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Thinking Globall, Acting Locally: Cedaw And Women's Human Rights In San Francisco, Susan Hagood Lee Phd Oct 2019

Thinking Globall, Acting Locally: Cedaw And Women's Human Rights In San Francisco, Susan Hagood Lee Phd

Societies Without Borders

While the United States has ratified many of the international human rights treaties, some have been left languishing in the Senate including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). In response to Senate failure to ratify the women's treaty, the city of San Francisco passed its own CEDAW ordinance in 1998 to implement the principles of women's human rights in its jurisdiction. Several factors contributed to the successful passage of the CEDAW ordinance, including a sturdy base of feminist institutions developed over three decades of women's activism, determined leadership with the ...


Bridging The Enforcement Gap? Evaluating The Inquiry Procedure Of The Cedaw Optional Protocol, Catherine O'Rourke Jan 2019

Bridging The Enforcement Gap? Evaluating The Inquiry Procedure Of The Cedaw Optional Protocol, Catherine O'Rourke

American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law

Considerable optimism accompanied the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Optional Protocol. However, one of the Optional Protocol’s two enforcement measures, the inquiry procedure, appeared to languish for fourteen years and has, to date, resulted in only four inquiry reports. The article evaluates the inquiry procedure, finding largely unmet expectations in addressing CEDAW’s structural weaknesses, countering the privileging of civil and political rights, and redressing state noncompliance with CEDAW, but significant potential nonetheless. The findings of this Article vindicate the enduring salience of foundational feminist critiques of human rights ...


“Long Past Time”: Cedaw Ratification In The United States, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Amanda M. Martin Jan 2018

“Long Past Time”: Cedaw Ratification In The United States, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Amanda M. Martin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

More than 70 years after Eleanor Roosevelt pioneered the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the US has not ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW or what is known as the global Bill of Rights for Women). The Trump administration is planning measures such as paid parental leave and child care legislation which are supported by the CEDAW. Despite the Trump administration's caution about human rights treaties, we argue that an enlightened self-interest on the part of the administration will draw it towards the CEDAW ratification despite the ratification ...


When Law Is Complicit In Gender Bias: Ending De Jure Discrimination Against Women As An Important Target Of Sustainable Development Goal 5, Rangita De Silva De Alwis Jan 2018

When Law Is Complicit In Gender Bias: Ending De Jure Discrimination Against Women As An Important Target Of Sustainable Development Goal 5, Rangita De Silva De Alwis

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Ending all forms of discrimination against women and girls is not only a basic human right, but also crucial to accelerating sustainable development. The very first target of Goal 5. 1.1 calls to end all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere and the indicator for the goal is: “Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor equality and non-discrimination on the basis of sex”. In many countries around the world the legal frameworks themselves allow for both direct (de jure) and indirect (de facto) discrimination against women. This essay identifies some ...


Equality And Nondiscrimination Through The Eyes Of An International Religious Organization: The Organization Of Islamic Cooperation's (Oic) Response To Women's Rights, Robert Blitt Jan 2017

Equality And Nondiscrimination Through The Eyes Of An International Religious Organization: The Organization Of Islamic Cooperation's (Oic) Response To Women's Rights, Robert Blitt

UTK Law Faculty Publications

This article is the first of a two part series that draws on women’s rights and sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) to explore how the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) represents, interprets and seeks to impact the right to equality and protection against discrimination as enshrined under international human rights law. The study is a novel one in as much as the OIC is neither a state nor a religious group per se. Rather, the OIC stands out as the only contemporary intergovernmental organization unifying its member states around the commonality of a single religion. In this capacity ...


Glocalizing Law And Culture: Towards A Cross-Constitutive Paradigm, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Nov 2014

Glocalizing Law And Culture: Towards A Cross-Constitutive Paradigm, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

This lecture addresses the relationship between law and culture in three general parts. The first part consists of a brief review of the theories addressing the relationship of law and culture, mainly the mirror theory. But I will suggest that there is more to the relationship of law and culture than one being an inert reflection of the other; hence my proposal for what I call, as a working concept, a cross-constitutive paradigm of law and culture. The second part reviews the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women ("CEDAW''), a law that seeks to effect ...


Unsex Cedaw? No! Super-Sex It!, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Nov 2014

Unsex Cedaw? No! Super-Sex It!, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

This Article reflects upon Darren Rosenblum's provocative piece Unsex CEDAW, or What's Wrong with Women's Rights. At the outset I should note that this critical analysis should not be misinterpreted. I do not quarrel with Professor Rosenblum's observations that inequality in law and life is much broader than sex inequalities. To the contrary, I am in full accord with him that discrimination along other categorical axes is also undesirable and sometimes as prevalent as sex inequality. Indeed, oftentimes such other discriminatory tendencies dovetail with those rooted in sex discrimination. Where we diverge, however, is in his ...


The Effect Of Treaties And Other Formal International Acts On The Customary Law Of Human Rights, Arthur M. Weisburd Oct 2014

The Effect Of Treaties And Other Formal International Acts On The Customary Law Of Human Rights, Arthur M. Weisburd

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Voiceless Victims: Sex Slavery And Trafficking Of African Women In Western Europe, Melanie R. Wallace Oct 2014

Voiceless Victims: Sex Slavery And Trafficking Of African Women In Western Europe, Melanie R. Wallace

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Reconciling Indigenous And Women's Rights To Land In Sub-Saharan Africa, Aparna Polavarapu Sep 2014

Reconciling Indigenous And Women's Rights To Land In Sub-Saharan Africa, Aparna Polavarapu

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Human Rights Conventions And Reservations: An Examination Of A Critical Deficit In The Cedaw, Michael Buenger Jan 2014

Human Rights Conventions And Reservations: An Examination Of A Critical Deficit In The Cedaw, Michael Buenger

Michael Buenger

Human rights agreements like CEDAW contain language that seeks to inspire and establish the legal boundaries of state action with regards to protected rights. Such agreements also contain reservation provisions that enable states to join an agreement and simultaneously exempt themselves from the very substantive goals the agreement seeks to achieve. In the past, the issue of reservation compatibility has been treated as political questions under an objection process. Establishing a mechanism for testing reservation compatibility before the ICJ is a better means of ensuring that states do not nonchalantly exempt themselves from human rights obligations through reservations.


The Human Rights Of Women In The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Puja Kapai Feb 2012

The Human Rights Of Women In The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Puja Kapai

Puja Kapai

Although Hong Kong is a party to the Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and has enacted relevant protections to safeguard the rights and interests of women under the Hong Kong Basic Law (HKBL) and anti-discrimination laws, the existing framework of protection is inadequate in critical respects and fails to offer substantive protection. The paper critically examines existing law and policy governing women’s rights, highlighting the reasons for its failings and outlines recommendations for achieving substantive and transformative equality for women.


Female Genital Mutilation And Female Genital Cutting, Hope Lewis Sep 2011

Female Genital Mutilation And Female Genital Cutting, Hope Lewis

Hope Lewis

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC) refers to a range of harmful traditional practices performed on infants, girls, and women in certain ethnic groups. This article, published in The Encyclopedia of Human Rights (David Forsythe, et al, ed., Oxford University Press, 2009) discusses the practices in the context of international human rights law. FGM-FGC, violates a number of international human rights standards, including the right to bodily integrity, the right to life, the right to the highest attainable standard of health, the rights of children, and the rights of women and girls to equality and non-discrimination. Nevertheless ...


Unsex Cedaw, Or What's Wrong With Women's Rights, Darren Rosenblum Jan 2011

Unsex Cedaw, Or What's Wrong With Women's Rights, Darren Rosenblum

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Part I discusses why CEDAW continues to be relevant as the primary source of international law on sex discrimination. Until the advent of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), CEDAW was the most widely-subscribed international treaty. Some of the draft language of CEDAW reflects the tension between category and identity and how "women" won the debate. Part II contrasts CEDAW with the Convention for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD). It points to the identitarian focus of CEDAW as a core reason for its failures. Had CEDAW reflected a category focus, as CERD did, it would more ...


Unsex Cedaw? No! Super-Sex It!, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jan 2011

Unsex Cedaw? No! Super-Sex It!, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article reflects upon Darren Rosenblum's provocative piece Unsex CEDAW, or What's Wrong with Women's Rights. At the outset I should note that this critical analysis should not be misinterpreted. I do not quarrel with Professor Rosenblum's observations that inequality in law and life is much broader than sex inequalities. To the contrary, I am in full accord with him that discrimination along other categorical axes is also undesirable and sometimes as prevalent as sex inequality. Indeed, oftentimes such other discriminatory tendencies dovetail with those rooted in sex discrimination.

Where we diverge, however, is in his ...


Deconstructing Cedaw’S Article 14: Naming And Explaining Rural Difference, Lisa Pruitt Dec 2010

Deconstructing Cedaw’S Article 14: Naming And Explaining Rural Difference, Lisa Pruitt

Lisa R Pruitt

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is the first human rights instrument to recognize explicitly rural-urban difference. It does so by enumerating specific rights for rural women in Article 14 and also by mentioning their needs in relation to Article 10 on education. In this Essay, I examine the Convention’s Travaux Préparatoires to better understand the forces and considerations that led to the inclusion of Article 14 and its recognition of rural people and places. I also assess Article 14’s particular mandates in light of both that drafting history and CEDAW ...


Opportunities And Challenges For Gender-Based Legal Reform In China, Rangita De Silva De Alwis Jan 2010

Opportunities And Challenges For Gender-Based Legal Reform In China, Rangita De Silva De Alwis

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Secondary Human Rights Law, Monica Hakimi Jan 2009

Secondary Human Rights Law, Monica Hakimi

Articles

In recent years, the United States has appeared before four different treaty bodies to defend its human rights record. The process is part of the human rights enforcement structure: each of the major universal treaties has an expert body that reviews and comments on compliance reports that states must periodically submit. What's striking about the treaty bodies' dialogues with the United States is not that they criticized it or disagreed with it on the content of certain substantive rules. (That was all expected.) It's the extent to which the two sides talked past each other. Each presumed a ...


Migration, Development And The Promise Of Cedaw For Rural Women, Lisa Pruitt Dec 2008

Migration, Development And The Promise Of Cedaw For Rural Women, Lisa Pruitt

Lisa R Pruitt

This Article explores the potential of international development efforts and human rights law to enhance the livelihoods of rural women in the developing world. In particular, the Article takes up the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), which enumerates in Article 14 specific rights for rural women as a class. Pruitt’s focus here is on Article 14’s guarantees in relation to land ownership, education, development planning, access to credit, marketing facilities and technology, and other rights that are linked closely to women’s role as the architects of food security. While CEDAW ...


Female Genital Mutilation And Female Genital Cutting, Hope Lewis Dec 2008

Female Genital Mutilation And Female Genital Cutting, Hope Lewis

Hope Lewis

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC) refers to a range of harmful traditional practices performed on infants, girls, and women in certain ethnic groups. This article, published in The Encyclopedia of Human Rights (David Forsythe, et al, ed., Oxford University Press, 2009) discusses the practices in the context of international human rights law. FGM-FGC, violates a number of international human rights standards, including the right to bodily integrity, the right to life, the right to the highest attainable standard of health, the rights of children, and the rights of women and girls to equality and non-discrimination. Nevertheless ...


Internalizing Gender: International Goals, Comparative Realities, Darren Rosenblum Aug 2006

Internalizing Gender: International Goals, Comparative Realities, Darren Rosenblum

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article uses the example of international women's political rights to examine the value of comparative methodologies in analyzing the process by which nations internalize international norms. As internalized in Brazil and France, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women suggests possibilities for (and possible limitations of) interdisciplinary comparative and international law scholarship. Indeed, international law scholarship is divided between theories of internalization and neorealist challenges to those theories. Comparative methodologies add crucial complexity to internalization theory, the success of which depends on acknowledging vast differences in national legal cultures. Further, comparative methodologies expose ...


The Prohibition Of Widespread Rape As A Jus Cogens, Dean Adams May 2005

The Prohibition Of Widespread Rape As A Jus Cogens, Dean Adams

San Diego International Law Journal

This Comment explains why the prohibition of widespread rape should be recognized as a jus cogens through analyses of the failure of existing international legal instruments, advances within international law towards the universal prohibition of widespread rape, and policy reasons for classifying widespread rape as a jus cogens. In doing so, this comment will demonstrate the particular timeliness of this topic by reviewing the use of widespread rape in several countries through the 1990s, the widespread rape presently occurring in Kenya, and the emerging reports from Iraq of rape committed at the hands of the Saddam Hussein regime. Finally, this ...


Lifting Our Veil Of Ignorance: Culture, Constitutionalism, And Women's Human Rights In Post-September 11 America , Catherine Powell Jan 2005

Lifting Our Veil Of Ignorance: Culture, Constitutionalism, And Women's Human Rights In Post-September 11 America , Catherine Powell

Faculty Scholarship

This Article challenges the culture clash view of human rights law, which posits a clash between Western countries' presumed respect for women's human rights and non-Western countries' presumed rejection of these rights on cultural and religious grounds. Since the September 11 terrorist attacks, this view has taken on new significance, in light of the perceived civilizational divide between the Western and Muslim worlds. The Article calls into question this view, by examining cultural stereotypes of women used to oppose U.S. ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. My reading, therefore, is ...


Statement Of Jeanne M. Woods And Hope Lewis Prepared For The Hearings Of The United Nations Special Rapporteur On Extreme Poverty, Dr. Arjun Sengupta On The Aftermath Of Hurricane Katrina, Hope Lewis, Jeanne Woods Dec 2004

Statement Of Jeanne M. Woods And Hope Lewis Prepared For The Hearings Of The United Nations Special Rapporteur On Extreme Poverty, Dr. Arjun Sengupta On The Aftermath Of Hurricane Katrina, Hope Lewis, Jeanne Woods

Hope Lewis

This Statement was submitted to the UN Independent Expert on Human Rights and Extreme Poverty, Dr. Arjun Sengupta in the aftermath of the Hurricane Katrina disaster on the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005. The Statement, submitted during the Independent Expert’s fact-finding visit, expresses concern about the extensive and alarming human rights implications of United States federal, state and local government policy and activities before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina. The Statement argues that the inadequate response of government officials at all levels reflects the impact of “globalization in miniature” on the poor and other vulnerable and ...


Glocalizing Law And Culture: Towards A Cross-Constitutive Paradigm, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jan 2003

Glocalizing Law And Culture: Towards A Cross-Constitutive Paradigm, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This lecture addresses the relationship between law and culture in three general parts. The first part consists of a brief review of the theories addressing the relationship of law and culture, mainly the mirror theory. But I will suggest that there is more to the relationship of law and culture than one being an inert reflection of the other; hence my proposal for what I call, as a working concept, a cross-constitutive paradigm of law and culture. The second part reviews the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women ("CEDAW''), a law that seeks to effect ...


Why America Should Ratify The Women's Rights Treaty (Cedaw), Harold Hongju Koh Jan 2002

Why America Should Ratify The Women's Rights Treaty (Cedaw), Harold Hongju Koh

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

No abstract provided.


Crossing Borderlands Of Inequality With International Legal Methodologies - The Promise Of Multiple Feminisms, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol Jan 2001

Crossing Borderlands Of Inequality With International Legal Methodologies - The Promise Of Multiple Feminisms, Berta E. Hernández-Truyol

UF Law Faculty Publications

This work provides insights into the gendered developments of international law. It explores the roles played by the gendered rule of law and by the conflation of economic, social, political, religious, cultural, and historic realities in the marginalization of women in the international, regional, and domestic spheres worldwide. The first section presents the myriad locations of women's persistent inequality. The next sets forth feminist theory that has been the basis of both the celebration of women's progress and the denunciation of women's subordination. The last part makes suggestions for the articulation of a methodology that follows the ...


Cleaning Our Own House : "Exotic" And Familiar Human Rights Violations, Hope Lewis, Isabelle Gunning Dec 1997

Cleaning Our Own House : "Exotic" And Familiar Human Rights Violations, Hope Lewis, Isabelle Gunning

Hope Lewis

Women's human rights activism in the United States tend to highlight human rights violations of women outside the U.S., or on women from other cultures who enter the U.S. as immigrants or asylum-seekers, while ignoring internal human rights abuses. This Article focuses on the events surrounding a recent U.S. gender asylum case involving Fauziya Kassindja, a young asylee from Togo, in an attempt to demonstrate the irony of American complacency about the status of the United States as a haven for the protection of human rights. Ms. Kassindja, and other immigrants and asylum-seekers, were subjected to ...


Global Intersections : Critical Race Feminist Human Rights And Inter/National Black Women, Hope Lewis Dec 1997

Global Intersections : Critical Race Feminist Human Rights And Inter/National Black Women, Hope Lewis

Hope Lewis

Although there have been great strides in feminist human rights efforts in developing methods to prevent domestic violence and other forms of "private" violence against women, feminists still have far to go. For instance, feminists have only recently begun to acknowledge that physical, social, and economic violence against women, especially poor women of color, is perpetuated in part by top-down globalization. This Article demonstrates how Critical Race Feminist analysis, a set of approaches to legal scholarship rooted in feminist and anti-racist critical traditions, reconceptualizes the human rights problems facing Black women who migrate between the United States and Jamaica. Like ...


Lionheart Gals Facing The Dragon : The Human Rights Of Inter/National Black Women In The United States, Hope Lewis Dec 1996

Lionheart Gals Facing The Dragon : The Human Rights Of Inter/National Black Women In The United States, Hope Lewis

Hope Lewis

This Article commands a more explicit engagement of critical race scholarship with feminist international human rights strategies. It focuses on Jamaican-American women. Part I discusses key aspects of the historical and sociological context in which the migration of Jamaican women to the New York City area has occurred. It also discusses trends in their participation in the paid labor force since the migratory patterns of Jamaican women are strongly linked to their employment opportunities. Part II describes and analyzes significant survival strategies used by working-class Jamaican-American women to escape from, reshape, or resist the exploitative conditions they face. The strategies ...