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Full-Text Articles in Law

Misreading Menetti: The Case Does Not Help You Avoid Liability For Your Own Fraud, Val D. Ricks Feb 2022

Misreading Menetti: The Case Does Not Help You Avoid Liability For Your Own Fraud, Val D. Ricks

St. Mary's Law Journal

Several decades ago, an incorrect legal idea surfaced in Texas jurisprudence: that business entity actors are immune from liability for fraud that they themselves commit, as if the entity is solely responsible. Though the Supreme Court of Texas has rejected that result several times, it keeps coming back. The most recent manifestation is as a construction of Texas’s unique veil-piercing statute. Many lawyers have suggested that this view of the veil-piercing statute originated in Menetti v. Chavers, a San Antonio Court of Appeals case decided in 1998. Menetti has in fact played a prominent role in the movement to …


Anonymous Companies, William J. Moon Jan 2022

Anonymous Companies, William J. Moon

Faculty Scholarship

Hardly a day goes by without hearing about nefarious activities facilitated by anonymous “shell” companies. Often described as menaces to the financial system, the creation of business entities with no real operations in sun-drenched offshore jurisdictions offering “zero percent” tax rates remains in vogue among business titans, pop stars, multimillionaires, and royals. The trending headlines and academic accounts, however, have paid insufficient attention to the legal uses of anonymous companies that are both ubiquitous and almost infinite in their variations.

This Article identifies privacy as a functional feature of modern business entities by documenting the hidden virtues of anonymous companies—business …


Moby-Dick As Corporate Catastrophe: Law, Ethics, And Redemption, David Yosifon Dec 2021

Moby-Dick As Corporate Catastrophe: Law, Ethics, And Redemption, David Yosifon

University of Cincinnati Law Review

Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick serves here as a vehicle through which to interrogate core features of American corporate law and excavate some of the deeper lessons about the human soul that lurk behind the pasteboard mask of the law’s black letter. The inquiry yields an illuminating vantage on the ethical consequences of corporate capital structure, the law of corporate purpose, the meaning of voluntarism, the ethical stakes of corporate fiduciary obligations, and the role of lawyers in preventing or facilitating corporate catastrophe. No prior familiarity with the novel or corporate law is required.


Autonomous Corporate Personhood, Carla L. Reyes Dec 2021

Autonomous Corporate Personhood, Carla L. Reyes

Washington Law Review

Several states have recently changed their business organization law to accommodate autonomous businesses—businesses operated entirely through computer code. A variety of international civil society groups are also actively developing new frameworks— and a model law—for enabling decentralized, autonomous businesses to achieve a corporate or corporate-like status that bestows legal personhood. Meanwhile, various jurisdictions, including the European Union, have considered whether and to what extent artificial intelligence (AI) more broadly should be endowed with personhood to respond to AI’s increasing presence in society. Despite the fairly obvious overlap between the two sets of inquiries, the legal and policy discussions between the …


The “Value” Of A Public Benefit Corporation, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon Apr 2021

The “Value” Of A Public Benefit Corporation, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon

All Faculty Scholarship

We examine the “value” a PBC form provides for publicly-traded corporations. We analyze the structure of the PBC form and find that other than requiring a designated social purpose it does not differ significantly in siting control and direction with shareholders. We also examine the purpose statements in the charters of the most economically significant PBCs. We find that, independent of structural limitations on accountability, these purpose statements are, in most cases, too vague and aspirational to be legally significant, or even to serve as a reliable checks on PBC behavior. We theorize, and provide evidence, that without a legal …


Investigating The Effect Of E-Management On Customer Service Performance, Mohammed A. Elsaadani Jun 2020

Investigating The Effect Of E-Management On Customer Service Performance, Mohammed A. Elsaadani

AAU Journal of Business and Law مجلة جامعة العين للأعمال والقانون

The present study aims to investigate the effect of e-management on customer service performance for a group of business organizations in Alexandria - Egypt. The directory of Egyptian Ministry of Trade and Industry was surveyed in order to randomly select the participating organizations. 485 businesses randomly selected representing 25% of the total population, of which only 391 organizations expressed their willingness to participate. 263 questionnaires were distributed, but only 226 were collected representing 30% of the study population. Experts comments were used to check the validity of the study instrument, and the reliability of questions was calculated as 93% using …


Delaware's New Competition, William J. Moon Jan 2020

Delaware's New Competition, William J. Moon

Faculty Scholarship

According to the standard account in American corporate law, states compete to supply corporate law to American corporations, with Delaware dominating the market. This “competition” metaphor in turn informs some of the most important policy debates in American corporate law.

This Article complicates the standard account, introducing foreign nations as emerging lawmakers that compete with American states in the increasingly globalized market for corporate law. In recent decades, entrepreneurial foreign nations in offshore islands have used permissive corporate governance rules and specialized business courts to attract publicly traded American corporations. Aided in part by a select group of private sector …


Regulating Offshore Finance, William J. Moon Jan 2019

Regulating Offshore Finance, William J. Moon

Faculty Scholarship

From the Panama Papers to the Paradise Papers, massive document leaks in recent years have exposed trillions of dollars hidden in small offshore jurisdictions. Attracting foreign capital with low tax rates and environments of secrecy, a growing number of offshore jurisdictions have emerged as major financial havens hosting thousands of hedge funds, trusts, banks, and insurance companies.

While the prevailing account has examined offshore financial havens as “tax havens” that facilitate the evasion or avoidance of domestic tax, this Article uncovers how offshore jurisdictions enable corporations to evade domestic regulatory law. Specifically, recent U.S. Supreme Court cases restricting the geographic …


Law And The Blockchain, Usha Rodrigues Jan 2019

Law And The Blockchain, Usha Rodrigues

Scholarly Works

All contracts are necessarily incomplete. The inefficiencies of bargaining over every contingency, coupled with humans’ innate bounded rationality, mean that contracts cannot anticipate and address every potential eventuality. One role of law is to fill gaps in incomplete contracts with default rules. The blockchain is a distributed ledger that allows the cryptographic recording of transactions and permits “smart” contracts that self-execute automatically if their conditions are met. Because humans code the contracts of the blockchain, gaps in these contracts will arise. Yet in the world of “smart contracting” on the blockchain, there is no place for the law to step …


Corporate Governance Beyond Economics, Elizabeth Pollman Jan 2019

Corporate Governance Beyond Economics, Elizabeth Pollman

All Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, changes to state and federal law have increased pressure on corporate law to serve as an ordering mechanism for interests and values beyond economics. On the federal front, two U.S. Supreme Court cases have put existing corporate law in a new quasi-constitutional light. In the landmark decisions of Citizens United v. FEC and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., the Supreme Court has pointed to state corporate law as the mechanism for ordering political and religious activity. In addition, Congress, the SEC, and federal courts have been embroiled in battles about the scope and appropriateness of regulating …


Economic Democracy And Enterprise Form In Finance, William H. Simon Jan 2019

Economic Democracy And Enterprise Form In Finance, William H. Simon

Faculty Scholarship

This article considers the relative advantages of alternative enterprise forms in finance from the point of view of public accountability. The business corporation is compared to the state agency or authority, the cooperative, the state corporation, and the charitable nonprofit. These forms can be distinguished according to whether they aspire to enhance general electoral democracy or stakeholder democracy and whether their democratic controls operate directly or indirectly. The article suggests that the indirect democratic forms may be more promising than the direct ones. It also argues that the project of democratizing finance depends on the development of practices of multifactor …


Corporate Conflict Management 4.0: Reflections On How To Get There From Here, Peter W. Benner Sep 2017

Corporate Conflict Management 4.0: Reflections On How To Get There From Here, Peter W. Benner

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Hedge Fund Activism, Poison Pills, And The Jurisprudence Of Threat, William W. Bratton Aug 2016

Hedge Fund Activism, Poison Pills, And The Jurisprudence Of Threat, William W. Bratton

All Faculty Scholarship

This chapter reviews the single high profile case in which twentieth century antitakeover law has come to bear on management defense against a twenty-first century activist challenge—the Delaware Court of Chancery’s decision to sustain a low-threshold poison pill deployed against an activist in Third Point LLC v. Ruprecht. The decision implicated an important policy question: whether a twentieth century doctrine keyed to hostile takeovers and control transfers appropriately can be brought to bear in a twenty-first century governance context in which the challenger eschews control transfer and instead makes aggressive use of the shareholder franchise. Resolution of the question …


Some Key Things U.S. Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony J. Luppino, Malika Simmons Apr 2016

Some Key Things U.S. Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony J. Luppino, Malika Simmons

Faculty Works

New business formation is a powerful economic engine that creates jobs. Diverse legal issues are encountered as a start-up entity approaches formation, initial capitalization and fundraising, arrangements with employees and independent contractors, and relationships with other third parties. The endeavors of a typical start-up in the United States will likely implicate many of the following areas of law: intellectual property; business organizations; tax laws; employment and labor laws; securities regulation; contracts and licensing agreements; commercial sales; debtor-creditor relations; real estate law; health and safety laws/codes; permits and licenses; environmental protection; industry specific regulatory laws and approval processes; tort/personal injury, products …


Some Key Things Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony Luppino, Malika S. Simmons Sep 2015

Some Key Things Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony Luppino, Malika S. Simmons

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

New business formation is a powerful economic engine that creates jobs. Diverse legal issues are encountered as a start-up entity approaches formation, initial capitalization and fundraising, arrangements with employees and independent contractors, and relationships with other third parties. The endeavors of a typical start-up in the United States will likely implicate many of the following areas of law: intellectual property; business organizations; tax laws; employment and labor laws; securities regulation; contracts and licensing agreements; commercial sales; debtor-creditor relations; real estate law; health and safety laws/codes; permits and licenses; environmental protection; industry specific regulatory laws and approval processes; tort/personal injury, products …


Achieving The Purpose Of Federal Diversity Jurisdiction: Why Courts Should Abandon The Current Treatment Of Llcs Under Section 1332, Kristen Curley Jul 2015

Achieving The Purpose Of Federal Diversity Jurisdiction: Why Courts Should Abandon The Current Treatment Of Llcs Under Section 1332, Kristen Curley

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Enduring Design For Business Entities, William E. Foster Feb 2015

Enduring Design For Business Entities, William E. Foster

William E Foster

The success or failure of an institution may hinge on some of the earliest decisions of its founders. In constitutional design literature, endurance is a widely accepted drafting objective. Indeed, constitutional endurance is positively associated with prosperous and stable societies. Like drafters of constitutions, business organizers have almost innumerable objectives for their enterprises, and attorneys drafting organizational documents must take into account these myriad goals. Oftentimes the drafting process fails to fully address some of the most important of these aims and results in suboptimal structures that lack predictability and reliability. This article looks specifically at small business organizations and …


Incorporating Legal Claims, Maya Steinitz Feb 2015

Incorporating Legal Claims, Maya Steinitz

Faculty Scholarship

Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in commercial litigation funding. Whereas the judicial, legislative, and scholarly treatment of litigation finance has regarded litigation finance first and foremost as a form of champerty and sought to regulate it through rules of legal professional responsibility (hereinafter, the "legal ethics paradigm"), this Article suggests that the problems created by litigation finance are all facets of the classic problems created by "the separation of ownership and control" that have been a focus of business law since the advent of the corporate form. Therefore, an "incorporation paradigm," offered here, is more appropriate. "Incorporating …


Enduring Design For Business Entities, William E. Foster Jan 2015

Enduring Design For Business Entities, William E. Foster

Utah Law Review

The success or failure of an institution may hinge on some of the earliest decisions of its founders. In constitutional design literature, endurance is a widely accepted drafting objective. Indeed, constitutional endurance is positively associated with prosperous and stable societies. Like drafters of constitutions, business organizers have almost innumerable objectives for their enterprises, and attorneys drafting organizational documents must take into account these myriad goals. Oftentimes the drafting process fails to fully address some of the most important of these aims and results in suboptimal structures that lack predictability and reliability.

This article looks specifically at small business organizations and …


Enduring Design For Business Entities, William E. Foster Dec 2014

Enduring Design For Business Entities, William E. Foster

William E Foster

The success or failure of an institution may hinge on some of the earliest decisions of its founders. In constitutional design literature, endurance is a widely accepted drafting objective. Indeed, constitutional endurance is positively associated with prosperous and stable societies. Like drafters of constitutions, business organizers have almost innumerable objectives for their enterprises, and attorneys drafting organizational documents must take into account these myriad goals. Oftentimes the drafting process fails to fully address some of the most important of these aims, which results in suboptimal structures that lack predictability and reliability. 

This Article looks specifically at small-business organizations and argues …


Teaching Llcs Through A Problem-Based Approach, Michelle M. Harner, Robert J. Rhee Apr 2014

Teaching Llcs Through A Problem-Based Approach, Michelle M. Harner, Robert J. Rhee

Robert Rhee

Case studies and case simulations can be used to teach LLCs with an eye toward training business lawyers. These tools can be used in the traditional four-credit Business Associations (BA) course to supplement traditional teaching materials with mini-case studies that accent and apply analysis of primary legal sources. Alternatively, case studies and case simulations can be the centerpiece of a specialized course on LLCs. We discuss both approaches in this short essay.


Teaching Llcs Through A Problem-Based Approach, Michelle M. Harner, Robert J. Rhee Jan 2014

Teaching Llcs Through A Problem-Based Approach, Michelle M. Harner, Robert J. Rhee

UF Law Faculty Publications

Case studies and case simulations can be used to teach LLCs with an eye toward training business lawyers. These tools can be used in the traditional four-credit Business Associations (BA) course to supplement traditional teaching materials with mini-case studies that accent and apply analysis of primary legal sources. Alternatively, case studies and case simulations can be the centerpiece of a specialized course on LLCs. We discuss both approaches in this short essay.


Book Review: "Bishop & Zucker On Nevada Corporations And Llcs", Rachel J. Anderson Jan 2013

Book Review: "Bishop & Zucker On Nevada Corporations And Llcs", Rachel J. Anderson

Scholarly Works

In this piece written for The Writ, the official publication of the Washoe County Bar Association, Prof. Rachel Anderson reviews Bishop and Zucker on Nevada Corporations & LLCs.


Teaching Business Associations Law In The Evolving New Market Economy, Joan Macleod Heminway Jan 2013

Teaching Business Associations Law In The Evolving New Market Economy, Joan Macleod Heminway

Journal of Business & Technology Law

No abstract provided.


Foreword: Shape Shifting In The Law, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2012

Foreword: Shape Shifting In The Law, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

As this issue of the William Mitchell Law Review reflects, a significant dislocation is occurring in the law of business organizations. Something far more fundamental than a legal definition or any similarly specific concept is in flux. The legal and philosophical question is not whether a business organization should be able to engage instrumentally in non-profit activities but rather whether a business organization's purpose may include something in addition to (and likely prejudicial to) the purely pecuniary interests of the organization's owners.


Introduction, Comparative Income Taxation: A Structured Analysis, Hugh J. Ault, Brian J. Arnold Dec 2011

Introduction, Comparative Income Taxation: A Structured Analysis, Hugh J. Ault, Brian J. Arnold

Hugh J. Ault

This work presents a comparative analysis of some of the structural and design issues which are involved in mature income tax systems. Countries selected for the study are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Each of the systems has evolved its own particular set of approaches and principles, outlined in Part One. Ensuing Parts deal with Basic Income Taxation, Taxation of Business Organizations and International Taxation. There is much to learn in the tax field from a comparative analysis of common problems. One need not believe in the existence of a …


Guilty By Proxy: Expanding The Boundaries Of Responsibility In The Face Of Corporate Crime, Amy J. Sepinwall Nov 2011

Guilty By Proxy: Expanding The Boundaries Of Responsibility In The Face Of Corporate Crime, Amy J. Sepinwall

Amy J. Sepinwall

The BP oil spill and financial crisis share in common more than just profound tragedy and massive clean-up costs. In both cases, governmental commissions have revealed widespread wrongdoing by individuals and the entities for which they work. The public has demanded justice, yet the law enforcement response in both cases has been underwhelming. In particular, no criminal indictments have been sought for any of the corporations responsible for the Macondo oil rig explosion or the Wall Street banks involved in the financial meltdown.

This governmental restraint reflects a deep-seated ambivalence about corporate criminal liability. Though scholars have been debating the …


Teaching Gender As A Core Value In Business Organizations Class, Cheryl L. Wade Jan 2011

Teaching Gender As A Core Value In Business Organizations Class, Cheryl L. Wade

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

I teach a business organizations course that is typically a large class with up to ninety students. At some point in the first week of each semester, I talk about public companies and the men who lead them. I point out to my students that while it is appropriate in most contexts to use gender-neutral language, it would be inaccurate to do so when talking about big business. Only fifteen percent of the board seats at Fortune 500 companies are held by women, and only sixteen percent of Fortune 500 corporate officers are women. I let my students know …


The Prohibition Of Large Partnerships In Nigerian Company Law: An Essay Into Postcolonial Legal Atavism, C. George Nnona Mar 2010

The Prohibition Of Large Partnerships In Nigerian Company Law: An Essay Into Postcolonial Legal Atavism, C. George Nnona

San Diego International Law Journal

Nigerian company law requires that partnerships of more than 20 persons be incorporated and penalizes those who conduct business in violation of this requirement. The requirement has its conceptual roots in the affairs that precipitated the English Bubble Act of 1720 and its doctrinal origin goes at least as far back as the Joint Stock Companies Registration, Incorporation and Regulation Act of 1844. This article argues that whatever may be the merits of the requirement as enshrined in English company law, the requirement is unconstitutional when transposed into federal legislation within the current constitutional framework of Nigeria. The article further …


Two Decades Of "Alternative Entities": From Tax Rationalization Through Alphabet Soup To Contract As Deity, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2009

Two Decades Of "Alternative Entities": From Tax Rationalization Through Alphabet Soup To Contract As Deity, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

This essay: (i) puts into perspective the past 20 years of developments in the U.S. law of limited liability companies (LLCs), limited liability partnerships (LLPs), and limited liability limited partnerships (LLLPs); (ii) explains how a movement toward tax rationalization has been transformed into a palace coup aimed at fiduciary duty (a fundamental tenet of the U.S. law of closely held businesses); and (iii) criticizes both conceptually and pragmatically efforts to "kill Cardozo" and worship "freedom of contract."