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Chapter 11

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The Long And Winding Road To The Small Business Reorganization Act: Why Our Next Stop Should Be Simplicity And Accessibility, Daniel O'Hare May 2022

The Long And Winding Road To The Small Business Reorganization Act: Why Our Next Stop Should Be Simplicity And Accessibility, Daniel O'Hare

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Hostile Restructurings, Diane L. Dick Dec 2021

Hostile Restructurings, Diane L. Dick

Washington Law Review

The conventional wisdom holds that out-of-court loan restructurings are mostly consensual and collaborative. But this is no longer accurate. Highly aggressive, nonconsensual restructuring transactions—what I call “hostile restructurings”—are becoming a common feature of the capital markets. Relying on hypertechnical interpretations of loan agreements, one increasingly popular hostile restructuring method involves issuing new debt that enjoys higher priority than the existing debt; another involves transferring the most valuable collateral away from existing lenders to secure new borrowing.

These transactions are distinguishable from normal out-of-court restructurings by their use of coercive tactics to overcome not only the traditional minority lender ...


The “P” Isn’T For Privacy: The Conflict Between Bankruptcy Rules And Hipaa Compliance, Sophie R. Rogers Churchill Apr 2021

The “P” Isn’T For Privacy: The Conflict Between Bankruptcy Rules And Hipaa Compliance, Sophie R. Rogers Churchill

Washington and Lee Law Review

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) included a now-ubiquitous provision designed to protect the privacy of patients’ protected health information. The provision prohibits covered entities, including health care providers and their agents, from disclosing any demographic information that may identify a patient and that relates to that patient’s medical care. The provision is broad and can include such simple information as which doctor a patient consults or the date of a patient’s consultation with a physician.

Unfortunately, such protections become impracticable in the bankruptcy setting. When a health care provider files bankruptcy, it files ...


Bankruptcy’S Class Act: Class Proofs Of Claim In Chapter 11, Tori Remington Oct 2019

Bankruptcy’S Class Act: Class Proofs Of Claim In Chapter 11, Tori Remington

Dickinson Law Review

When a business files for protection under Chapter 11 bankruptcy, it must begin to pay off its debt by reorganizing or liquidating its assets. Oftentimes, both processes include terminating employees to reduce the business’s expenditures. As a result of these terminations, former employees might file a “class proof of claim” against the business to preserve any claims of unpaid wages or violations of federal law.

Whether a group may file a class proof of claim against a debtor in bankruptcy remains unclear. The Tenth Circuit has rejected the class proof of claim in bankruptcy. The remaining circuit courts that ...


The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy G: The Special Case Of Derivatives, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Andrew Metrick Mar 2019

The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy G: The Special Case Of Derivatives, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Andrew Metrick

The Journal of Financial Crises

When it filed for bankruptcy protection in September 2008, Lehman Brothers was an active participant in the derivatives market and was party to 906,000 derivative transactions of all types under 6,120 ISDA Master Agreements with an estimated notional value of $35 trillion. The majority of Lehman’s derivatives were bilateral agreements not traded on an exchange but in the over-the-counter (OTC) market. Because derivatives enjoyed an exemption from the automatic stay provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, parties to Lehman’s derivatives could seek resolution and self-protection without the guidance and restraint of the bankruptcy court. The ...


The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy F: Introduction To The Isda Master Agreement, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick Mar 2019

The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy F: Introduction To The Isda Master Agreement, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick

The Journal of Financial Crises

When Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc. (LBHI) sought Chapter 11 protection, the more than 6,000 counterparties with which its subsidiaries had entered into over 900,000 over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives transactions faced the question of how best to respond to protect their interests. The existence of standardized documentation developed by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) for entering into such transactions meant that the counterparties likely thought that they were dealing with a well-defined and robust set of options in answering this question. Yet, in practice, the resolution of Lehman’s OTC derivatives portfolio ended up being less orderly than ...


The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy E: The Effects On Lehman’S U.S. Broker-Dealer, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Andrew Metrick Mar 2019

The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy E: The Effects On Lehman’S U.S. Broker-Dealer, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Andrew Metrick

The Journal of Financial Crises

Lehman’s U.S. broker-dealer, Lehman Brothers Inc. (LBI), was excluded from the parent company’s bankruptcy filing on September 15, 2008, because it was thought that the solvent subsidiary might be able to wind down its affairs in a normal fashion. However, the force of the parent’s demise proved too strong, and within days, LBI and dozens of Lehman subsidiaries around the world were also in liquidation. As a regulated broker-dealer, LBI was required to comply with the Securities and Exchange Commission financial-responsibility rules for broker-dealers, including maintaining customer assets separately. However, the corporate complexity and enterprise integration ...


The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy A: Overview, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick Mar 2019

The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy A: Overview, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick

The Journal of Financial Crises

On September 15, 2008, Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc., the fourth-largest U.S. investment bank, sought Chapter 11 protection, initiating the largest bankruptcy proceeding in U.S. history. The demise of the 164-year old firm was a seminal event in the global financial crisis. Under the direction of its long-time Chief Executive Officer Richard Fuld, Lehman had been very successful pursuing a high-leverage, high-risk business model that required it to daily raise billions of dollars to fund its operations. Beginning in 2006, Lehman began to invest aggressively in real-estate-related assets and soon had significant exposures to housing and subprime mortgages, just ...


The Suitability Of South Africa's Business Rescue Procedure In The Reorganization Of Small-To-Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons From Chapter 11 Of The United States Bankruptcy Code., Mikovhe Maphiri Oct 2018

The Suitability Of South Africa's Business Rescue Procedure In The Reorganization Of Small-To-Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons From Chapter 11 Of The United States Bankruptcy Code., Mikovhe Maphiri

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

South African small- to medium-sized enterprises (“SMEs”) are the bread and butter of our economy. Providing much-needed employment and developing the skills of historically disadvantaged persons formally and informally are some of the most significant benefits of SMEs in a developing country such as South Africa. However, despite these significant contributions to the socioeconomic development of the country, SMEs generally have the lowest survival rates in the world as compared to large enterprises globally, resulting in high rates of business failure and the loss of jobs which these entities create. The Companies Act of 2008 replaces the previous judicial management ...


Bankruptcy On The Side, Kenneth Ayotte, Anthony J. Casey, David A. Skeel Jr. Nov 2017

Bankruptcy On The Side, Kenneth Ayotte, Anthony J. Casey, David A. Skeel Jr.

Northwestern University Law Review

This Article provides a framework for analyzing side agreements among stakeholders in corporate bankruptcy, such as intercreditor and “bad boy” agreements. These agreements are controversial because they commonly include a promise by a stakeholder to remain silent—to waive some procedural right they would otherwise have under the Bankruptcy Code—at potentially crucial points in the reorganization process.

Using simplified examples, we show that side agreements create benefits in some instances. But, in other cases, parties to a side agreement may attempt to extract value from nonparties to the agreement by contracting for specific performance or excessive stipulated damages that ...


Turning The Page: The Demise Of The “Queenan Doctrine” Requiring The Adoption Of A Foreclosure Valuation Methodology In Chapter 11 Cases, Harrison Denman May 2017

Turning The Page: The Demise Of The “Queenan Doctrine” Requiring The Adoption Of A Foreclosure Valuation Methodology In Chapter 11 Cases, Harrison Denman

University of Miami Business Law Review

This Article traces the evolution of the default standard applied by bankruptcy courts to valuing a secured lender’s collateral under section 506(a) for purposes of determining whether a “diminution in value” has occurred sufficient to trigger the need for adequate protection. Historically, bankruptcy courts applied a standard premised on the scholarship of Judge Queenan of the Bankruptcy Court for the District of Massachusetts. That standard called for, absent contractual language to the contrary, application of a foreclosure valuation methodology regardless of the actual or anticipated use of such collateral during the chapter 11 cases. In recent years, there ...


Finding Common Ground: Resolving Assumption And Assignment Of Intellectual Property Licenses In Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Through Adoption Of The Actual Test, Courtney Marie Davis Apr 2016

Finding Common Ground: Resolving Assumption And Assignment Of Intellectual Property Licenses In Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Through Adoption Of The Actual Test, Courtney Marie Davis

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


The Rejection Of Collective Bargaining Agreements Within Bankruptcy Reorganization: Reconciling A Legislative Dilemma, Gust Goutras Jul 2015

The Rejection Of Collective Bargaining Agreements Within Bankruptcy Reorganization: Reconciling A Legislative Dilemma, Gust Goutras

Akron Law Review

In 1981, a Dallas based conglomerate, LTV Corporation, spun-off a subsidiary known as Wilson Foods. The purpose for this action was that Wilson Foods, the nation's fifth largest meat packer was suffering from financial difficulties. Shortly after the spin-off, Wilson Foods entered into a collective bargaining agreement with its unionized employees, initiating a wage freeze through 1985. Under this arrangement, Wilson Foods' losses continued to escalate.


Betting On The Upside: Why Affirming River Road Favors Distressed Debt Speculators Over The Rehabilitation Of Businesses, Julia L. Onorato Jan 2015

Betting On The Upside: Why Affirming River Road Favors Distressed Debt Speculators Over The Rehabilitation Of Businesses, Julia L. Onorato

Northwestern University Law Review

The Chapter 11 bankruptcy process demands a careful balance between protecting the creditors’ rights to be repaid and allowing a failing entity the ability to restructure. The Supreme Court in RadLAX Gateway Hotel affirmed the Seventh Circuit’s holding in River Road and interpreted the Bankruptcy Code in a way that improperly shifts this balance towards the most senior creditors at the expense of business. This Note will analyze the circuit disagreement over the cramdown provision in the Bankruptcy Code and the Supreme Court’s ultimate resolution. It will argue that in light of recent trends in the credit markets ...


Choosing The "Per-Debtor" Approach To Plan Confirmation In Multi-Debtor Chapter 11 Proceedings, Suzanne T. Brindise Jan 2015

Choosing The "Per-Debtor" Approach To Plan Confirmation In Multi-Debtor Chapter 11 Proceedings, Suzanne T. Brindise

Northwestern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


How Courts Can Prevent Excess Emitters From Using Bankruptcy As A Forum To Avoid California Ab 32’S Allowance Deductions, Mohammed Tehrani Nov 2014

How Courts Can Prevent Excess Emitters From Using Bankruptcy As A Forum To Avoid California Ab 32’S Allowance Deductions, Mohammed Tehrani

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This paper identifies bankruptcy as a forum in which entities that exceed their emissions limit might be able to avoid the accompanying allowance deduction. Specifically, an entity might be able to sell its assets free and clear of its allowance deduction liabilities through Section 363 to a new company comprised of the same actors. Part II contrasts which liabilities can be discharged through a Chapter 11 plan and which can be avoided through a free and clear sale under Section 363. Part III analyzes whether allowance deductions could be discharged through a Chapter 11 plan or avoided through a free ...


Curbing The Exploitation Of Passive Creditors In Chapter 11 Reorganization By Leveraging The Oversight Role Of The United States Trustee, Addison Pierce Jan 2014

Curbing The Exploitation Of Passive Creditors In Chapter 11 Reorganization By Leveraging The Oversight Role Of The United States Trustee, Addison Pierce

American University Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Manville Corporation Bankruptcy: An Abuse Of The Judicial Process?, Mark Kunkler Jan 2013

The Manville Corporation Bankruptcy: An Abuse Of The Judicial Process?, Mark Kunkler

Pepperdine Law Review

Federal bankruptcy law offers a refuge to the honest debtor who is unable to pay his creditor's when his debts are due. Here, the twin aims of bankruptcy law, to give the debtor a fresh start and to provide roughly equal treatment for his! Creditors, are laudably accomplished. But what policies support the use of federal bankruptcy law when the "debtor" is in fact solvent and apparently seeks refuge only to escape liability for the products it manufactures? This comment examines the recent filing of the Manville Corporation for Chapter 11 protection under bankruptcy law with this question in ...


The Code And The Constitution: Fifth Amendment Limits On The Debtor's Discharge In Bankruptcy, Nicholas A. Franke Jan 2013

The Code And The Constitution: Fifth Amendment Limits On The Debtor's Discharge In Bankruptcy, Nicholas A. Franke

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


The New Value Exception To The Absolute Priority Rule In Chapter 11 Reorganizations: What Should The Rule Be? , Linda J. Rusch Nov 2012

The New Value Exception To The Absolute Priority Rule In Chapter 11 Reorganizations: What Should The Rule Be? , Linda J. Rusch

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Mandatory Class Action Lawsuits As A Restructuring Technique, Bryant B. Edwards, Jeffrey A. Herbst, Selina K. Hewitt Nov 2012

Mandatory Class Action Lawsuits As A Restructuring Technique, Bryant B. Edwards, Jeffrey A. Herbst, Selina K. Hewitt

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rehabilitating Bankruptcy Reform, Kara J. Bruce Oct 2012

Rehabilitating Bankruptcy Reform, Kara J. Bruce

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Business Insolvency And The Irish Debt Crisis, Paul B. Lewis Jan 2012

Business Insolvency And The Irish Debt Crisis, Paul B. Lewis

Richmond Journal of Global Law & Business

No abstract provided.


Considerations For Private Equity Firms When Utilizing Chapter 11 New Value Deals, Alexandra Wilde Jan 2012

Considerations For Private Equity Firms When Utilizing Chapter 11 New Value Deals, Alexandra Wilde

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

The new value exception to the Chapter 11 absolute priority rule provides a narrow avenue for equity holders to retain an equity interest in a reorganized company over the objections of senior creditors and interest holders. With the increasing number of Chapter 11 reorganization filings by private equity owned companies, private equity firms may be interested in exploring ways to retain their equity ownership in the debtor company. This Note explores the unique implications a private equity firm may encounter when attempting to utilize the new value exception as a last resort to maintain ownership in a debtor company. Part ...


What We “Know” About Chapter 11 Cost Is Wrong, Stephen J. Lubben Jan 2012

What We “Know” About Chapter 11 Cost Is Wrong, Stephen J. Lubben

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Among the collective wisdom about large corporate bankruptcy cases, the following points are almost undisputed: Longer chapter 11 cases cost more; prepackaged chapter 11 cases cost less; cases filed in New York or Delaware cost more; and fee examiners control the costs of big chapter 11 cases. But each of these points is wrong, and in most cases entirely backward. This Article provides empirical evidence to show why. Ultimately, I argue that the complexity of the bankruptcy and the compensation structure of the professionals retained (which may itself reflect further aspects of complexity) are the key determinants of cost. The ...


Improving Bankruptcy Sales By Raising The Bar: Imposing A Preliminary Injunction Standard For Objections To § 363 Sales, Matthew A. Bruckner Jan 2012

Improving Bankruptcy Sales By Raising The Bar: Imposing A Preliminary Injunction Standard For Objections To § 363 Sales, Matthew A. Bruckner

Catholic University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Committee Capture? An Empirical Analysis Of The Role Of Creditors' Committees In Business Reorganizations, Michelle M. Harner, Jamie Marincic Apr 2011

Committee Capture? An Empirical Analysis Of The Role Of Creditors' Committees In Business Reorganizations, Michelle M. Harner, Jamie Marincic

Vanderbilt Law Review

The number of businesses experiencing financial distress increased significantly during the past several years. The number of Chapter 11 reorganization cases likewise rose. And many of these business failures were spectacular, leaving little value for creditors and even less for shareholders. Consequently, how the business debtor's limited asset pie is divided and who gets to allocate the pieces are very relevant and important questions.

The U.S. Bankruptcy Code generally contemplates the appointment of a committee of the debtor's unsecured creditors to serve as a fiduciary for all general unsecured creditors and as a statutory watchdog over the ...


Assessing The Chrysler Bankruptcy, Mark J. Roe, David Skeel Mar 2010

Assessing The Chrysler Bankruptcy, Mark J. Roe, David Skeel

Michigan Law Review

Chrysler entered and exited bankruptcy in forty-two days, making it one of the fastest major industrial bankruptcies in memory. It entered as a company widely thought to be ripe for liquidation if left on its own, obtained massive funding from the United States Treasury, and exited via a pseudo-sale of its main assets to a new government-funded entity. The unevenness of the compensation to prior creditors raised concerns in capital markets, which we evaluate here. We conclude that the Chrysler bankruptcy cannot be understood as complying with good bankruptcy practice, that it resurrected discredited practices long thought interred in the ...


The Success Of Chapter 11: A Challenge To The Critics, Elizabeth Warren, Jay Lawrence Westbrook Jan 2009

The Success Of Chapter 11: A Challenge To The Critics, Elizabeth Warren, Jay Lawrence Westbrook

Michigan Law Review

Although Chapter 11 has served as a model for bankruptcy reform around the world, the conventional wisdom has been that it is characterized by a relatively low success rate and endless delay. The data from large samples of Chapter 11 cases filed in 1994 and 2002 demonstrate that this characterization is wrong. Nearly all troubled companies choose Chapter 11 over Chapter 7 liquidation, which means that the system serves a critical screening function to eliminate hopeless cases relatively quickly. Almost half the unsuccessful cases were jettisoned within six months and almost eighty percent were gone within a year The cases ...


Bankruptcy Vérité, Lynn M. Lopucki, Joseph W. Doherty Feb 2008

Bankruptcy Vérité, Lynn M. Lopucki, Joseph W. Doherty

Michigan Law Review

In the empirical study we report in Bankruptcy Fire Sales, we compared the recoveries from the going-concern bankruptcy sales of twenty-five large, public companies with the recoveries from the bankruptcy reorganizations of thirty large, public companies. We found that, controlling for the asset size of the company and its presale or pre-reorganization earnings ("EBITDA"), reorganization recoveries were more than double sale recovenes. We are honored that Professor James J. White has chosen to comment on our study. White is an eloquent defender of the status quo, pulls no punches, and always has something interesting to say. Bankruptcy Noir is no ...