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Best interests of the child

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Surrogacy And Human Flourishing, Seow Hon Tan Nov 2020

Surrogacy And Human Flourishing, Seow Hon Tan

Research Collection School Of Law

Opposition to legalizing surrogacy often involves the argument that it commodifies or objectifies women and children. When surrogacy involves consenting parties claiming to benefit from the transaction, commodification- or objectification-based arguments seem unpersuasive. This article argues that new natural law theory offers an alternative case against legalizing surrogacy based on the violation of basic goods of human flourishing, a notion which unpacks afresh what is really at stake in the commodification/objectification arguments. Exploring the new natural law approach through John Finnis’s theory, this article suggests that the new natural law case against surrogacy hinges on the link between ...


Bringing Specificity To Child Custody Provisions In California, Shawn Mccall Apr 2019

Bringing Specificity To Child Custody Provisions In California, Shawn Mccall

Golden Gate University Law Review

This Comment evaluates the empirical evidence from social science studies to demonstrate that there is currently a sturdy body of social science research to justify using tangible evidence to define terms in the California Family Code, the California Family Courts, and beyond. Because the standard for custody determinations in California is the “best interest of the child” per the state’s legislation, social science research provides a vehicle that can define the “best interest of the child standard.” This Comment argues that this can be done empirically by calculating the minimum amount of time a child—in the aggregate— needs ...


Unregulated Custody Transfers: Why The Practice Of Rehoming Should Be Considered A Form Of Illegal Adoption And Human Trafficking, Michael D. Aune May 2018

Unregulated Custody Transfers: Why The Practice Of Rehoming Should Be Considered A Form Of Illegal Adoption And Human Trafficking, Michael D. Aune

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Matter Of Kevin M., Donna A. Napolitano Mar 2016

Matter Of Kevin M., Donna A. Napolitano

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Biology, Genetics, Nurture, And The Law: The Expansion Of The Legal Definition Of Family To Include Three Or More Parents, Myrisha S. Lewis Mar 2016

Biology, Genetics, Nurture, And The Law: The Expansion Of The Legal Definition Of Family To Include Three Or More Parents, Myrisha S. Lewis

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit Jan 2016

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of ...


Legal And Medical Ethical Entanglements Of Infant Male Circumcision And International Law, Paul Jerome Mclaughlin Jr. Jan 2016

Legal And Medical Ethical Entanglements Of Infant Male Circumcision And International Law, Paul Jerome Mclaughlin Jr.

Library Faculty Publications

The practice of infant male circumcision has been debated by legal and medical experts for years. The practice, once seen as a social norm, has come under opposition by children’s rights, legal, and medical organisations around the world. In order to meet the requirements of international treaty law and allow infant male children the fullest opportunity for self determination, infant male circumcision must be treated under the law and by medical practitioners with the same degree of opposition that female genital mutilation has received.


Crying Wolf: The Use Of False Accusations Of Abuse To Influence Child Custodianship And A Proposal To Protect The Innocent, Robert W. Kerns Jr Mar 2015

Crying Wolf: The Use Of False Accusations Of Abuse To Influence Child Custodianship And A Proposal To Protect The Innocent, Robert W. Kerns Jr

Robert W Kerns JR

A false accusation of child abuse is one of the gravest offenses one can allege against a parent. In our society there exists a bright line standard that if a child is abused, the law steps in to shield the child from the attacker; but what happens when our legal system is manipulated so as to trick a court into protecting a child from an innocent parent? The welfare of a child cannot be recognized when he or she is fractioned from a qualified parent because an opposing parent cried wolf, and knowingly made false accusations against the other of ...


Separated At Adoption: Addressing The Challenges Of Maintaining Sibling-Of-Origin Bonds In Post-Adoption Families, Rebecca L. Scharf Jan 2015

Separated At Adoption: Addressing The Challenges Of Maintaining Sibling-Of-Origin Bonds In Post-Adoption Families, Rebecca L. Scharf

Scholarly Works

This Article explores the ways children, many of whom are in foster care, are psychologically harmed by the law’s failure to ensure that the bonds they have with their siblings-of-origin are not permanently broken when one of the siblings is adopted; it therefore proposes ways that courts can better protect children from the psychological harm of having a biological sibling permanently removed from their life. It suggests that what is needed is a framework that allows visitation by biological siblings with whom children have formed attachments without unnecessarily intruding on the fundamental liberty interest of the adoptive parents at ...


Alone And Unrepresented: A Call To Congress To Provide Counsel For Unaccompanied Minors, Shani M. King Nov 2014

Alone And Unrepresented: A Call To Congress To Provide Counsel For Unaccompanied Minors, Shani M. King

Shani M. King

The legal rights of children who enter a country without their parents or other guardians, including the right to legal representation in immigration proceedings, differ vastly across the globe. This Article is the first to show that unaccompanied minors lie at the nexus of international and regional human rights standards governing the treatment of immigrants, children, and civil counsel and to show how the development of human rights standards in these three areas underscores the importance of and the need for counsel for unaccompanied minors. Part I illustrates why unaccompanied minors in the United States need legal representation by focusing ...


A Difficult Situation Made Harder: A Parent's Choice Between Civil Remedies And Criminal Charges In International Child Abduction, Donyale N. Leslie Sep 2014

A Difficult Situation Made Harder: A Parent's Choice Between Civil Remedies And Criminal Charges In International Child Abduction, Donyale N. Leslie

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The State, Parents, Schools, "Culture Wars", And Modern Technologies: Challenges Under The U.N. Convention On The Rights Of A Child, Nora V. Demleitner Jul 2014

The State, Parents, Schools, "Culture Wars", And Modern Technologies: Challenges Under The U.N. Convention On The Rights Of A Child, Nora V. Demleitner

Scholarly Articles

This paper focuses on some of the core principles of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child and their application under U.S. state and federal law. While the United States has not ratified the Convention, it is a signatory. Many of the most intractable cultural issues in the United States involve children and their rights to participation, information, and decision-making. Frequently, primary and secondary education presents a fertile battle ground for “cultural clashes” between parents, schools, and state officials. In the private context, both U.S. law and the U.N. Convention have adopted the “best ...


Supreme Court, Kings County, Wilson V. Kilkenny, James Dougherty May 2014

Supreme Court, Kings County, Wilson V. Kilkenny, James Dougherty

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Toward A Child-Centered Approach To Evaluating Claims Of Alienation In High-Conflict Custody Disputes, Allison M. Nichols Feb 2014

Toward A Child-Centered Approach To Evaluating Claims Of Alienation In High-Conflict Custody Disputes, Allison M. Nichols

Michigan Law Review

Theories of parental alienation abound in high-conflict custody cases. The image of one parent brainwashing a child against the other parent fits with what we think we know about family dynamics during divorce. The concept of a diagnosable “Parental Alienation Syndrome” (“PAS”) developed as an attempt to explain this phenomenon, but it has been widely discredited by mental health professionals and thus fails the standard for evidentiary admissibility. Nevertheless, PAS and related theories continue to influence the decisions of family courts, and even in jurisdictions that explicitly reject such theories, judges still face the daunting task of resolving these volatile ...


Children, Parents & The State: The Construction Of A New Family Ideology, Deseriee A. Kennedy Nov 2013

Children, Parents & The State: The Construction Of A New Family Ideology, Deseriee A. Kennedy

Deseriee A. Kennedy

More than twenty-five states allow courts to consider parental incarceration or conviction of a crime in determining whether to terminate parental rights. This problem is of increasing significance as a result of dramatic growth in incarceration rates, particularly among women who were often the primary and sole caretaker of their children before their imprisonment. Social scientists have recognized that the reality for parents in many communities is one of widespread and repeated incarceration, which has a devastating effect on families and communities. The problem is magnified by a failed drug policy and the Adoption and Safe Families Act, which, in ...


Seen But Not Heard: Advocating For Children In New York State, Sarah L. Marx Apr 2013

Seen But Not Heard: Advocating For Children In New York State, Sarah L. Marx

Touro Law Review

On November 1, 2008, the New York State Bar Association House of Delegates approved a resolution affirming their commitment towards establishing a civil right to counsel in New York State. One of the issues identified is a child's right to representation not only in criminal, but also civil proceedings. Unlike other litigant groups, children have a statutorily established right to council in civil proceedings. However, as the white paper, adopted by the New State Bar Association, details, there are gaps in children 's advocacy throughout New York State. While significant steps towards improvement have recently taken place, there is ...


Alone And Unrepresented: A Call To Congress To Provide Counsel For Unaccompanied Minors, Shani M. King Jan 2013

Alone And Unrepresented: A Call To Congress To Provide Counsel For Unaccompanied Minors, Shani M. King

UF Law Faculty Publications

The legal rights of children who enter a country without their parents or other guardians, including the right to legal representation in immigration proceedings, differ vastly across the globe. This Article is the first to show that unaccompanied minors lie at the nexus of international and regional human rights standards governing the treatment of immigrants, children, and civil counsel and to show how the development of human rights standards in these three areas underscores the importance of and the need for counsel for unaccompanied minors. Part I illustrates why unaccompanied minors in the United States need legal representation by focusing ...


Incessant Discrimination Of Same-Sex Couples: A Case Study Of Varying Interpretations Of “Family,” Second-Parent Adoptions, And The Legal Rights Of Non-Biological Parents, Preston D. Mitchum Feb 2012

Incessant Discrimination Of Same-Sex Couples: A Case Study Of Varying Interpretations Of “Family,” Second-Parent Adoptions, And The Legal Rights Of Non-Biological Parents, Preston D. Mitchum

Preston D. Mitchum

No abstract provided.


2011 Survey Of Juvenile Law, Michael J. Dale Oct 2011

2011 Survey Of Juvenile Law, Michael J. Dale

Faculty Scholarship

Atypically, the Supreme Court of Florida was not active during the past year, deciding no cases in the juvenile law field. On the other hand, the intermediate appellate courts were active both in the delinquency area and in the dependency field. As in the past, decisions in the delinquency area involving generic issues of criminal procedure not unique to juvenile delinquency are not covered in this article.


Children, Parents & The State: The Construction Of A New Family Ideology, Deseriee A. Kennedy Jan 2011

Children, Parents & The State: The Construction Of A New Family Ideology, Deseriee A. Kennedy

Scholarly Works

More than twenty-five states allow courts to consider parental incarceration or conviction of a crime in determining whether to terminate parental rights. This problem is of increasing significance as a result of dramatic growth in incarceration rates, particularly among women who were often the primary and sole caretaker of their children before their imprisonment. Social scientists have recognized that the reality for parents in many communities is one of widespread and repeated incarceration, which has a devastating effect on families and communities. The problem is magnified by a failed drug policy and the Adoption and Safe Families Act, which, in ...


Three Lies And A Truth: Adjudicating Maternity In Surrogacy Disputes, Browne C. Lewis Jan 2011

Three Lies And A Truth: Adjudicating Maternity In Surrogacy Disputes, Browne C. Lewis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Historically, courts were called on to answer the following question: What makes a man a legal father? Courts applied different presumptions to arrive at the answer. For example, if the case involved a married couple, the woman's husband was presumed to be the legal father.1 In situations involving an unmarried woman, the man who helped to conceive the child was the legal father. While paternity was being litigated, maternity was resolved-the woman who gave birth to the child was the child's legal mother. The phrase “momma's baby, papa's maybe” reflected society's attitude towards maternity ...


Should Child Custody Awards Be Based On Past Caretaking? The Effect Of The Approximation Standard Ten Years After Its Adoption., Molly L. Sanders Jul 2010

Should Child Custody Awards Be Based On Past Caretaking? The Effect Of The Approximation Standard Ten Years After Its Adoption., Molly L. Sanders

Molly L Sanders

Proper legal standards are needed to help judges make difficult decisions regarding child custody. Standards create the framework in which individual’s bargain, so a proper legal standard can reduce litigation and hostility between parties. The current custody law in the majority of states is the generalized best interest of the child standard. Under this standard custody is determined using a non-exclusive list of factors to predict which parent will better enhance the child’s future well-being. The best interest standard has been criticized because it is a discretionary standard, which provides little guidance to judges who must then rely ...


Child Custody Modification Law: The Never-Ending Battle For Peace Of Mind, Brianna F. Isserdutt Jan 2010

Child Custody Modification Law: The Never-Ending Battle For Peace Of Mind, Brianna F. Isserdutt

Nevada Law Journal

Ellis v. Carucci represents an evolution in Nevada’s child custody laws that should continue. Before Ellis, Nevada courts modified custody arrangements without explicitly considering the best interests of the child. Ellis cemented the legislative intent behind Nevada Revised Statute (NRS) § 125.4803 to make the child’s best interest the focus of the judge’s decision in custody cases.

However, Ellis and NRS §125.480 are not enough to accomplish this overarching goal. The Nevada legislature should revise NRS § 125.480 so that the statute explicitly recognizes the instability and adjustments that children of divorce must endure. The statute ...


It's The Hard Luck Life: Women's Moral Luck And Eucatastrophe In Child Custody Allocation, Lolita Buckner Inniss Jan 2010

It's The Hard Luck Life: Women's Moral Luck And Eucatastrophe In Child Custody Allocation, Lolita Buckner Inniss

Articles

No abstract provided.


Incorporating A 'Best Interests Of The Child' Approach Into Immigration Law And Procedure, Bridgette A. Carr Jan 2009

Incorporating A 'Best Interests Of The Child' Approach Into Immigration Law And Procedure, Bridgette A. Carr

Articles

United States immigration law and procedure frequently ignore the plight of children directly affected by immigration proceedings. This ignorance means decision-makers often lack the discretion to protect a child from persecution by halting the deportation of a parent, while parents must choose between abandoning their children in a foreign land and risking the torture of their children. United States immigration law systematically fails to consider the best interests of children directly affected by immigration proceedings. This failure has resulted in a split among the federal circuit courts of appeals regarding whether the persecution a child faces may be used to ...


Two Fathers, One Dad: Allocating The Paternal Obligations Between The Men Involved In The Artificial Insemination Process, Browne C. Lewis Jan 2009

Two Fathers, One Dad: Allocating The Paternal Obligations Between The Men Involved In The Artificial Insemination Process, Browne C. Lewis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Nadya Suleman used sperm from a man she knows to conceive fourteen children using assisted reproduction. It is clear that Suleman is the legal mother of the children. The unanswered question is: "Are the children legally fatherless?" The answer to this question is important because experts predict that it will take well over one million dollars to support the children until they reach the age of majority. My article seeks to provide some insight into the resolution of this issue. Although Suleman did not conceived using artificial insemination, the information examined in my article may be applied to her situation ...


It Takes Three, Baby: The Lack Of Standard, Legal Definitions Of “Best Interest Of The Child” And The Right To Contract For Lesbian Potential Parents, Harvey L. Fiser, Paula K. Garrett Jul 2008

It Takes Three, Baby: The Lack Of Standard, Legal Definitions Of “Best Interest Of The Child” And The Right To Contract For Lesbian Potential Parents, Harvey L. Fiser, Paula K. Garrett

Harvey L. Fiser

In order to consider the plausibility of contracts regarding AI, this article will first review various options and legal ramifications for choices regarding AI and then focus on the effect of inconsistent application of the Uniform Parentage Act among states that have chosen to adopt any legislation. This legal conundrum creates major obstacles for lesbian couples in procreation and in legal protection for children and often denies lesbian Americans the right to equal enforcement of contracts. This article will then consider how the current standard of “best interest of the child” is being used in the absence of the UPA ...


A Plea For Permanence After Termination Of Parental Rights: Protecting The Best Interests Of The Child In Ohio, Daniel A. Starett Jan 2008

A Plea For Permanence After Termination Of Parental Rights: Protecting The Best Interests Of The Child In Ohio, Daniel A. Starett

Cleveland State Law Review

Ohio's R.C. 2151.313 must be amended to allow the courts to protect the best interest of the children for whom they are in place to serve, even if this means that occasionally a parent who was once adjudged to be incapable of caring for her child, and whose rights were subsequently terminated, may be the best, and often only, option to save that child from the dangers of the foster care system. Part II of this Note will explore the dangers of exposure to the foster care system, illustrate why we need to protect children from prolonged ...


When Did Lawyers For Children Stop Reading Goldstein, Freud And Solnit? Lessons From The Twentieth Century On Best Interests And The Role Of The Child Advocate, Jane M. Spinak Jan 2007

When Did Lawyers For Children Stop Reading Goldstein, Freud And Solnit? Lessons From The Twentieth Century On Best Interests And The Role Of The Child Advocate, Jane M. Spinak

Faculty Scholarship

Between 1973 and 1986, Joseph Goldstein, Anna Freud, and Albert Solnit published three influential but controversial books on the best interests of the child that had an enormous impact on state decisions to intervene in family life and direct the placement of children. During the same period, children in child welfare proceedings were increasingly represented by lawyers or guardians ad litem whose advocacy included understanding and interpreting the meaning of best interests. This article begins by tracing a conversation of sorts that occurs between the authors and other scholars and practitioners as their ideas begin to influence decision-making in child ...


Behavioral Genetics And The Best Interests Of The Child Decision Rule, David J. Herring Jan 2002

Behavioral Genetics And The Best Interests Of The Child Decision Rule, David J. Herring

Articles

This article proposes that modern child custody law should be reassessed in light of recent scientific findings. Judicial determinations of custody use the "best interests of the child" rule. The rule is justified to a large extent by the goal of maximizing child developmental outcomes. The assumption is that a child whose "best interests" are protected stands a better chance of becoming a socially well-adjusted, productive and prosperous citizen.

Recent child development studies have shown that so-called "shared environment," or home environment factors have little effect on child development so long as the shared environment is minimally adequate. Genetics and ...