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Full-Text Articles in Law

Reparative Citizenship, Amanda Frost Feb 2024

Reparative Citizenship, Amanda Frost

William & Mary Law Review

The United States has granted reparations for a variety of historical injustices, from imprisonment of Japanese Americans during the Second World War to the Tuskegee syphilis experiments. Yet the nation has never considered reparations for 150 years of discriminatory immigration and citizenship policies that excluded millions based on race, gender, and political opinion—including some who are alive today. This Article argues that the United States can atone for these transgressions by granting “reparative citizenship” to those individuals and their descendants, following the lead of several European countries who have recently provided such relief for those wrongly expelled or excluded in …


“Help Is Here”: How A Daca Pathway To Citizenship Will Help Save The Social Security Fund, Jissel Esparza Jan 2024

“Help Is Here”: How A Daca Pathway To Citizenship Will Help Save The Social Security Fund, Jissel Esparza

Arkansas Law Review

Two federal programs hold their beneficiaries in limbo: DACA and Social Security. This Comment demonstrates that creating a citizenship pathway for the DACA population will not only give these deserving individuals the ability and security to remain in the United States but will also provide relief to Social Security’s impending insolvency through the influx of taxes that these then citizens will contribute as a result of increased opportunities. At the same time, this Comment does not attempt to portray its argument as a “silver bullet.” Rather, this approach is one tool that can be utilized by legislative efforts to remedy …


Challenging The Criminalization Of Undocumented Drivers Through A Health-Justice Framework, Jason A. Cade Jan 2024

Challenging The Criminalization Of Undocumented Drivers Through A Health-Justice Framework, Jason A. Cade

Scholarly Works

States increasingly use driver’s license laws to further policy objectives unrelated to road safety. This symposium contribution employs a health justice lens to focus on one manifestation of this trend—state schemes that prohibit noncitizen residents from accessing driver’s licenses and then impose criminal sanctions for driving without authorization. Status-based no-license laws not only facilitate legally questionable enforcement of local immigration priorities but also impose structural inequities with long-term health consequences for immigrants and their family members, including US citizen children. Safe, reliable transportation is a significant social determinant of health for individuals, families, and communities. Applying a health justice lens …


Adopting Nationality, Irina D. Manta, Cassandra Burke Robertson Jun 2023

Adopting Nationality, Irina D. Manta, Cassandra Burke Robertson

Washington Law Review

Contrary to popular belief, when a child is adopted from abroad by an American citizen and brought to the United States, that child does not always become an American citizen. Many adoptees have not discovered until years later (sometimes far into adulthood) that they are not actually citizens, and some likely still do not know. To address this problem, the Child Citizenship Act of 2000 (CCA) was enacted to automate citizenship for certain international adoptees, but it does not cover everyone. Tens of thousands of adoptees still live under the assumption that they are American citizens when, in fact, they …


Attachment Issues: Assessing The Relationship Between Newcomers And The Constitution, Ashley Mantha-Hollands May 2023

Attachment Issues: Assessing The Relationship Between Newcomers And The Constitution, Ashley Mantha-Hollands

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Are you attached to the principles of the U.S. Constitution? How do you prove it—do you feel it, or just know it? What role does it play in your daily life as a citizen? Ever since one of the first acts of the U.S. Congress, the Naturalization Act of 1795, applicants for citizenship have been required to demonstrate that they are “attached to the principles of the [C]onstitution of the United States.” This requirement has been at the forefront of fierce debates in U.S. constitutional history and, although it has had limited usage after WWII, it has recently been brought …


Fleeing The Land Of The Free, Jayesh Rathod Jan 2023

Fleeing The Land Of The Free, Jayesh Rathod

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This Essay is the first scholarly intervention, from any discipline, to examine the number and nature of asylum claims made by U.S. citizens, and to explore the broader implications of this phenomenon. While the United States continues to be a preeminent destination for persons seeking humanitarian protection, U.S. citizens have fled the country in significant numbers, filing approximately 14,000 asylum claims since 2000. By formally seeking refuge elsewhere, these applicants have calculated that the risks of remaining in the United States outweigh the bundle of rights that accompany U.S. citizenship. Given the United States’ recent flirtation with authoritarianism, and the …


Citizenship And The First-Generation Limitation In Canada, Michael Pal, Luka Ryder-Bunting Jun 2022

Citizenship And The First-Generation Limitation In Canada, Michael Pal, Luka Ryder-Bunting

Dalhousie Law Journal

This article considers the current Canadian regime for citizenship by descent and what is known as the “first-generation limitation.” In 2009, Parliament legislated to limit the transmission of citizenship by descent. Known as the “first-generation limitation,” the new rules mean that a Canadian parent is only entitled to pass on their citizenship to their children born abroad if the parent themselves became a citizen by birth inside Canada or by naturalization. In other words, if an individual acquired Canadian citizenship by descent, they are not entitled to pass on their citizenship to their children unless those children are born in …


Decitizenizing Asian Pacific American Women, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia, Margaret Hu Mar 2022

Decitizenizing Asian Pacific American Women, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

The Page Act of 1875 excluded Asian women immigrants from entering the United States, presuming they were prostitutes. This presumption was tragically replicated in the 2021 Atlanta Massacre of six Asian and Asian American women, reinforcing the same harmful prejudices. This Article seeks to illuminate how the Atlanta Massacre is symbolic of larger forms of discrimination, including the harms of decitizenship. These harms include limited access to full citizenship rights due to legal barriers, restricted cultural and political power, and a lack of belonging. The Article concludes that these harms result from the structure of past and present immigration laws …


Jus Sanguinis Or Just Plain Discrimination? Rejecting A Biological Requirement For Birthright Citizenship Of Children Born Abroad To Same-Sex Couples Via Assisted Reproductive Technology, Thomas Evans Jan 2022

Jus Sanguinis Or Just Plain Discrimination? Rejecting A Biological Requirement For Birthright Citizenship Of Children Born Abroad To Same-Sex Couples Via Assisted Reproductive Technology, Thomas Evans

Georgia Law Review

Until recently, the State Department had a policy deeming children born abroad to married same-sex couples to be children born out of wedlock. Then, applying the statute for children born out of wedlock with more rigorous requirements, the State Department only allowed citizenship to pass through a biological relationship between the biological parent and the child.

Although the State Department updated this policy in May 2021 to allow for birthright citizenship of children born abroad to married same-sex couples, the new policy does not go far enough. This Note argues that Congress should amend the Immigration and Nationality Act to …


Decitizenizing Asian Pacific American Women, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia, Margaret Hu Jan 2022

Decitizenizing Asian Pacific American Women, Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia, Margaret Hu

Journal Articles

The Page Act of 1875 excluded Asian women immigrants from entering the United States, presuming they were prostitutes. This presumption was tragically replicated in the 2021 Atlanta Massacre of six Asian and Asian American women, reinforcing the same harmful prejudices. This Article seeks to illuminate how the Atlanta Massacre is symbolic of larger forms of discrimination, including the harms of decitizenship. These harms include limited access to full citizenship rights due to legal barriers, restricted cultural and political power, and a lack of belonging. The Article concludes that these harms result from the structure of past and present immigration laws …


A New Narrative Of Statelessness, David Baluarte Jan 2022

A New Narrative Of Statelessness, David Baluarte

Scholarly Articles

Statelessness: A Modern History by Dr. Mira Siegelberg offers a meticulous reconstruction of the varied contributions of artists, scholars, and policy makers to the understanding of statelessness in the years between the First and Second World Wars. Siegelberg situates statelessness in some of the most prominent debates about international law and relations in modern history, most notably whether the individual is an appropriate subject of international law and whether a political order beyond the confines of the nation-state is desirable.


Essential, Not Expendable: Protecting The Economic Citizenship Of Agricultural Workers, Hunter Knapp Jan 2022

Essential, Not Expendable: Protecting The Economic Citizenship Of Agricultural Workers, Hunter Knapp

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


Citizenship Disparities, Emily Ryo, Reed Humphrey Jan 2022

Citizenship Disparities, Emily Ryo, Reed Humphrey

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Failures Of Good Moral Character Determinations For Naturalization, Zachary New Jan 2022

The Failures Of Good Moral Character Determinations For Naturalization, Zachary New

University of Colorado Law Review

This Article examines the effects of the good-moral-character requirement in naturalization proceedings. Specifically, it looks to such character requirements as a method by which a citizen polity screens out undesirable noncitizens from those who are deserving of inclusion in the "in"g roup of citizenship. The Article discusses historical methods of good-moral-character adjudication, and especially how such methods carried an undercurrent of forgiveness and redemption-an undercurrent lacking in the current method of statutory bars to showings of good moral character. By looking at specific examples of statutory bars to showings of good moral character, this Article argues that the overinclusive nature …


Pursuing Citizenship During Covid-19, Ming Hsu Chen Jan 2022

Pursuing Citizenship During Covid-19, Ming Hsu Chen

University of Colorado Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Importance Of Race, Gender, And Religion In Naturalization Adjudication In The United States, Emily Ryo, Reed Humphrey Jan 2022

The Importance Of Race, Gender, And Religion In Naturalization Adjudication In The United States, Emily Ryo, Reed Humphrey

Faculty Scholarship

This study presents an empirical investigation of naturalization adjudication in the United States using new administrative data on naturalization applications decided by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) between October 2014 and March 2018. We find significant group disparities in naturalization approvals based on applicants’ race/ethnicity, gender, and religion, controlling for individual applicant characteristics, adjudication years, and variation between field offices. Non-White applicants and Hispanic applicants are less likely to be approved than non-Hispanic White applicants, male applicants are less likely to be approved than female applicants, and applicants from Muslim-majority countries are less likely to be approved than …


Predictors Of Refugees’ Ability To Pass The United States Citizenship Exam, Molly Grover, Fern Hauck, Sarah Blackstone, Emily Cloyd Oct 2021

Predictors Of Refugees’ Ability To Pass The United States Citizenship Exam, Molly Grover, Fern Hauck, Sarah Blackstone, Emily Cloyd

Virginia Journal of Public Health

Background: Passing the United States citizenship exam can be challenging for refugee populations for several reasons, including affordability of English classes, time restraints, medical stressors, and limited formal education. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that may influence a refugees’ ability to pass the citizenship exam, including English proficiency, education, employment, and completion of English as a Second Language (ESL) classes.

Methods: Refugee patients at the International Family Medicine Clinic (IFMC) in Central Virginia participated in a survey that assessed their levels of English proficiency and whether or not they had passed the citizenship exam. The survey …


“By Accident Of Birth”: The Battle Over Birthright Citizenship After United States V. Wong Kim Ark, Amanda Frost Jun 2021

“By Accident Of Birth”: The Battle Over Birthright Citizenship After United States V. Wong Kim Ark, Amanda Frost

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

In theory, birthright citizenship has been well established in U.S. law since 1898, when the Supreme Court held in United States v. Wong Kim Ark that all born on U.S. soil are U.S. citizens. The experience of immigrants and their families over the last 120 years tells a different story, however. This article draws on government records documenting the Wong family's struggle for legal recognition to illuminate the convoluted history of birthright citizenship. Newly discovered archival materials reveal that Wong Kim Ark and his family experienced firsthand, and at times shaped, the fluctuating relationship between immigration, citizenship, and access to …


Legal Construction Of Nationalism And National Identity In The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan, Zaina Siyam Jun 2021

Legal Construction Of Nationalism And National Identity In The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan, Zaina Siyam

Theses and Dissertations

Nationalism is an ideology that is not unique to one nation or one area, but it is a concept unique in the way it is defined. How it is defined and what it really is depends on where the definition is coming from. It is most important to post-colonial nations that relied and still rely on the creation of national identity and construction of an imagined community, in order to reach their liberation. Nations are imagined communities constructed through shared history, beliefs, traditions, and experiences that happen over different periods in time, between individuals that do not necessarily know each …


"De-Americanization" During The Trump Administration: Derivative Citizenship And Deceased Parents In The United States, Katheryn J. Maldonado Mar 2021

"De-Americanization" During The Trump Administration: Derivative Citizenship And Deceased Parents In The United States, Katheryn J. Maldonado

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

The Trump Administration’s war on immigration will be marked in history as one replete with white supremacy and terror. Much attention has been focused in the realm of undocumented immigrants, detention centers, and family separations because of the pervasiveness of those issues and the gravity of the human rights violations occurring in the United States. However, little focus has been given to immigrants who are lawful permanent residents or naturalized citizens at risk of denaturalization and deprivation of their constitutional rights. This Note highlights the effects of the Trump Administration’s war on immigration on citizens and green card holders in …


The Continuing Legacy Of The National Origin Quotas, Angela M. Banks Mar 2021

The Continuing Legacy Of The National Origin Quotas, Angela M. Banks

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


The Integration And Securitization Of Muslim Migrants In Europe, Yasmeen Nawwar Jan 2021

The Integration And Securitization Of Muslim Migrants In Europe, Yasmeen Nawwar

Theses and Dissertations

In its efforts to integrate newly entering migrants into their societies, Europe has established integration policies that negatively impact these migrants, especially those from racialized backgrounds. The policies mask an agenda of securitization against outsiders who are falsely considered to be a danger to national security and national identity. Since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center in the United States, many Western countries, including European countries, began to build a culture of fear against Muslims. Europe began to increasingly associate migrants with problems such as trafficking, radicalization, and terrorism. As a result, Europe began to treat migration as …


A Pathway To Health Care Citizenship For Daca Beneficiaries, Medha D. Makhlouf, Patrick J. Glen Jan 2021

A Pathway To Health Care Citizenship For Daca Beneficiaries, Medha D. Makhlouf, Patrick J. Glen

Faculty Scholarly Works

Since 2012, beneficiaries of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) have enjoyed a certain normalization, however tenuous, of their status in the United States: they can legally work, their removal proceedings are deferred, and they cease to accrue unlawful presence. Regarding subsidized health coverage, however, DACA beneficiaries remain on the outside looking in. Although other deferred action beneficiaries are eligible for benefits through Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program, and the Affordable Care Act, the Obama Administration specifically excluded DACA beneficiaries. This decision undermines DACA’s goal of legitimizing beneficiaries’ presence in the United States. From a health policy perspective, it …


"She Was Surprised And Furious": Expatriation, Suffrage, Immigration, And The Fragility Of Women's Citizenship, 1907-1940, Felice Batlan Jul 2020

"She Was Surprised And Furious": Expatriation, Suffrage, Immigration, And The Fragility Of Women's Citizenship, 1907-1940, Felice Batlan

All Faculty Scholarship

This article stands at the intersection of women’s history and the history of citizenship, immigration, and naturalization laws. The first part of this article proceeds by examining the general legal status of women under the laws of coverture, in which married women’s legal existence was “covered” by that of their husbands. It then discusses the 1907 Expatriation Act, which resulted in women who were U.S. citizens married to non-U.S. citizens losing their citizenship. The following sections discuss how suffragists challenged the 1907 law in the courts and how passage of the Nineteenth Amendment—and with it a new concept of women’s …


The Census, Citizenship, And Improved Legislation: A Constitutional Compromise, Kaitlyn A. Marquis Apr 2020

The Census, Citizenship, And Improved Legislation: A Constitutional Compromise, Kaitlyn A. Marquis

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

Why should the census avoid asking a question concerning citizenship?

Are there alternatives in providing information to aid government

functions while still protecting the rights of residents? In

early 2019, the Trump administration requested that the 2020 census

include an inquiry concerning the citizenship status of residents, for

claimed reasons of better legislation (i.e. the allocation of government

funds to the states and the drawing of electoral districts). The

Supreme Court considered this issue in Dept. of Commerce v. New

York. In sum, their opinion was, “not yet.” The Supreme Court did

not definitively conclude that it was unconstitutional to …


Cowboys And Indians: Settler Colonialism And The Dog Whistle In U.S. Immigration Policy, Hannah Gordon Feb 2020

Cowboys And Indians: Settler Colonialism And The Dog Whistle In U.S. Immigration Policy, Hannah Gordon

University of Miami Law Review

The nineteenth-century Indian problem has become the twenty-first century border crisis. While the United States fancies itself a nation of immigrants, this rhetoric is impossible to square with the reality of the systematic exclusion of migrants of color. In particular, the Trump administration has taken the exclusion of migrants descended from the Indigenous inhabitants of Mexico and Central America to a reductio ad absurdum. This Note joins a body of scholarship that centers the history of genocide in the United States to examine what our settler colonial history means for today’s immigration law and policy. It concludes that the contemporary …


Destigmatizing Disability In The Law Of Immigration Admissions, Medha D. Makhlouf Jan 2020

Destigmatizing Disability In The Law Of Immigration Admissions, Medha D. Makhlouf

Faculty Books

Chapter Abstract

In U.S. immigration law, disability has historically been associated with deviance, and has served as the basis for legal barriers to entry and eventual citizenship. For example, immigrants with actual and perceived physical and intellectual disabilities, mental illness, and other health conditions have been deemed “inadmissible” to the United States based on the belief that they are likely to become dependent on the government for support. Although the law has evolved to accommodate immigrants with disabilities in some ways, significant legal barriers still exist on account of the widespread, persistent characterization of disability as a “bad difference” from …


I Pledge Allegiance To One Global Nation: Redefining Citizenship Through The Institutionalization Of Cosmopolitan Principles In Response To The U.S. Immigration System, Giselle Lucia Avila Jan 2020

I Pledge Allegiance To One Global Nation: Redefining Citizenship Through The Institutionalization Of Cosmopolitan Principles In Response To The U.S. Immigration System, Giselle Lucia Avila

Senior Projects Spring 2020

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College


Making Litigating Citizenship More Fair, Ming H. Chen Jan 2020

Making Litigating Citizenship More Fair, Ming H. Chen

Publications

No abstract provided.


Regulating International Surrogacy Arrangements Within The United States: Is There A Conceivable Solution?, Laura R. Golden Jul 2019

Regulating International Surrogacy Arrangements Within The United States: Is There A Conceivable Solution?, Laura R. Golden

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.