications – including ...


African Law In Comparative Law: Does Comparativism Have Worth?, Christian N. Okeke Oct 2009

African Law In Comparative Law: Does Comparativism Have Worth?, Christian N. Okeke

Christian N Okeke

No abstract provided.


Prospective Of Foreign Prosecution History Estoppel In Korean Patent Litigation, Hyung Joon Lee Oct 2009

Prospective Of Foreign Prosecution History Estoppel In Korean Patent Litigation, Hyung Joon Lee

Hyung Joon Lee

This Article responds to an emerging view, in patent litigation, to employ foreign prosecution history estoppel as a doctrine in claim construction. In this regard, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (hereinafter, referred to as CAFC) has found a representation made during a patent litigation in Korea to be effective as a prosecution history estoppel in a U.S. patent infringement suit, i.e., AstraZeneca v. Andrx Pharmaceuticals (04-1562). This Article reviews the foundation of this decision, such as Doctrine of Equivalents and Prosecution History Estoppel. Subsequently, the present Article examines several important cases to analyze ...


How (Not) To Discourage The Unscrupulous Copyist, Peter L. Ludwig Oct 2009

How (Not) To Discourage The Unscrupulous Copyist, Peter L. Ludwig

Peter L. Ludwig

This short article explores how the U.S. and Japanese courts implement the doctrine of equivalence when determining patent infringement. The doctrine of equivalence is a balance of, on one hand, the public’s interest to know the metes and bounds of the patent; and on the other hand, the private interest of the patentee to be granted a sufficient scope for the granted patent. After comparing and contrasting the courts’ implementation of the doctrine, I propose a new method that places the burden on the patent practitioner, before infringement proceedings begin, to determine the proper scope of the patent.


Freeze-Outs: Transcontinental Analysis And Reform Proposals, Marco Ventoruzzo Oct 2009

Freeze-Outs: Transcontinental Analysis And Reform Proposals, Marco Ventoruzzo

Marco Ventoruzzo

One of the most crucial, but systematically neglected, comparative differences between corporate law systems in Europe and in the United States, as crucial as often neglected, concerns the regulations governing freeze-out transactions in listed corporations. Freeze-outs can be defined as transactions in which the controlling shareholder exercises a legal right to buy out the shares of the minority, and consequently delists the corporation and brings it private. Beyond this essential definition, the systems diverge profoundly.

This gap exists despite the fact that minority freeze-outs are one of the most debated issues in corporate law, in the public media, in a ...


Solar Energy Policy In Canada: An Overview Of Recent Legislative And Community-Based Trends Towards A Coherent Renewable Energy Sustainability Framework, Kamaal Zaidi Oct 2009

Solar Energy Policy In Canada: An Overview Of Recent Legislative And Community-Based Trends Towards A Coherent Renewable Energy Sustainability Framework, Kamaal Zaidi

Kamaal Zaidi

This paper outlines solar energy policy in Canada, in the hopes of advancing renewable energy policy. More specifically, the most recent advances in public policy relating to renewable energy are examined in selected provinces to show how solar energy is on the rise in Canada. The technology behind solar energy is briefly analyzed, while the legal aspects of solar energy are covered to build upon the discussion in various provinces. Since much of Canadian solar energy policy draws from Germany, Japan, and the United States, these three jurisdictions are mentioned to show their solar energy policies. The paper ends with ...


Vietnam's Eligibility To Receive Trade Benefits Under The U.S. Generalized System Of Preferences, Alexander H. Tuzin Oct 2009

Vietnam's Eligibility To Receive Trade Benefits Under The U.S. Generalized System Of Preferences, Alexander H. Tuzin

Alexander H. Tuzin

Last year, Vietnam officially requested to receive trade benefits under the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) as a beneficiary developing country. The accompanying article initially examines the role of GSP programs within the WTO system, and then provides a comprehensive analysis of Vietnam’s prospects for receiving trade benefits under the U.S. GSP system. Vietnam remains a very poor country, and it could benefit considerably from preferential treatment under the U.S. GSP program. However, Vietnam’s compliance with the GSP eligibility criteria is problematic. In particular, Vietnam’s protections for both intellectual property rights and worker ...


The International Criminal Court: Will It Succeed Or Fail? Determinative Factors And A Case Study On This Question, Thomas L. Thompson-Flores Oct 2009

The International Criminal Court: Will It Succeed Or Fail? Determinative Factors And A Case Study On This Question, Thomas L. Thompson-Flores

Thomas L Thompson-Flores

This article addresses some of the challenges facing the International Criminal Court (ICC) in a condensed, but yet in-depth manner, and then applies them in a case study in order to answer the question of whether the ICC will ultimately fail or succeed.


Listening To Indigenous Voices: What The Un Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples Means For U.S. Tribes, Aliza G. Organick Oct 2009

Listening To Indigenous Voices: What The Un Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples Means For U.S. Tribes, Aliza G. Organick

Aliza G. Organick

When the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in September, 2009, it was heralded as a major victory for all of the world’s Indigenous Peoples, as well as international human rights. This remarkable effort took over two decades to come to fruition and recognizes that Indigenous Peoples worldwide continue to suffer from the dispossession of their lands and resources and that existing human rights documents did not do enough to protect those rights. The Declaration not only reaffirms the basic human rights recognized in the Universal Declaration on Human ...


The Case Of Binyam Mohamed: National Security Or National Embarrassment?, Diane Webber Oct 2009

The Case Of Binyam Mohamed: National Security Or National Embarrassment?, Diane Webber

Diane Webber

This paper reviews the case of Binyam Mohamed, a British resident and former Guantanamo detainee. Mohamed’s case generated litigation in four different places: 1) proceedings in the military commissions court in Guantanamo Bay to try him under terrorist charges; 2) federal proceedings under an application for habeas corpus in the US District Court in Washington D.C.; 3) an application in the High Court in London where Mohamed’s lawyers sought disclosure of exculpatory material that the US had refused to provide to his US attorneys; and 4) a civilian litigation action under the Alien Tort Statute action in ...


Things Fall Apart: The Illegitimacy Of Property Rights In The Context Of Past Theft, Bernadette Atuahene Oct 2009

Things Fall Apart: The Illegitimacy Of Property Rights In The Context Of Past Theft, Bernadette Atuahene

All Faculty Scholarship

In many states, past property theft is a volatile political issue that threatens to destabilize nascent democracies. How does a state avoid instability when past property theft causes a significant number of people to believe that the property distribution is illegitimate? To explore this question, I first define legitimacy relying on an empirical understanding of the concept. Second, I establish the relationship between inequality, illegitimate property distribution, and instability. Third, I describe the three ways a state can achieve stability when faced with an illegitimate property distribution: by using its coercive powers, by attempting to change people’s beliefs about ...


Policy, Perspective, And The Proxy Will, Ralph C. Brashier Oct 2009

Policy, Perspective, And The Proxy Will, Ralph C. Brashier

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


“Ever Thine, Ever Mine, Ever Ours”? The European Union’S Common Foreign And Security Policy Expressed Through International Organizations., Ian Foss Sep 2009

“Ever Thine, Ever Mine, Ever Ours”? The European Union’S Common Foreign And Security Policy Expressed Through International Organizations., Ian Foss

Ian Foss

The European Union (EU) is perhaps the most successful example of multilateralism to date. Not only has the EU prevented the scourge of war from bloodying Europe’s soil since its inception as the European Coal and Steel Community, but it has also become one of the largest trading blocs in the world, promoter of Human Rights, and counterweight to United States hegemony. States are loath to give up their sovereignty, but remarkably, EU member states have been doing just that, albeit incrementally, since the 1950s. Recently, the EU has increased its action internationally; however, international relations realists balk at ...


How Do Local-Level Legal Institutions Promote Development?, Varun Gauri Sep 2009

How Do Local-Level Legal Institutions Promote Development?, Varun Gauri

Varun Gauri

This paper develops a framework and some hypotheses regarding the impact of local-level, informal legal institutions on three economic outcomes: aggregate growth, inequality, and human capabilities. It presents a set of stylized differences between formal and informal legal justice systems, identifies the pathways through which formal systems promote economic outcomes, reflects on what the stylized differences mean for the potential impact of informal legal institutions on economic outcomes, and looks at extant case studies to examine the plausibility of the arguments presented. The paper concludes that local-level, informal legal institutions can support social substitutes for the enforcement of contracts, though ...


Why Japanese Entrepreneurs Don't Give Up Control To Venture Capitalists, Zenichi Shishido Sep 2009

Why Japanese Entrepreneurs Don't Give Up Control To Venture Capitalists, Zenichi Shishido

Zenichi Shishido

The biggest difference in the incentive bargains between entrepreneurs and venture capitalists in the US and Japan is that American entrepreneurs abandon control while Japanese entrepreneurs do not. Years ago, Black & Gilson tried to explain the difference by the existence and non-existence of liquid IPO markets. Although now there are multiple liquid IPO markets in Japan, Japanese entrepreneurs are still reluctant to abandon control of their companies to venture capitalists. While there must be many complementary reasons, such as different market situations, different social norms, etc., for the difference, I will raise a hypothesis that it can be partly explained ...


Connecticut Yankee Speech In Europe’S Court: Alternative Vision Of Constitutional Defamation Law To New York Times V. Sullivan?, Allen E. Shoenberger Sep 2009

Connecticut Yankee Speech In Europe’S Court: Alternative Vision Of Constitutional Defamation Law To New York Times V. Sullivan?, Allen E. Shoenberger

Allen E Shoenberger

The article compares and contrasts the defamation law of the European Court of Human Rights(ECHR) with that of the United States, with particular reference to NY Times v. Sullivan. The NY Times actual malice standard not only over-protects speakers, it denies a name clearing hearing to the target of defamatory speech. This is of increasing importance as new media, such as the internet, make it so easy to communicate false, defamatory statements about anyone, including in particular elected officials and candidates. President Obama was first elected to the U.S. Senate because of a sex scandal that tainted his ...


Connecticut Yankee Speech In Europe’S Court: Alternative Vision Of Constitutional Defamation Law To New York Times V. Sullivan?, Allen E. Shoenberger Sep 2009

Connecticut Yankee Speech In Europe’S Court: Alternative Vision Of Constitutional Defamation Law To New York Times V. Sullivan?, Allen E. Shoenberger

Allen E Shoenberger

The article compares and contrasts the defamation law of the European Court of Human Rights(ECHR) with that of the United States, with particular reference to NY Times v. Sullivan. The NY Times actual malice standard not only over-protects speakers, it denies a name clearing hearing to the target of defamatory speech. This is of increasing importance as new media, such as the internet, make it so easy to communicate false, defamatory statements about anyone, including in particular elected officials and candidates. President Obama was first elected to the U.S. Senate because of a sex scandal that tainted his ...


The Financial Crisis Of 2009 - Have Reorganization Proceedings In Emerging Markets Gone Bankrupt? Israel As A Case Study, David Hahn Sep 2009

The Financial Crisis Of 2009 - Have Reorganization Proceedings In Emerging Markets Gone Bankrupt? Israel As A Case Study, David Hahn

David Hahn

The financial crisis of 2009 affected markets all over the world, presenting an unprecedented challenge for international regulators. In emerging markets, firms began raising significant amounts of debt through corporate bonds only in recent years. When such markets crashed, and firms could no longer pay bondholders, regulators were forced to adopt innovative policies to cope with the problem. This paper explores the possible regulatory responses to the crisis, by focusing on the actions taken by regulators in Israel. The paper outlines the various mechanisms that have been employed and offered to combat the crisis and highlights their shortcomings. It then ...


Change Is Needed; How Latinos Are Affected By The United States Criminal Justice System, Christopher F. Bagnato Sep 2009

Change Is Needed; How Latinos Are Affected By The United States Criminal Justice System, Christopher F. Bagnato

Christopher F. Bagnato

Latinos have been present in this country for centuries. They slowly have been making their mark in the communities of this country, usually seen but not really heard or noticed. Yet during the past thirty years the amount of Latino immigrants has skyrocketed. Census projections indicate that Latinos will be the biggest minority population in this county in the near future. The issues with discrimination of Latinos started on the streets with phrases like, “racial profiling” and “driving while brown,” and have moved into new places like the courtroom. Latinos have had to face not only the burden of prejudice ...


The Final Frontier: Incorporating Aspects Of Culture And History In The Formation Of A Workable, Legal Framework For Outer Space, Brett S. Janos Aug 2009

The Final Frontier: Incorporating Aspects Of Culture And History In The Formation Of A Workable, Legal Framework For Outer Space, Brett S. Janos

Brett S. Janos

No abstract provided.


Harmonization Of International Legal Structure For Fostering Professional Services: Lessons From Early U.S. Federal-State Relations, Deth Sao Aug 2009

Harmonization Of International Legal Structure For Fostering Professional Services: Lessons From Early U.S. Federal-State Relations, Deth Sao

Deth Sao

In the current global marketplace, liberalization of trade in professional services (“services”) presents one of the biggest challenges and profitable opportunities for the international community. Changes in technology and state privatization polices over the past half century have made services the fastest growing sector in international trade. Despite such a transformation, the potential for further innovation and expansion in the services industries is in jeopardy. In response to public policy and regulatory concerns and political pressures to protect domestic jobs and industries, states have adopted a plethora of state-initiated discriminatory and restrictive policies against trade in services. Because existing international ...