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Full-Text Articles in Law

Anonymous Companies, William J. Moon Jan 2022

Anonymous Companies, William J. Moon

Faculty Scholarship

Hardly a day goes by without hearing about nefarious activities facilitated by anonymous “shell” companies. Often described as menaces to the financial system, the creation of business entities with no real operations in sun-drenched offshore jurisdictions offering “zero percent” tax rates remains in vogue among business titans, pop stars, multimillionaires, and royals. The trending headlines and academic accounts, however, have paid insufficient attention to the legal uses of anonymous companies that are both ubiquitous and almost infinite in their variations.

This Article identifies privacy as a functional feature of modern business entities by documenting the hidden virtues of anonymous companies—business …


The “Value” Of A Public Benefit Corporation, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon Apr 2021

The “Value” Of A Public Benefit Corporation, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon

All Faculty Scholarship

We examine the “value” a PBC form provides for publicly-traded corporations. We analyze the structure of the PBC form and find that other than requiring a designated social purpose it does not differ significantly in siting control and direction with shareholders. We also examine the purpose statements in the charters of the most economically significant PBCs. We find that, independent of structural limitations on accountability, these purpose statements are, in most cases, too vague and aspirational to be legally significant, or even to serve as a reliable checks on PBC behavior. We theorize, and provide evidence, that without a legal …


Delaware's New Competition, William J. Moon Jan 2020

Delaware's New Competition, William J. Moon

Faculty Scholarship

According to the standard account in American corporate law, states compete to supply corporate law to American corporations, with Delaware dominating the market. This “competition” metaphor in turn informs some of the most important policy debates in American corporate law.

This Article complicates the standard account, introducing foreign nations as emerging lawmakers that compete with American states in the increasingly globalized market for corporate law. In recent decades, entrepreneurial foreign nations in offshore islands have used permissive corporate governance rules and specialized business courts to attract publicly traded American corporations. Aided in part by a select group of private sector …


Regulating Offshore Finance, William J. Moon Jan 2019

Regulating Offshore Finance, William J. Moon

Faculty Scholarship

From the Panama Papers to the Paradise Papers, massive document leaks in recent years have exposed trillions of dollars hidden in small offshore jurisdictions. Attracting foreign capital with low tax rates and environments of secrecy, a growing number of offshore jurisdictions have emerged as major financial havens hosting thousands of hedge funds, trusts, banks, and insurance companies.

While the prevailing account has examined offshore financial havens as “tax havens” that facilitate the evasion or avoidance of domestic tax, this Article uncovers how offshore jurisdictions enable corporations to evade domestic regulatory law. Specifically, recent U.S. Supreme Court cases restricting the geographic …


Law And The Blockchain, Usha Rodrigues Jan 2019

Law And The Blockchain, Usha Rodrigues

Scholarly Works

All contracts are necessarily incomplete. The inefficiencies of bargaining over every contingency, coupled with humans’ innate bounded rationality, mean that contracts cannot anticipate and address every potential eventuality. One role of law is to fill gaps in incomplete contracts with default rules. The blockchain is a distributed ledger that allows the cryptographic recording of transactions and permits “smart” contracts that self-execute automatically if their conditions are met. Because humans code the contracts of the blockchain, gaps in these contracts will arise. Yet in the world of “smart contracting” on the blockchain, there is no place for the law to step …


Corporate Governance Beyond Economics, Elizabeth Pollman Jan 2019

Corporate Governance Beyond Economics, Elizabeth Pollman

All Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, changes to state and federal law have increased pressure on corporate law to serve as an ordering mechanism for interests and values beyond economics. On the federal front, two U.S. Supreme Court cases have put existing corporate law in a new quasi-constitutional light. In the landmark decisions of Citizens United v. FEC and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., the Supreme Court has pointed to state corporate law as the mechanism for ordering political and religious activity. In addition, Congress, the SEC, and federal courts have been embroiled in battles about the scope and appropriateness of regulating …


Economic Democracy And Enterprise Form In Finance, William H. Simon Jan 2019

Economic Democracy And Enterprise Form In Finance, William H. Simon

Faculty Scholarship

This article considers the relative advantages of alternative enterprise forms in finance from the point of view of public accountability. The business corporation is compared to the state agency or authority, the cooperative, the state corporation, and the charitable nonprofit. These forms can be distinguished according to whether they aspire to enhance general electoral democracy or stakeholder democracy and whether their democratic controls operate directly or indirectly. The article suggests that the indirect democratic forms may be more promising than the direct ones. It also argues that the project of democratizing finance depends on the development of practices of multifactor …


Hedge Fund Activism, Poison Pills, And The Jurisprudence Of Threat, William W. Bratton Aug 2016

Hedge Fund Activism, Poison Pills, And The Jurisprudence Of Threat, William W. Bratton

All Faculty Scholarship

This chapter reviews the single high profile case in which twentieth century antitakeover law has come to bear on management defense against a twenty-first century activist challenge—the Delaware Court of Chancery’s decision to sustain a low-threshold poison pill deployed against an activist in Third Point LLC v. Ruprecht. The decision implicated an important policy question: whether a twentieth century doctrine keyed to hostile takeovers and control transfers appropriately can be brought to bear in a twenty-first century governance context in which the challenger eschews control transfer and instead makes aggressive use of the shareholder franchise. Resolution of the question …


Some Key Things U.S. Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony J. Luppino, Malika Simmons Apr 2016

Some Key Things U.S. Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony J. Luppino, Malika Simmons

Faculty Works

New business formation is a powerful economic engine that creates jobs. Diverse legal issues are encountered as a start-up entity approaches formation, initial capitalization and fundraising, arrangements with employees and independent contractors, and relationships with other third parties. The endeavors of a typical start-up in the United States will likely implicate many of the following areas of law: intellectual property; business organizations; tax laws; employment and labor laws; securities regulation; contracts and licensing agreements; commercial sales; debtor-creditor relations; real estate law; health and safety laws/codes; permits and licenses; environmental protection; industry specific regulatory laws and approval processes; tort/personal injury, products …


Incorporating Legal Claims, Maya Steinitz Feb 2015

Incorporating Legal Claims, Maya Steinitz

Faculty Scholarship

Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in commercial litigation funding. Whereas the judicial, legislative, and scholarly treatment of litigation finance has regarded litigation finance first and foremost as a form of champerty and sought to regulate it through rules of legal professional responsibility (hereinafter, the "legal ethics paradigm"), this Article suggests that the problems created by litigation finance are all facets of the classic problems created by "the separation of ownership and control" that have been a focus of business law since the advent of the corporate form. Therefore, an "incorporation paradigm," offered here, is more appropriate. "Incorporating …


Teaching Llcs Through A Problem-Based Approach, Michelle M. Harner, Robert J. Rhee Jan 2014

Teaching Llcs Through A Problem-Based Approach, Michelle M. Harner, Robert J. Rhee

UF Law Faculty Publications

Case studies and case simulations can be used to teach LLCs with an eye toward training business lawyers. These tools can be used in the traditional four-credit Business Associations (BA) course to supplement traditional teaching materials with mini-case studies that accent and apply analysis of primary legal sources. Alternatively, case studies and case simulations can be the centerpiece of a specialized course on LLCs. We discuss both approaches in this short essay.


Book Review: "Bishop & Zucker On Nevada Corporations And Llcs", Rachel J. Anderson Jan 2013

Book Review: "Bishop & Zucker On Nevada Corporations And Llcs", Rachel J. Anderson

Scholarly Works

In this piece written for The Writ, the official publication of the Washoe County Bar Association, Prof. Rachel Anderson reviews Bishop and Zucker on Nevada Corporations & LLCs.


Foreword: Shape Shifting In The Law, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2012

Foreword: Shape Shifting In The Law, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

As this issue of the William Mitchell Law Review reflects, a significant dislocation is occurring in the law of business organizations. Something far more fundamental than a legal definition or any similarly specific concept is in flux. The legal and philosophical question is not whether a business organization should be able to engage instrumentally in non-profit activities but rather whether a business organization's purpose may include something in addition to (and likely prejudicial to) the purely pecuniary interests of the organization's owners.


Teaching Gender As A Core Value In Business Organizations Class, Cheryl L. Wade Jan 2011

Teaching Gender As A Core Value In Business Organizations Class, Cheryl L. Wade

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

I teach a business organizations course that is typically a large class with up to ninety students. At some point in the first week of each semester, I talk about public companies and the men who lead them. I point out to my students that while it is appropriate in most contexts to use gender-neutral language, it would be inaccurate to do so when talking about big business. Only fifteen percent of the board seats at Fortune 500 companies are held by women, and only sixteen percent of Fortune 500 corporate officers are women. I let my students know …


Two Decades Of "Alternative Entities": From Tax Rationalization Through Alphabet Soup To Contract As Deity, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2009

Two Decades Of "Alternative Entities": From Tax Rationalization Through Alphabet Soup To Contract As Deity, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

This essay: (i) puts into perspective the past 20 years of developments in the U.S. law of limited liability companies (LLCs), limited liability partnerships (LLPs), and limited liability limited partnerships (LLLPs); (ii) explains how a movement toward tax rationalization has been transformed into a palace coup aimed at fiduciary duty (a fundamental tenet of the U.S. law of closely held businesses); and (iii) criticizes both conceptually and pragmatically efforts to "kill Cardozo" and worship "freedom of contract."


The Llc As Recombinant Entity: Revisiting Fundamental Questions Through The Llc Lens, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2009

The Llc As Recombinant Entity: Revisiting Fundamental Questions Through The Llc Lens, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

Rather than being a simple hybrid, the U.S. limited liability company is better described as a recombinant entity that combines attributes of four different types of business organizations. The LLC offers an almost ineffably flexible structure, but that flexibility does not place the LLC beyond the range of traditional, formalist analysis. To the contrary, parsing the LLC in pursuit of conventional forms may allow us "to know the place for the first time." This essay uses conventional concepts to: (i) explore whether "labels matter" when LLC membership interests are described as Contract or as Property; and (ii) examine how the …


Sorting Through The Soup: How Do Llcs, Llps And Lllps Fit Withing The Regulations And Legal Doctrines?, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2003

Sorting Through The Soup: How Do Llcs, Llps And Lllps Fit Withing The Regulations And Legal Doctrines?, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

In a children' book published in 1946, Ben Ross Berenberg described an imaginary amalgam called the churkendoose - "part chicken, turkey, duck and goose." In 1977, Wyoming invented a business law churkendoose: the limited liability company - part corporation, part general partnership, part limited partnership. That churkendoose has revolutionized the law of business organizations, becoming the vehicle of choice for tens of thousands of ventures every month and causing the IRS to radically overhaul its approach to taxing business entities. This article explores how preexisting regulatory and common law apply to LLCs and the related organizations known as limited liability …


Keeping The Wheels On The Wagon: Observations On Issues Of Legal Ethics For Lawyers Representing Business Organizations, Irma S. Russell Jan 2003

Keeping The Wheels On The Wagon: Observations On Issues Of Legal Ethics For Lawyers Representing Business Organizations, Irma S. Russell

Faculty Law Review Articles

This article explores the obligations of the lawyer to the corporate client and to society. It examines both established principles and recent developments relevant to the lawyer's role.

Part II discusses some of the rules of legal ethics that provide both guidance and restraints on corporate counsel. It focuses on the lawyer's duty to provide the client with independent professional judgment and to keep the client informed about the representation. It also explores the lawyer's duty to maintain the confidentiality of client information and duties specific to representing an organizational client.

Part III explains recent developments that may affect the …


Form And Function In Business Organizations, Richard A. Booth Marbury Research Professor Of Law Jan 2002

Form And Function In Business Organizations, Richard A. Booth Marbury Research Professor Of Law

Faculty Scholarship

In this piece, I argue that the recent proliferation of forms of business organizations in addition to the traditional partnership and corporation may have arisen from the implicit recognition that various organizations may serve needs of business people in different types of businesses, and that traditional theory of the firm explanations are too narrowly focused on market failure explanations for firm formation. I identify at least five different factors that may motivate people to form a business organization and discuss how these different factors may militate in favor of one business form rather than another. I conclude that the collections …


The Revised Uniform Partnership Act: Some Comments On The Latest Draft Of Rupa, J. Dennis Hynes Jan 1992

The Revised Uniform Partnership Act: Some Comments On The Latest Draft Of Rupa, J. Dennis Hynes

Publications

No abstract provided.


Lender Liability: The Dilemma Of The Controlling Creditor, J. Dennis Hynes Jan 1991

Lender Liability: The Dilemma Of The Controlling Creditor, J. Dennis Hynes

Publications

No abstract provided.


Accounting For Mergers, Acquisitions And Investments, In A Nutshell: The Interrelationships Of, And Criteria For, Purchase Or Pooling, The Equity Method, And Parent-Company-Only And Consolidated Statements, Ted J. Fiflis Jan 1981

Accounting For Mergers, Acquisitions And Investments, In A Nutshell: The Interrelationships Of, And Criteria For, Purchase Or Pooling, The Equity Method, And Parent-Company-Only And Consolidated Statements, Ted J. Fiflis

Publications

No abstract provided.