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Full-Text Articles in Law

Authenticating Social Media Evidence In Chinese Criminal Procedure Law -- A Comparative Study, Yage Huang May 2024

Authenticating Social Media Evidence In Chinese Criminal Procedure Law -- A Comparative Study, Yage Huang

Maurer Theses and Dissertations

Authentication requires the proponent to provide sufficient proof that the proposed social media evidence is, indeed, what it is claimed to be. The rapid proliferation of social media evidence has posed significant challenges for its authentication. This dissertation explores the authentication challenges for social media evidence in a comprehensive manner.

This research employs a qualitative research methodology, including theoretical and analytical methods, to examine the theoretical approaches, statutory provisions, and recent judicial rulings related to the authentication of social media evidence within the legal frameworks of China and the United States. Through a comparative analysis, this study reveals significant commonalities …


From The Editor In Chief, Antulio J. Echevarria Ii May 2024

From The Editor In Chief, Antulio J. Echevarria Ii

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Welcome to the Summer 2024 issue of Parameters. We open this issue with a special “In Memoriam” by General Charles A. Flynn, Commander US Army Pacific, honoring the life and legacies of our director and consummate colleague, Carol V. Evans. We dedicate this issue to her. General Flynn’s memoriam is followed by an In Focus commentary on China’s Belt and Road Initiative. We then feature three forums covering the Russia-Ukraine War, the Middle East, and Professional Development. This issue also contains special essays on the role of professional writing, the US Army War College’s Civil-Military Relations Center, …


Give It A Nudge: A Comparative Analysis Of The Values And Application Of Voluntary Environmental Programs In The United States, Pianpian Wang May 2024

Give It A Nudge: A Comparative Analysis Of The Values And Application Of Voluntary Environmental Programs In The United States, Pianpian Wang

Dissertations & Theses

In recent years, companies have increased their voluntary commitments to reducing carbon emissions and implementing sustainability goals. While existing research mainly focuses on government-organized voluntary environmental programs (VEPs), exploring corporate voluntary commitments is essential. The business sector’s active role in environmental management is noteworthy. Traditionally, governments have relied on command-and-control regulations and market incentives to compel companies to protect the environment. However, companies are now demonstrating a willingness to go beyond legal requirements. Naturally, we seek answers to whether these commitments are effective, what factors can contribute to their authenticity, and how we compare these voluntary commitments to other VEPs. …


Rethinking Supply Chains: Mitigating The Risk Of Chinese Dependence And Protecting Us Semiconductor Intellectual Property, Jamison Finnamore Apr 2024

Rethinking Supply Chains: Mitigating The Risk Of Chinese Dependence And Protecting Us Semiconductor Intellectual Property, Jamison Finnamore

Helm's School of Government Conference - American Revival: Citizenship & Virtue

This paper explores the complex economic interdependence between the US, China, and Taiwan, specifically in the semiconductor industry. China’s increased aggression and intellectual property (IP) theft threatens to unbalance the iron triangle of US, China, and Taiwan trade relations. The problem overview elaborates on Taiwan’s crucial role in the semiconductor supply chain, and China’s threat against it. The argument is made that the US must take a nuanced and multifaceted approach to solving the diplomatic, economic, and military policy problem. Criteria for success are outlined, emphasizing the need to address root causes and not compromise US commitment to a free …


Break Their Lineage, Break Their Roots: Investigating The Chinese Government’S Relationship With The Uyghur Population To Determine The Potential For Terrorism And Genocide, Anya Veinberg Apr 2024

Break Their Lineage, Break Their Roots: Investigating The Chinese Government’S Relationship With The Uyghur Population To Determine The Potential For Terrorism And Genocide, Anya Veinberg

Helm's School of Government Conference - American Revival: Citizenship & Virtue

History is wrought with war, crime, and persecution. After nearly every conflict, world leaders vow to never let something similar happen again. Yet, history seems to repeat itself, and so do its conflicts. The Holocaust claimed the lives of millions of Jews and seemed to set a precedent of a modern threshold of evil. How many people would argue that an event strikingly similar to the Holocaust is happening right now in China?

The Chinese government is currently committing acts of violence and faith and race-based discrimination against the Uyghur population.

This work analyzes the interaction between the Chinese government …


Analysis Of Sun Tzu's Art Of War, Hannah Marchiny Apr 2024

Analysis Of Sun Tzu's Art Of War, Hannah Marchiny

Helm's School of Government Conference - American Revival: Citizenship & Virtue

America faces troubling times with various countries presenting unique threats. Few are more troubling than China. Now more than ever the U.S. needs effective strategies to combat global threats. To that end, I use Sun Tzu’s book Art of War as my main source for strategic wisdom. Sun Tzu’s principles have endured as long as they have because of their continued relevance in every generation and situation. In my paper, I discuss a few of the main tenets of Sun Tzu’s famous Art of War and how China is currently employing them against the U.S. I explain how China’s masterful …


Walking The Tightrope: Protecting Research From Foreign Exploitation While Fostering Relationships With Foreign Scientists, C. John Cox Apr 2024

Walking The Tightrope: Protecting Research From Foreign Exploitation While Fostering Relationships With Foreign Scientists, C. John Cox

SLU Law Journal Online

In response to extensive foreign efforts to take advantage of U.S. scientific research, especially by the People’s Republic of China, the United States has taken steps to protect its scientific and technology efforts. Although steps to prevent foreign government exploitation of U.S. research are reasonable and justified, the United States should be cognizant of these actions' impact on collaboration with foreign scientists. It is in the interest of the United States to effect policy that fosters relationships with foreign scientists rather than push them away.


China's Use Of Nontraditional Strategic Landpower In Asia, Sheena Chestnut Greitens Mar 2024

China's Use Of Nontraditional Strategic Landpower In Asia, Sheena Chestnut Greitens

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

This article argues that the People’s Republic of China uses its police and internal security forces as a nontraditional means of projecting strategic Landpower in the Indo-Pacific and Central Asia. Instead of limiting analysis of China’s power projection to military forces, this article employs new data on Chinese police engagements abroad to fill a gap in our understanding of the operating environment in Asia. Policymakers will gain an understanding of how these activities enhance China’s presence, partnerships, and influence across the region to inform the development of recommendations for a more effective response.


From The Editor In Chief, Antulio J. Echevarria Ii Mar 2024

From The Editor In Chief, Antulio J. Echevarria Ii

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Welcome to the Spring 2024 issue of Parameters. Readers will note a few differences in the formatting for this issue: we are now using endnotes instead of footnotes to facilitate switching from pdf to html via Adobe's Liquid App; also, readers will be able to click on each endnote number to view the full endnote and then switch back to the text to resume reading. Please drop us a note to let us know how you like the changes. More are coming!


Us-Taiwan Relations And The Future Of The Liberal Order, Christina Lai Mar 2024

Us-Taiwan Relations And The Future Of The Liberal Order, Christina Lai

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Strengthening ties with Taiwan is the best chance the United States has to preserve the liberal international order in Asia and improve its security relative to China. This study offers a normative perspective on how Taiwan can contribute to US-led international institutions and the Asian regional order and reduce conflict risk. It concludes with recommendations for the United States and its partners to integrate Taiwan into multilateral institutions in Asia.


Parameters Spring 2024, Usawc Press Mar 2024

Parameters Spring 2024, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao Jan 2024

Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article investigates the longevity of health QR codes, a digital instrument of pandemic surveillance, in post-COVID China. From 2020 to 2022, China widely used this tri-color tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. A commonly held assumption is that health QR codes have become obsolete in post-pandemic China. This study challenges such an assumption. It reveals their persistence and integration - through mobile apps and online platforms - beyond the COVID-19 public health emergency. A prolonged, expanded and normalized use of tools which were originally intended for contact tracing and pandemic surveillance raises critical legal and ethical concerns. Moreover, their …


Belt And Road Initiative: Legal Mechanism To Recover Stolen Assets, Veltrice Tan Jan 2024

Belt And Road Initiative: Legal Mechanism To Recover Stolen Assets, Veltrice Tan

Singapore International Dispute Resolution Academy

Purpose: This paper aims to determine the types of legal mechanisms that authorities can use to recover stolen assets for and from China. Design/methodology/approach: Newspaper articles and books are examined as are relevant reports by various regulatory authorities and academic institutions. Findings: The effectiveness of legal mechanisms in the recovery of stolen assets may be affected by issues such as the difficulties in tracing illicit funds, the ambiguous nature of “value” as well as the rise in technology. Research limitations/implications: There are limited data available in relation to the prevalence of corrupt officials along the Belt and Road Initiative and …


The Belt And Road Initiative: Conflict Of Laws And Dispute Resolution, Veltrice Tan Jan 2024

The Belt And Road Initiative: Conflict Of Laws And Dispute Resolution, Veltrice Tan

Singapore International Dispute Resolution Academy

Purpose: This paper aims to determine the adaptability of China’s legal system in recognizing and enforcing foreign judgements in China. Design/methodology/approach: Academic articles, case law and books are examined as are relevant reports by various regulatory authorities and organizations. Findings: Historically, Chinese courts have strictly adhered to “de facto reciprocity”, which made it difficult for foreign judgements to be recognized and enforced in China. Fortunately, Chinese courts have since abandoned their rigid adherence to de facto reciprocity, and have instead, used flexible tests of reciprocity such as de jure reciprocity, reciprocal commitment and reciprocal understand/consensus. Accordingly, this would facilitate the …


Disharmony In Patent Law: A Comparative Study Of Patent Eligibility Of Biological Subject Matters Between China And The United States, Xiongying Tu Jan 2024

Disharmony In Patent Law: A Comparative Study Of Patent Eligibility Of Biological Subject Matters Between China And The United States, Xiongying Tu

Cybaris®

Disharmonies in intellectual property rights have led countries, like China and the U.S., to implement patent laws tailored to their unique culture, values, and goals while complying with international treaties. China's exclusion of treatment and diagnosis methods from patent protection prioritizes healthcare accessibility, whereas the U.S.'s allowance of patentability fosters medical innovation. Similarly, China's exclusion of animal and plant patentability aligns with cultural and agricultural values, emphasizing resource accessibility and food security. Protecting genetic resources poses challenges, with China aligning its patent law proactively with the CBD principles and the U.S. prioritizing unrestricted access. China's approach to human stem cell …


Coastal Conflict: How International Law Addresses China's Claims In The South China Sea, Madeline H. Broshears Jan 2024

Coastal Conflict: How International Law Addresses China's Claims In The South China Sea, Madeline H. Broshears

Tenor of Our Times

The South China Sea is home to natural resources and reefs that benefit its surrounding states. International law divides these waters to grant certain rights to each coastal state so as to ensure fair distribution of the waters. As of late, China’s actions in the South China Sea frequently violate the distribution of waters under international law. They have infringed upon the Philippine’s waters and attempted to establish authority over most of the South China Sea, rather than remaining within their own waters. Thus, the Philippines filed arbitration against China, and the ruling rebuked China’s behavior in the South China …


China’S Strategic Calculus: A Comparative Analysis Of China’S Approaches Towards The Philippines And Vietnam In The South China Sea Dispute, Letian Wang Jan 2024

China’S Strategic Calculus: A Comparative Analysis Of China’S Approaches Towards The Philippines And Vietnam In The South China Sea Dispute, Letian Wang

CMC Senior Theses

The South China Sea (SCS) dispute is a longstanding territorial conflict involving several surrounding states. In this paper, I analyze the differences in China’s policies towards the Philippines and Vietnam as China exerts its expansion into the SCS using relevant International Relations theories. The Philippines’ democratic values, alliance with the U.S., small-scale volume of trade with China, and active strategies against China all contradict China’s interests to be the regional hegemonic power. In contrast, Vietnam’s socialist regime, alliance with China, substantial trade with China, and passive strategies do not contradict China’s interests as much and even comply with them. Hence, …


Regulation Of Standards In Technology Markets Between Competition Policy And International Trade - The Chinese And European Experience (Foreword), Paolo Davide Farah Jan 2024

Regulation Of Standards In Technology Markets Between Competition Policy And International Trade - The Chinese And European Experience (Foreword), Paolo Davide Farah

Book Chapters

The regulation of standard setting varies significantly across regions and covering and comparing in detail the EU and Chinese regimes is an interesting decision and illustrates how two highly bureaucratic systems address the regulation of technological advancements.

The analysis demonstrates how not only legal and economic considerations play a role in the regulation of standards, but also and most importantly political ones. The “openness” of China’s standardization is a telling example in this regard. China created a specific system for standard setting and invested heavily in high-tech industries. Initially, the State backed the industry to support the creation of a …


Walking The Red Carpet: Hollywood And Censorship In China, Sheryl Soundar Jan 2024

Walking The Red Carpet: Hollywood And Censorship In China, Sheryl Soundar

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Law In Books Versus Law In Action In The Landmark Shenzhen, China, Personal Bankruptcy Regime, Jason J. Kilborn Jan 2024

Law In Books Versus Law In Action In The Landmark Shenzhen, China, Personal Bankruptcy Regime, Jason J. Kilborn

Emory Bankruptcy Developments Journal

The first personal bankruptcy regime in Mainland China celebrated its second anniversary on March 1, 2023. An empirical assessment of the law in action during these first two years reveals some troubling deviations from the early promises of the new law on the books. In the first year, a handful of judges were charged with an arduous in-person review process for over 1,000 applicants, and they accepted only twenty-five for case initiation. In the second year, initial case review was delegated to an administrative body—an important efficiency enhancement that tripled the number of opened cases. Nonetheless, most debtors continue to …


Tech Supremacy: The New Arms Race Between China And The United States, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Dec 2023

Tech Supremacy: The New Arms Race Between China And The United States, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

In the brewing tech war between the United States and China, the quest for tech supremacy is in full force. Through enacting a series of laws and policies, China aims to reach its goal of tech supremacy. If China succeeds, U.S. corporations will face a daunting task in competing against Chinese products and services in core industries and in sectors where artificial intelligence and technological breakthroughs reign. This Article is the first to identify and analyze China’s 2022 Law on Science and Technology Progress, Personal Information Protection Law, Made in China 2025, National Intellectual Property Strategies, and digital currency e-CNY; …


China’S Changing Perspective On The Wto: From Aspiration, Assimilation To Alienation, Henry S. Gao Dec 2023

China’S Changing Perspective On The Wto: From Aspiration, Assimilation To Alienation, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Since its accession to the WTO twenty years ago, China’s image has shifted from a good student aspiring to assimilate itself into the multilateral trading system to one that is increasingly alienated from key WTO principles. How has China’s perspective on WTO been evolving? What are the reasons behind China’s changing perspective? This chapter addresses these questions from the Chinese perspective with a comprehensive analysis of the key moments in China’s first two decades in the WTO, followed by practical suggestions on how to engage China more constructively in the WTO and beyond.


Introduction To The China Landpower Studies Center, Richard D. Butler Nov 2023

Introduction To The China Landpower Studies Center, Richard D. Butler

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Welcome to the Director’s Corner for the China Landpower Studies Center (CLSC). This will be a regular feature in Parameters that will discuss critical military and security issues related to China, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). It will also highlight the Center’s research agenda and key activities. My objective in this first installment is to outline the purpose, organization, capabilities, research agenda, and expected products of the Center.


How To Understand China's Approach To Central Bank Digital Currency?, Heng Wang Sep 2023

How To Understand China's Approach To Central Bank Digital Currency?, Heng Wang

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

China's central bank digital currency (CBDC), digital yuan or e-CNY, is likely to profoundly affect the international financial system. China's CBDC is fast evolving. Understanding the influencing factors of China's CBDC will likely be crucial to explore its future direction. Major influencing factors include (i) China's perception and conception of regulation and technology, (ii) complementarity between China's preferences and CBDC development, (iii) domestic and international legitimacy, and (iv) institutional development. This paper argues that these influencing factors contribute to China's likely approach of selectively reshaping the international financial system. Given the potential wide-ranging implications of the introduction of CBDC globally, …


Two Decades Of Trips In China, Peter K. Yu Sep 2023

Two Decades Of Trips In China, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter reviews China’s engagement with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the past twenty years. It begins by highlighting TRIPS-related developments in the first decade of China’s WTO membership. The chapter then discusses the country’s ‘innovative turn’ in the mid-2000s and the ramifications of its changing policy positions. This chapter continues to examine the US-China trade war, in particular the second TRIPS complaint that the United States filed against China in March 2018. It concludes with observations about the impact of the TRIPS Agreement on China, China’s impact on that agreement and how the …


Parameters Autumn 2023, Usawc Press Aug 2023

Parameters Autumn 2023, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


The Strategic Importance Of Taiwan To The United States And Its Allies: Part Two – Policy Since The Start Of The Russia-Ukraine War, Luke P. Bellocchi Aug 2023

The Strategic Importance Of Taiwan To The United States And Its Allies: Part Two – Policy Since The Start Of The Russia-Ukraine War, Luke P. Bellocchi

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Taiwan has become increasingly important to the United States and its allies as the Russia-Ukraine War has united democracies against authoritarian expansionism and indeed has developed an international democracy-authoritarianism dynamic in global affairs. Part one of this article clearly outlined the geopolitical, economic, and soft-power reasons why Taiwan is strategically important. Part two reviews the development of US and allied policy statements on Taiwan—from the invasion of Ukraine in 2022 to the present—and provides policymakers and military strategists with incremental but realistic recommendations for understanding the current dynamic of the region and fashioning responses to deter further authoritarian aggression.


Falling Stars And Sinking Ships: How Article Vii Of The Outer Space Treaty Needs Maritime Law, Mckenzie Franck Aug 2023

Falling Stars And Sinking Ships: How Article Vii Of The Outer Space Treaty Needs Maritime Law, Mckenzie Franck

Pace International Law Review

The urge to go where no man has gone before has led to great leaps in space technology that only seemed real in cinema. As more private companies, such as private asteroid mining companies in China, attempt to take this leap, it has become clear that there are significant gaps in international space law regarding liability with private parties. Within Article VII of the Outer Space Treaty, there is a laid-out structure on how states can be held liable for damages caused by celestial bodies. However, the Outer Space Treaty ignores what happens if a private company causes injuries in …


Competition Among Purposes: The Chinese Experience In The Governance Of Climate Change And Energy Transition, Henry S. Gao, Weihuan Zhou Aug 2023

Competition Among Purposes: The Chinese Experience In The Governance Of Climate Change And Energy Transition, Henry S. Gao, Weihuan Zhou

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Energy governance at the international level is fraught with difficulties due to the 'competition among purposes' between different bodies of international law. In this paper, we extend this thesis to argue that the same tension may be found in domestic energy governance. Drawing from China's experience in the governance of climate change and energy transition, we analyse how the misalignment of incentives between different actors and the incomplete market reform led to a drastic shift in policy in 2021. We also compare the different approaches in China's energy governance and trade governance and draw some general lessons on how developing …


Fostering Resilience Within Ecological Civilization: Contributions Of Environmental Law, Nicholas A. Robinson Jul 2023

Fostering Resilience Within Ecological Civilization: Contributions Of Environmental Law, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

My presentation will examine water, to illustrate the questions that Ecological Civilization presents. I shall address five points: (1) Often proposals for attaining Ecological Civilization raise issues relevant to environmental law, but do not examine the roles that environmental law can serve; (2) environmental law is essential to resolving unsustainable water management issues; (3) scientific studies indicate that trends in global environmental degradation limit the time available for implementing reforms to attain Ecological Civilization; (4) environmental legal systems for environmental impact assessment (EIA) can accelerate efforts to attain Ecological Civilization; and (5) For Ecological Civilization to ensure a firm foundation …