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Renewing Human Rights Law In Canada, Dominique Clément Oct 2017

Renewing Human Rights Law In Canada, Dominique Clément

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Human rights law was one of the great legal innovations of the twentieth century. And yet human rights agencies and practitioners face a backlash that has resulted in regressive legislative reforms in recent years. These reforms have only succeeded in undermining some of the key pillars of the Canadian model for human rights law. The following article places the current backlash within historical context. The author argues that many recent reforms have replicated the deficiencies of past anti-discrimination laws. Commissions and policy-makers must respond by building on the strengths of the original Canadian model by improving public education, engaging with ...


Substantive Equality As Equal Recognition: A New Theory Of Section 15 Of The Charter, Anthony Robert Sangiuliano Jan 2015

Substantive Equality As Equal Recognition: A New Theory Of Section 15 Of The Charter, Anthony Robert Sangiuliano

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This article presents a novel theory of the concept of substantive equality under section 15(1) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms called Substantive Equality as Equal Recognition. This contribution is timely in light of the Supreme Court of Canada’s recent disagreement over the proper jurisprudential approach to interpreting section 15(1) in the 2013 case of Quebec v A. Substantive Equality as Equal Recognition holds that the purpose of section 15(1) is to ensure that the law’s application does not reflect, through its impact or effects, hierarchies of status that exist between citizens within ...


Accessing Justice Amid Threats Of Contagion, Janet E. Mosher Apr 2014

Accessing Justice Amid Threats Of Contagion, Janet E. Mosher

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Plans to prepare for a global pandemic have proliferated in recent years, and “legal preparedness” has emerged as a critical component of such plans. Commonly, the threat of disease is analogized to terrorism and recast as an issue of national security. In this framing, laws authorizing surveillance, containment, and forced treatment are understood as necessary. Law’s promise of protection against abuses in the exercise of such powers through procedural rights of review offers meagre comfort for critics concerned that individual liberties will readily yield to national security and public health in the context of an actual pandemic. An alternative ...


Do Bills Of Rights Matter?: An Examination Of Court Change, Judicial Ideology, And The Support Structure For Rights In Canada, Donald R. Songer, Susan W. Johnson, Jennifer Barnes Bowie Oct 2013

Do Bills Of Rights Matter?: An Examination Of Court Change, Judicial Ideology, And The Support Structure For Rights In Canada, Donald R. Songer, Susan W. Johnson, Jennifer Barnes Bowie

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Competing theories regarding the development of a “rights revolution” in Canada have appeared in the judicial and constitutional literature in recent years. On the one hand, scholars argue that the profound effects often attributed to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms are substantially overstated, and conventional analyses have overlooked the more important role of changes in what is called the “support structure” for rights. Others have advanced a competing theory that the Charter created an expansion of civil liberties. We take advantage of an extensive dataset on the decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada to provide a more systematic ...


Inclusion, Voice, And Process-Based Constitutionalism, Colleen Sheppard Jan 2013

Inclusion, Voice, And Process-Based Constitutionalism, Colleen Sheppard

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This article explores a growing emphasis on process issues in the elaboration of constitutional rights and freedoms, focusing on the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In a diverse range of contexts, judges are framing constitutional rights and freedoms in terms of the processes and practices they require, rather than in terms of specific constitutionally mandated substantive outcomes. Thus, constitutional rights have been interpreted to require a duty to negotiate, a duty to consult, a duty to accommodate, and entitlements to participate in democratic governance. The growing emphasis on processes and practices is positive to the extent that it resonates ...


Spectacles Of Emancipation: Reading Rights Differently In India's Legal Discourse, Oishik Sircar Apr 2012

Spectacles Of Emancipation: Reading Rights Differently In India's Legal Discourse, Oishik Sircar

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

How does neo-liberalism change the way we understand rights, law, and justice? With postcolonial and post-liberalization India as its focal point, this article attempts to disrupt the linear, progressive equation that holds that more laws equals more rights equals more justice. This is an equation that has informed and been informed by fundamental rights jurisprudence and law reform, the enactment of legislation to guarantee socio-economic rights, and many of the strategies of social movement activism in contemporary India. This article argues that while these developments have indeed proliferated a public culture of rights, they have simultaneously been accompanied by the ...


National Security Surveillance In An Age Of Terror: Statutory Powers & Charter Limits, Steven Penney Apr 2010

National Security Surveillance In An Age Of Terror: Statutory Powers & Charter Limits, Steven Penney

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

The communications surveillance powers granted to Canada's national security agencies have rarely resulted in prosecution and, as a result, have been subject to very little judicial, academic, or public scrutiny. However, as the state increasingly seeks to prosecute alleged terrorists, courts will have to interpret the scope of these powers and decide whether they violate section 8 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the Charter). A review of the powers granted to police, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), and the Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC) reveals two constitutional infirmities: allowing police to conduct communications surveillance in ...


Unilateral Home State Regulation: Imperialism Or Tool For Subaltern Resistance?, Sara L. Seck Jul 2008

Unilateral Home State Regulation: Imperialism Or Tool For Subaltern Resistance?, Sara L. Seck

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Home state reluctance to regulate international corporate activities in the human rights context is sometimes characterized as an imperialistic infringement of host state sovereignty. This concern may be explicit, or it may be implicit in an expressed desire to avoid conflict with the sovereignty of foreign states. Yet, in the absence of a multilateral treaty directly addressing business and human rights, a regulatory role for home states in preventing and remedying human rights harms is increasingly being suggested. This paper seeks to explore theoretical perspectives that support unilateral home state regulation. Having established that unilateral home state regulation could serve ...


Désobéissance Civile, Libertés Civiques, Et Résistance Civile: Rôle Et Limites Du Droit, Judy Fudge, Harry J. Glasbeek Apr 2003

Désobéissance Civile, Libertés Civiques, Et Résistance Civile: Rôle Et Limites Du Droit, Judy Fudge, Harry J. Glasbeek

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Les contributions à cette collection proviennent des activités d’un projet de deux ans. Son but consistait à inviter les étudiants, la faculté, tous les membres de la communauté d'Osgoode et de la communauté juridique dans leur ensemble, à s'associer à un débat permanent sur la nature et les limites du droit, vues à travers le prisme de la conduite de désobéissance civile dans une politie juridique qui avait de longue date développé des institutions démocratiques et propagé les libertés civiques. À cette fin, divers panels, séminaires et conférences ont été organisés dès l'automne 2001. Ils sont ...


Bail, Global Justice, And The Limits Of Dissent, Jackie Esmonde Apr 2003

Bail, Global Justice, And The Limits Of Dissent, Jackie Esmonde

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This article examines the ways in which the law of bail has been used to criminalize dissent in Canada. Three case studies are analyzed to demonstrate how the law of bail has been applied to those arrested at global justice demonstrations associated with militant civil disobedience. The first case study examines the bail conditions imposed on protesters arrested at anti-APEC demonstrations in Vancouver 1997. These bail conditions were intentionally designed to prevent those arrested from attending the protests. The second case study focuses on the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty (OCAP), with an analysis of how the bail system has been ...


Civil Disobedience And The Law: The Role Of Legal Professionals, James Macpherson Apr 2003

Civil Disobedience And The Law: The Role Of Legal Professionals, James Macpherson

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Discusses the role of judges when cases of civil disobedience are brought before the court.


Civil Disobedience And Academic Freedom, Leslie Green Apr 2003

Civil Disobedience And Academic Freedom, Leslie Green

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

What is the relation between the forms of principled law-breaking that we know as civil disobedience and the special rights of teachers and students that comprise academic freedom? It is argued that academic freedom does not give them a right to engage in civil disobedience, not even on campus. At the same time, however, academic freedom does protect them in studying, discussing, assessing, and even recommending civil disobedience--even when their opinions and recommendations are misguided or wrong. The subject is discussed in light of some recent cases.


The Right To Civil Disobedience, Vinit Haksar Apr 2003

The Right To Civil Disobedience, Vinit Haksar

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This article compares and contrasts the way Gandhi understands the right to civil disobedience with the way this right is understood by some contemporary liberals. Some of the implications of the right to civil disobedience are also discussed. The right to civil disobedience implies that the authorities should extend some tolerance to civil disobedients not only when they are correct, but also when they are reasonably mistaken in their views. Tolerance here does not involve preventing civil disobedients from breaking the law, and implies that when civil disobedients break the law, they have a claim not to be punished or ...


What's Law Got To Do With It?: Historical Considerations On Class Struggle, Boundaries Of Constraint, And Capitalist Authority, Bryan D. Palmer Apr 2003

What's Law Got To Do With It?: Historical Considerations On Class Struggle, Boundaries Of Constraint, And Capitalist Authority, Bryan D. Palmer

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This article offers a preliminary theoretical statement on the law as a set of boundaries constraining class struggle in the interests of capitalist authority. But those boundaries are not forever fixed, and are constantly evolving through the pressures exerted on them by active working-class resistance, some of which takes the form of overt civil disobedience. To illustrate this process, the author explores the ways in which specific moments of labour upheaval in 1886, 1919, 1937, and 1946 conditioned the eventual making of industrial legality. When this legality unravelled in the post-World War II period, workers were left vulnerable and their ...


Social Resistance And The Disturbing Of The Peace, John Clarke Apr 2003

Social Resistance And The Disturbing Of The Peace, John Clarke

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Argues that preserving the Peace maintains injustice, and that it is morally just and historically necessary to challenge it with acts of social resistance.


Civil Disobedience, Civil Liberties, And Civil Resistance: Law's Role And Limits, Judy Fudge, Harry J. Glasbeek Apr 2003

Civil Disobedience, Civil Liberties, And Civil Resistance: Law's Role And Limits, Judy Fudge, Harry J. Glasbeek

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Based on a two-year project launched by the Journal. Its goal was to engage students, faculty, and all members of the wider Osgoode and professional communities in an ongoing discussion about the nature and limits of law, seen through the lens of civil disobedient conduct in a legal polity that had developed mature democratic and civil liberty enhancing institutions. To this end, a variety of panels, seminars, and lectures were organized, beginning in the Fall of 2001. They were interpellated into the law school's curriculum. A culminating event was a conference in the Fall of 2002, to which a ...


A Bill Of Rights For The United Kingdom: From London To Strasbourg By The Northwest Passage?, Stephen Sedley Jan 1998

A Bill Of Rights For The United Kingdom: From London To Strasbourg By The Northwest Passage?, Stephen Sedley

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

In anticipation of the United Kingdom's patriation of the European Convention on Human Rights, the author explores the possible impact that a Bill of Rights will have on the U.K. system of justice from a European and U.K. perspective. The author argues that, from a European perspective, the U.K. has an established history of yielding to supra-national law given its membership in the European Union. However, from a U.K. perspective, this will present new challenges, as the constitutionality of domestic legislation is subject to increased judicial scrutiny in ensuring conformance with European Convention obligations. The ...


Protecting Rights And Promoting Democracy: Judicial Review Under Section 1 Of The Charter, Martha Jackman Oct 1996

Protecting Rights And Promoting Democracy: Judicial Review Under Section 1 Of The Charter, Martha Jackman

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

The author argues that, under section 1 of the Charter, the courts must weigh carefully the democratic potential of rights guarantees against the democratic quality of government decisions which undermine those rights. The article points to the Egan and Eldridge cases as examples of decisions in which the willingness to uphold rights violations under section 1, in the name of deference to the legislature, actually undermines democratic values. The article examines the RIR-MacDonald decision as a starting point for a section 1 analysis which identifies the characteristics of government decisionmaking that must be present if rights violations are to be ...


Accommodating Equality In The Unionized Workplace, Katherine Swinton Oct 1995

Accommodating Equality In The Unionized Workplace, Katherine Swinton

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This article explores the appropriate relationship between human rights and collective bargaining laws through an examination of the Supreme Court of Canada's jurisprudence on the duty to accommodate. While collective bargaining can be an important force to promote equality for disadvantaged groups, resistance to changing the terms of collective agreements to accommodate those groups can arise, especially when other employees' seniority rights are affected. The emerging jurisprudence suggests that seniority rights will be respected in many situations, especially in layoffs, but the article outlines circumstances in which accommodation will be necessary to vindicate equality rights.


The Australian Reluctance About Rights, Hilary Charlesworth Jan 1993

The Australian Reluctance About Rights, Hilary Charlesworth

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This article examines the way in which the Australian legal system protects human rights. It discusses the paucity of constitutionally protected rights and the failure of various attempts made to amend the Constitution in this respect. The paper looks at the inadequacy of the Australian common law and legislation in the protection of rights. It argues that the politics of both federalism and legalism have produced a culture wary of rights discourse. The paper concludes by considering how the Australian protection of rights can be improved and suggests that one way ahead would be to introduce an Australian charter of ...


Police Implementation Of Supreme Court Of Canada Charter Decisions: An Empirical Study, Kathryn Moore Jul 1992

Police Implementation Of Supreme Court Of Canada Charter Decisions: An Empirical Study, Kathryn Moore

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

Little empirical research has been done on the Charter's impact on the public policy process. This paper presents the results of an empirical research study designed to fill that gap. The study examined the manner in which a municipal police force and the RCMP implemented changes to procedures following two Supreme Court of Canada Charter decisions. The paper concludes that, while steps have been taken to develop a process by which Supreme Court decisions are implemented, the process would be improved if one body were allocated responsibility for the provision of interim information to the police.