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Full-Text Articles in Law

Extending Predation Analysis To Monopolist's Bundled Discounts Under Section 2: An Economic, Legal, And Comparative Perspective, Seth B. Chertok Dec 2005

Extending Predation Analysis To Monopolist's Bundled Discounts Under Section 2: An Economic, Legal, And Comparative Perspective, Seth B. Chertok

ExpressO

In LePage’s v. 3M, the Third Circuit decided the first case at the federal appellate court level that dealt with the subject of bundled discounts by a monopolist under Section 2 of the Sherman Act in the period following the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Brooke Group Ltd. v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation. Prior to the decision in Brooke Group, the Third Circuit had only once before addressed this topic in Smithkline Corp. v. Eli Lilly and Company. Smithkline is only significant because it nearly suggested that any bundled discount, regardless of whether above or below cost, was anti-competitive. …


“The (Cisg) Road Less Travelled”: Case Comment On Grecon Dimter Inc. V. J.R. Normand Inc., Antonin I. Pribetic Dec 2005

“The (Cisg) Road Less Travelled”: Case Comment On Grecon Dimter Inc. V. J.R. Normand Inc., Antonin I. Pribetic

ExpressO

At first glance, the Supreme Court of Canada's recent decision in GreCon Dimter Inc. v. J.R. Normand Inc. appears to be a case upholding the primacy of international commercial arbitration, choice of forum and choice of law clauses. Upon closer scrutiny, however, the Supreme Court of Canada failed to consider the application of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) to the overall dispute. Interestingly, the same choice of forum and choice of law clauses were considered by the United States Court of Appeals a year earlier in GreCon Dimter, Incorporated v. Horner Flooring Company, …


Tracing, Peter B. Oh Nov 2005

Tracing, Peter B. Oh

ExpressO

Tracing is a method that appears within multiple fields of law. Distinct conceptions of tracing, however, have arisen independently within securities and remedial law. In the securities context plaintiffs must “trace” their securities to a specific offering to pursue certain relief under the Securities Act of 1933. In the remedial context victims who “trace” their misappropriated value into a wrongdoer’s hands can claim any derivative value, even if it has appreciated.

This article is the first to compare and then cross-apply tracing within these two contexts. Specifically, this article argues that securities law should adopt a version of the “rules-based …


Awarding Damages Under The United Nations Convention On The International Sale Of Goods: A Matter Of Interpretation, John Gotanda Sep 2005

Awarding Damages Under The United Nations Convention On The International Sale Of Goods: A Matter Of Interpretation, John Gotanda

John Y Gotanda

This article seeks to further a great aspiration of international law, providing a uniform set of rules governing trade. To this end, it offers a new method of interpreting the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods that would foster greater uniformity among decisions calculating damages.

Claims for damages in transnational contract disputes often involve millions of dollars. While the Convention provides for the awarding of damages, the relevant articles set forth only the most basic framework for calculating damages. To resolve unsettled issues concerning the calculation of damages, courts and tribunals have turned to domestic rules, instead …


The Accuracy And Manipulability Of Lost Profits Damages Calculations: Should The Trier Of Fact Be "Reasonably Certain"?, Jonathan T. Tomlin, David Merrell Sep 2005

The Accuracy And Manipulability Of Lost Profits Damages Calculations: Should The Trier Of Fact Be "Reasonably Certain"?, Jonathan T. Tomlin, David Merrell

ExpressO

The accuracy and manipulability of calculations for lost profits damages are critical determinants of the ability of harmed parties to receive just compensation in a wide range of legal cases including antitrust, fraud, false advertising, intellectual property infringement, and breach of contract. They are also important determinants of the deterrent effects of the law. Using a sample of over 5,000 U.S. firms, we show that simple damages methods are capable of being substantially inaccurate. We also show that damages methods in general are highly susceptible to manipulation. In the absence of reasonable justifications for why particular data sets and methods …


Income Tax Claims In The Year Of Bankruptcy: A Congressionally Created Quagmire, Gregory L. Germain Sep 2005

Income Tax Claims In The Year Of Bankruptcy: A Congressionally Created Quagmire, Gregory L. Germain

ExpressO

How is the government's claim for income taxes incurred by a debtor in the year of bankruptcy treated? Is the government's tax claim entitled to priority as a first priority expense of administration, even though part of the year's taxes was incurred prepetition? If not, is the claim entitled to eighth priority under its special rule for tax claims? The courts did not reach consistent results on these questions prior to the 2005 Act. The courts agreed that the government's claim for pre-petition taxes should not be entitled to administrative expense priority, but differed on whether the claim was entitled …


Section 6: Business Law, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law, William & Mary Law School Sep 2005

Section 6: Business Law, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law, William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Casenote: Killing Life Partners: Why Viatical Settlements Constitute Securities – In Light Of The Sec V. Mutual Benefits Corporation And Other Recent Cases Explicitly Rejecting Life Partners, Brian Levin Sep 2005

Casenote: Killing Life Partners: Why Viatical Settlements Constitute Securities – In Light Of The Sec V. Mutual Benefits Corporation And Other Recent Cases Explicitly Rejecting Life Partners, Brian Levin

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Bankruptcy Abuse: An Empirical Study Of Consumer Exemptions Cases, Bernard Trujillo Sep 2005

Bankruptcy Abuse: An Empirical Study Of Consumer Exemptions Cases, Bernard Trujillo

ExpressO

On April 20, 2005, the President of the United States signed a sweeping legislative overhaul of the consumer bankruptcy system. The bankruptcy reform legislation is based on an empirical assertion: that sophisticated debtors with the means to re-pay their debts were instead filing for bankruptcy and acquiring a discharge, thereby abusing the bankruptcy system.

This Article presents the results of an empirical study of bankruptcy court doctrine in consumer exemptions proceedings over a twenty-year period. The findings suggest a serious empirical flaw in the premise of the bankruptcy reform legislation. The study shows that the bankruptcy system minimizes abuse by …


Better Than Cash? Global Proliferation Of Debit And Prepaid Cards And Consumer Protection Policy, Arnold S. Rosenberg Sep 2005

Better Than Cash? Global Proliferation Of Debit And Prepaid Cards And Consumer Protection Policy, Arnold S. Rosenberg

ExpressO

A global deluge of debit cards and prepaid cards – payment cards that do not require consumers to qualify for credit – is rapidly making electronic payment systems accessible to much of the world’s population that previously paid in cash for goods and services. The global proliferation of payment cards is fraught with both risk and promise for consumers.

The billions of people of low to moderate incomes who are being hurled from a cash economy into the era of electronic payments in emerging economies by the proliferation of debit and prepaid cards are particularly vulnerable to abuses by banks …


Breaking The Bank: Revisiting Central Bank Of Denver After Enron And Sarbanes-Oxley, Celia Taylor Sep 2005

Breaking The Bank: Revisiting Central Bank Of Denver After Enron And Sarbanes-Oxley, Celia Taylor

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Scrooge—The Reluctant Stakeholder, Benedict C. Sheehy Aug 2005

Scrooge—The Reluctant Stakeholder, Benedict C. Sheehy

Benedict Sheehy

Abstract: Corporations law around the world is moving in the direction of the shareholder primacy model, common in the USA and other common law countries. Lawyers, academics and public policy analysts are divided as to the merits of the model and its main competitor, the stakeholder model. The gist of arguments usually hinge on economics. This article examines the claims for and against the two models on their own terms, and suggests that law has a unique contribution to make to the development of the corporation and society.


Sailing Around Erie:The Emergence Of A Federal General Common Law Of Arbitration, Kenneth Dunham Aug 2005

Sailing Around Erie:The Emergence Of A Federal General Common Law Of Arbitration, Kenneth Dunham

ExpressO

This paper traces the history of American arbitration from the common law to the FAA. It discusses the FAA as a procedural act prior to Southland v. Keating and as a substantive law act following Southland. It discusses the Erie doctrine as applicable to federal courts and state law preemption. The article concludes that Southland by-passed Erie using the Commerce Clause and the Supremacy Clause to create a federal common law of arbitration.


Finding The Contract In Contracts For Law, Forum, And Arbitration, William John Woodward Aug 2005

Finding The Contract In Contracts For Law, Forum, And Arbitration, William John Woodward

ExpressO

Contract provisions specifying the law or forum (either judicial or arbitration) have begun appearing in litigated cases, as businesses have pressed many courts for their enforcement against consumers. In at least some of the cases, enforcement of a choice of law provision results in the displacement of the consumer’s home state protection by the lesser consumer protection of the State of the form drafter’s choosing. This phenomenon raises serious problems of federalism and local control of consumer protection. But while considerable scholarly attention has been lavished on so-called “mandatory arbitration” in this context, much less has attempted to improve our …


Is Forum-Shopping Corrupting America's Bankruptcy Courts? Review Of Lynn M. Lopucki, "Courting Failure: How Competition For Big Cases Is Corrupting The Bankruptcy Courts", Todd J. Zywicki Aug 2005

Is Forum-Shopping Corrupting America's Bankruptcy Courts? Review Of Lynn M. Lopucki, "Courting Failure: How Competition For Big Cases Is Corrupting The Bankruptcy Courts", Todd J. Zywicki

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

In his new book, Courting Failure: How Competition for Big Cases is Corrupting the Bankruptcy Courts, Professor Lynn LoPucki’s book argues that that current bankruptcy venue rules have spawned an improper “competition for big cases” that has “corrupted” America’s bankruptcy courts. LoPucki argues that this competition has harmed the bankruptcy system and the economy, transferring wealth from creditors and employees to incumbent management and bankruptcy professionals. He also argues that the competition that has corrupted the American bankruptcy system is being replicated internationally, resulting in a similar competition and similar harm on the global stage.

This essay reviews LoPucki’s book …


The Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Introduction, Stephen L. Sepinuck, Robyn L. Meadows, Russell A. Hakes Jul 2005

The Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Introduction, Stephen L. Sepinuck, Robyn L. Meadows, Russell A. Hakes

Russell A. Hakes

No abstract provided.


Collins Entertainment Corp., V. Coats & Coats Rental Amusement Opens The Door For Lost Volume Sellers, But Does Not Fully Invite Them In: An Examination Of The Adoption Of The Lost Volume Seller Doctrine In South Carolina, W. H. Mcangus Jr. Jul 2005

Collins Entertainment Corp., V. Coats & Coats Rental Amusement Opens The Door For Lost Volume Sellers, But Does Not Fully Invite Them In: An Examination Of The Adoption Of The Lost Volume Seller Doctrine In South Carolina, W. H. Mcangus Jr.

South Carolina Law Review

No abstract provided.


Accountability Of Transnational Corporations Under International Standards, Lea Hanakova Jul 2005

Accountability Of Transnational Corporations Under International Standards, Lea Hanakova

LLM Theses and Essays

Due to the process of globalization and rapid economic evolution in the last several years, transnational corporations have become extremely powerful. There is an evident disproportion between the numerous rights enjoyed by transnational corporations and the scarce obligations undertaken by them. Given their transnational nature, transnational corporations have been successfully avoiding national regulations of both their home and host states, and they are seeking to operate in countries with the lowest standards so as to increase their profits. This has resulted in the violation of basic human rights. Therefore, there is an increasing need for the creation of international instruments …


Is It A Subsidy? An Evaluation Of China's Currency Regime And Its Compliance With The Wto, Matthew R. Leviton Jun 2005

Is It A Subsidy? An Evaluation Of China's Currency Regime And Its Compliance With The Wto, Matthew R. Leviton

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


General Intangible Or Commercial Tort: Moral Rights And State Based Intellectual Property As Collateral Under Ucc Revised Article 9, Lars Smith Jun 2005

General Intangible Or Commercial Tort: Moral Rights And State Based Intellectual Property As Collateral Under Ucc Revised Article 9, Lars Smith

ExpressO

The article focuses on whether this change to Article 9 requires a reevaluation of whether certain intellectual property rights are better characterized as commercial torts rather than general intangibles. If so, this will place severe restrictions on the ability of debtors to use those forms of intellectual property as collateral. I propose a two part test to determine the proper characterization: First, is the intellectual property right one that exists primarily to vindicate interests of the owner? Second, is the intellectual property right alienable? Using this test, for example, it is my conclusion that moral rights can never be general …


International Antisuit Injunctions: Enjoining Foreign Litigations And Arbitrations - Beholding The System From Outside, Marco Stacher May 2005

International Antisuit Injunctions: Enjoining Foreign Litigations And Arbitrations - Beholding The System From Outside, Marco Stacher

Cornell Law School J.D. Student Research Papers

Antisuit injunctions are issued by a court to prevent a party from bringing suit in another forum. They are a powerful tool available to American courts to implement their decision on jurisdiction. It goes without saying that granting such an injunction de facto affects the capability of the other forum to hear the dispute, which conflicts with the principle of comity. American courts therefore only enjoin a party from proceeding in another forum if certain criteria are satisfied. This paper discusses these criteria in the context of international litigations and arbitrations. It analyzes the case law on this issue and …


Harmonizing Business Laws In Africa: Ohada Calls The Tune, Claire M. Dickerson May 2005

Harmonizing Business Laws In Africa: Ohada Calls The Tune, Claire M. Dickerson

ExpressO

OHADA (in English, “Organization for Harmonization in Africa of Business Laws”) is a system of business laws and implementing institutions. Sixteen West African nations adopted this regime in order to increase their attractiveness to foreign investment. Because most of the member-states are former French colonies, the OHADA laws are based on the French legal system. Despite certain economists’ recent, well-publicized assertions that any French-based legal system is incompatible with development, other studies challenge those claims and in doing so outline characteristics that a pro-development system of business laws should possess. A review of selected provisions from OHADA’s corporate law and …


What Makes Asset Securitization "Inefficient"?, Kenji Yamazaki May 2005

What Makes Asset Securitization "Inefficient"?, Kenji Yamazaki

ExpressO

Despite the damage caused by the recent Enron scandal , the asset securitization market has been vibrant and has become a popular financing alternative . A number of academics emphasize its merits and suggest that it is a more favorable way of financing, and Congress’s proposal to make sales of asset in securitization immune from characterization as secured transactions under the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2001 (the “Reform Act”) almost materialized when the Enron scandal hit the scene. Conversely, there have been accusations that securitization is not a legitimate way of financing because, for example, it fosters fraudulent transactions.

Why …


The Deregulation Of International Trucking In The European Union: Form And Effect, Francine Lafontaine, Laura M. Valeri Apr 2005

The Deregulation Of International Trucking In The European Union: Form And Effect, Francine Lafontaine, Laura M. Valeri

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This paper examines how the deregulation of the international road transport industry in Western Europe has affected 1- the total quantity of cross-border road transport in the region; 2- the degree to which shippers outsource rather than integrate vertically their cross-border transport needs; and 3- the extent to which different countries participate in international road freight transport in Western Europe. Not surprisingly, we find that deregulation has had a large positive effect on the amount of international road transport net of the effect of the trade ties that grew over time among European Union countries. Moreover, consistent with the fact …


Antitrust Analysis Of B2b Transaction, Akira Inoue Apr 2005

Antitrust Analysis Of B2b Transaction, Akira Inoue

Cornell Law School Inter-University Graduate Student Conference Papers

B2B is a business-to-business market place that uses internet to connect each other business. It has gotten a lot more attention recently in Japan as well as in the U.S. because it is possible to lower the procurement costs of raw material and accomplish several procompetitive effects such as communication efficiencies. However, in spite of these pro transactional natures of B2B, it could also cause anticompetitive effects on market place. In other words, the fact that buyers communicate easily through the internet means they could easily form a cartel or conclude an agreement to restrain the free competition and it …


From St. Ives To Cyberspace: The Modern Distortion Of The Medieval 'Law Merchant', Stephen E. Sachs Mar 2005

From St. Ives To Cyberspace: The Modern Distortion Of The Medieval 'Law Merchant', Stephen E. Sachs

ExpressO

Modern advocates of corporate self-regulation have drawn unlikely inspiration from the Middle Ages. On the traditional view of history, medieval merchants who wandered from fair to fair were not governed by domestic laws, but by their own lex mercatoria, or "law merchant." This law, which uniformly regulated commerce across Europe, was supposedly produced by an autonomous merchant class, interpreted in private courts, and enforced through private sanctions rather than state coercion. Contemporary writers have treated global corporations as descendants of these itinerant traders, urging them to replace conflicting national laws with a law of their own creation. The standard history …


Price, Path & Pride: Third-Party Closing Opinion Practice Among U.S. Lawyers (A Preliminary Investigation), Jonathan C. Lipson Mar 2005

Price, Path & Pride: Third-Party Closing Opinion Practice Among U.S. Lawyers (A Preliminary Investigation), Jonathan C. Lipson

ExpressO

This article presents the first in-depth exploration of third-party closing opinions, a common but curious – and potentially troubling -- feature of U.S. business law practice. Third-party closing opinions are letters delivered at the closing of most large transactions by the attorney for one party (e.g., the borrower) to the other party (e.g., the lender) offering limited assurance that the transaction will have legal force and effect.

Hundreds, if not thousands, of legal opinions are delivered every week. Yet, lawyers often complain that they create needless risk and cost, and produce little benefit. Closing opinions thus pose a basic question: …


Patterns In A Complex System: An Empirical Study Of Valuation In Business Bankruptcy Cases, Bernard Trujillo Mar 2005

Patterns In A Complex System: An Empirical Study Of Valuation In Business Bankruptcy Cases, Bernard Trujillo

ExpressO

This Article applies complex systems research methods to explore the characteristics of the bankruptcy legal system, presenting the results of an empirical study of twenty years of bankruptcy court valuation doctrine in business cramdown cases. These data provide solid descriptions of how courts exercise their discretion in valuing firms and assets.

This Article accomplishes two objectives: First, using scientific methodology, this Article explains the content of bankruptcy valuation doctrine. Second, this Article uses doctrine as a variable to explore system dynamics that govern the processes of change over time.

Significant findings include (i) courts tend to “split the difference” in …


Institutions, Incentives, And Consumer Bankruptcy Reform, Todd Zywicki Mar 2005

Institutions, Incentives, And Consumer Bankruptcy Reform, Todd Zywicki

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

Consumer bankruptcy filing rates have soared during the past 25 years. From 225,000 filings in 1979, consumer bankruptcies topped 1.5 million during 2004. This relentless upward trend is striking in light of the generally high prosperity, low interest rates, and low unemployment during that period. This anomaly of ever-upward bankruptcy filing rates during a period of economic prosperity had spurred calls to reform the Bankruptcy Code to place new conditions on bankruptcy relief. Although bankruptcy reform has drawn broad bipartisan support on Capitol Hill, these proposals have proven controversial within the academy. Critics have argued that these reforms are unnecessary …


Global Credit Card Use And Debt: Policy Issues And Regulatory Responses, Ronald J. Mann Mar 2005

Global Credit Card Use And Debt: Policy Issues And Regulatory Responses, Ronald J. Mann

ExpressO

The rise of card-based payments has transformed the landscape of payments in the last half century, from one dominated by government-supported paper-based payments to one dominated by wholly private systems. The rise of those payments presents a number of policy problems, the most serious of which is the empirically demonstrable likelihood that use of the cards contributes to an undue level of consumer credit and that borrowing on the cards contributes to a rise in the level of consumer bankruptcy. Although the existing pattern shows great variation from country to country, regulators should take no solace in those variations. Building …