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Full-Text Articles in Law

Professional Speech At Scale, Cassandra Burke Robertson, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2022

Professional Speech At Scale, Cassandra Burke Robertson, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

Regulatory actions affecting professional speech are facing new challenges from all sides. On one side, the Supreme Court has grown increasingly protective of professionals’ free speech rights, and it has subjected regulations affecting that speech to heightened levels of scrutiny that call into question traditional regulatory practices in both law and medicine. On the other side, technological developments, including the growth of massive digital platforms and the introduction of artificial intelligence programs, have created brand new problems of regulatory scale. Professional speech is now able to reach a wide audience faster than ever before, creating risks that misinformation will cause ...


Finding Neverland? Artificial Intelligence And The Jurisprudence Of Legal Certainty, Omar Zaky Dec 2021

Finding Neverland? Artificial Intelligence And The Jurisprudence Of Legal Certainty, Omar Zaky

Theses and Dissertations

The development of artificial intelligence (AI) models that are capable of predicting the decisions of prominent courts – most notably the European Court of Human Rights and United States Supreme Court – provides us with an opportunity to revisit important jurisprudential debates regarding the quest for legal certainty. Through providing clear distinctions within formalistic jurisprudence, and its, subsequent, realist critique; this thesis seeks to analyze legal decision-making and its relationship with artificial intelligence. I argue that, AI’s deterministic nature and its support for the law being an “entirely self-contained process” does lend some credence to certain jurisprudential arguments. However, this should ...


Biographical Data And Black Box Empiricism: Lessons Learned For Algorithmic Assessments In Personnel Selection, Ketaki Sodhi, Marc Cubrich Oct 2021

Biographical Data And Black Box Empiricism: Lessons Learned For Algorithmic Assessments In Personnel Selection, Ketaki Sodhi, Marc Cubrich

Psychology from the Margins

As the popularity of biodata in selection assessments grew in the 1980s and into the 1990s, the field of industrial and organizational psychology witnessed many attempts to develop biodata theories and guide the development of biodata items. The insights that emerged from this body of research are increasingly relevant in the current era of big data, artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning. More than ever, AI and machine learning are being used to score candidates and make hiring recommendations. Many organizations are using data-driven approaches to develop machine learning and AI algorithms, which are frequently atheoretical, based on correlations or ...


Deep Fakes: The Algorithms That Create And Detect Them And The National Security Risks They Pose, Nick Dunard Sep 2021

Deep Fakes: The Algorithms That Create And Detect Them And The National Security Risks They Pose, Nick Dunard

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

The dissemination of deep fakes for nefarious purposes poses significant national security risks to the United States, requiring an urgent development of technologies to detect their use and strategies to mitigate their effects. Deep fakes are images and videos created by or with the assistance of AI algorithms in which a person’s likeness, actions, or words have been replaced by someone else’s to deceive an audience. Often created with the help of generative adversarial networks, deep fakes can be used to blackmail, harass, exploit, and intimidate individuals and businesses; in large-scale disinformation campaigns, they can incite political tensions ...


Ai In Adjudication And Administration, Cary Coglianese, Lavi M. Ben Dor Jul 2021

Ai In Adjudication And Administration, Cary Coglianese, Lavi M. Ben Dor

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The use of artificial intelligence has expanded rapidly in recent years across many aspects of the economy. For federal, state, and local governments in the United States, interest in artificial intelligence has manifested in the use of a series of digital tools, including the occasional deployment of machine learning, to aid in the performance of a variety of governmental functions. In this paper, we canvas the current uses of such digital tools and machine-learning technologies by the judiciary and administrative agencies in the United States. Although we have yet to see fully automated decision-making find its way into either adjudication ...


Automated Decision Making And Machine Learning: Regulatory Alternatives For Autonomous Settings, Alyssa Heminger Jun 2021

Automated Decision Making And Machine Learning: Regulatory Alternatives For Autonomous Settings, Alyssa Heminger

University Honors Theses

Given growing investment capital in research and development, accompanied by extensive literature on the subject by researchers in nearly every domain from civil engineering to legal studies, automated decision-support systems (ADM) are likely to see a place in the foreseeable future. Artificial intelligence (AI), as an automated system, can be defined as broad range of computerized tasks designed to replicate human neural networks, store and organize large quantities of information, detect patterns, and make predictions with increasing accuracy and reliability. By itself, artificial intelligence is not quite science-fiction tropes (i.e. an uncontrollable existential threat to humanity) yet not without ...


The Role Of Data For Ai Startup Growth, James Bessen, Stephen Michael Impink, Lydia Reichensperger, Robert Seamans Jun 2021

The Role Of Data For Ai Startup Growth, James Bessen, Stephen Michael Impink, Lydia Reichensperger, Robert Seamans

Faculty Scholarship

Artificial intelligence (“AI”)-enabled products are expected to drive economic growth. Training data are important for firms developing AI-enabled products; without training data, firms cannot develop or refine their algorithms. This is particularly the case for AI startups developing new algorithms and products. However, there is no consensus in the literature on which aspects of training data are most important. Using unique survey data of AI startups, we find that startups with access to proprietary training data are more likely to acquire venture capital funding.


Grand-Vision: An Intelligent System For Optimized Deployment Scheduling Of Law Enforcement Agents, Jonathan Chase, Tran Phong, Kang Long, Tony Le, Hoong Chuin Lau Jun 2021

Grand-Vision: An Intelligent System For Optimized Deployment Scheduling Of Law Enforcement Agents, Jonathan Chase, Tran Phong, Kang Long, Tony Le, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Law enforcement agencies in dense urban environments, faced with a wide range of incidents to handle and limited manpower, are turning to data-driven AI to inform their policing strategy. In this paper we present a patrol scheduling system called GRAND-VISION: Ground Response Allocation and Deployment - Visualization, Simulation, and Optimization. The system employs deep learning to generate incident sets that are used to train a patrol schedule that can accommodate varying manpower, break times, manual pre-allocations, and a variety of spatio-temporal demand features. The complexity of the scenario results in a system with real world applicability, which we demonstrate through simulation ...


Natural Language Processing For Lawyers And Judges, Frank Fagan Apr 2021

Natural Language Processing For Lawyers And Judges, Frank Fagan

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Law as Data: Computation, Text, & the Future of Legal Analysis. Edited by Michael A. Livermore and Daniel N. Rockmore.


How Can I Tell If My Algorithm Was Reasonable?, Karni A. Chagal-Feferkorn Apr 2021

How Can I Tell If My Algorithm Was Reasonable?, Karni A. Chagal-Feferkorn

Michigan Technology Law Review

Self-learning algorithms are gradually dominating more and more aspects of our lives. They do so by performing tasks and reaching decisions that were once reserved exclusively for human beings. And not only that—in certain contexts, their decision-making performance is shown to be superior to that of humans. However, as superior as they may be, self-learning algorithms (also referred to as artificial intelligence (AI) systems, “smart robots,” or “autonomous machines”) can still cause damage.

When determining the liability of a human tortfeasor causing damage, the applicable legal framework is generally that of negligence. To be found negligent, the tortfeasor must ...


Peran Hukum Dalam Implementasi Universal Basic Income Sebagai Alternatif Kebijakan Fiskal Masa Depan Di Indonesia, Muhammad Arsjad Yusuf Mar 2021

Peran Hukum Dalam Implementasi Universal Basic Income Sebagai Alternatif Kebijakan Fiskal Masa Depan Di Indonesia, Muhammad Arsjad Yusuf

Dharmasisya

In a decade or two, automation and artificial intelligence are prognosticated to supersede humans in fields of work and dramatically decrease labor market. Such circumstances will drastically escalate unemployment and fertilize poverty and economic inequality which are antecedently acute matters in Indonesia. These economic state of affairs are susceptible to generate social upheavals which are prerequisite for turmoil and national disintegration. This article will explain automation and artificial intelligence and their adverse effects on Indonesian economy. Subsequently, as a proposed solution to deal with adverse effects of automation and artificial intelligence, Universal Basic Income will be elaborated in its benefits ...


The Library Of Babel For Prior Art: Using Artificial Intelligence To Mass Produce Prior Art In Patent Law, Lucas R. Yordy Mar 2021

The Library Of Babel For Prior Art: Using Artificial Intelligence To Mass Produce Prior Art In Patent Law, Lucas R. Yordy

Vanderbilt Law Review

Artificial intelligence is playing an increasingly important role in the invention and innovation processes of our society. To date, though, much of the academic discussion on the interaction of artificial intelligence and the patent system focuses on the patentability of inventions produced by artificial intelligence. Little attention has been paid to organizations that are seeking to use artificial intelligence to defeat the patentability of otherwise patent-worthy inventions by mass producing prior art. This Note seeks to highlight the consequences of allowing mass-produced, AI-generated prior art to render valuable inventions unpatentable. Specifically, this Note concludes that AI-generated prior art decreases the ...


New Innovation Models In Medical Ai, Nicholson Price Ii, Rachel Sachs, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Feb 2021

New Innovation Models In Medical Ai, Nicholson Price Ii, Rachel Sachs, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Law & Economics Working Papers

In recent years, scientists and researchers have devoted considerable resources to developing medical artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. Many of these technologies—particularly those which resemble traditional medical devices in their functions—have received substantial attention in the legal and policy literature. But other types of novel AI technologies, such as those that relate to quality improvement and optimizing use of scarce facilities, have been largely absent from the discussion thus far. These AI innovations have the potential to shed light on important aspects of health innovation policy. First, these AI innovations interact less with the legal regimes that scholars traditionally ...


To Thine Own Self Be True? Incentive Problems In Personalized Law, Jordan M. Barry, John William Hatfield, Scott Duke Kominers Feb 2021

To Thine Own Self Be True? Incentive Problems In Personalized Law, Jordan M. Barry, John William Hatfield, Scott Duke Kominers

William & Mary Law Review

Recent years have seen an explosion of scholarship on “personalized law.” Commentators foresee a world in which regulators armed with big data and machine learning techniques determine the optimal legal rule for every regulated party, then instantaneously disseminate their decisions via smartphones and other “smart” devices. They envision a legal utopia in which every fact pattern is assigned society’s preferred legal treatment in real time.

But regulation is a dynamic process; regulated parties react to law. They change their behavior to pursue their preferred outcomes— which often diverge from society’s—and they will continue to do so under ...


Command Accountability For Ai Weapon Systems In The Law Of Armed Conflict, James Kraska Jan 2021

Command Accountability For Ai Weapon Systems In The Law Of Armed Conflict, James Kraska

International Law Studies

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in weapon systems enhances the ability of operational forces to fuse multispectral sensors to understand the warfighting environment, positively identify, track, and select targets, and engage them with the most appropriate effects. The potential for AI to help close the “kill chain” has raised concern that this creates a gap in accountability between the decisions of humans and the acts of machines, with humans no longer accountable for decisions made during armed conflict. This study suggests that there is no gap because the military commander is always directly and individually accountable for the employment ...


Criminal Liability For Artificial Intelligence Crimes, Yahya Ibrahim Dahshan Jan 2021

Criminal Liability For Artificial Intelligence Crimes, Yahya Ibrahim Dahshan

Journal Sharia and Law

Artificial intelligence crimes are considered near future crimes If not some of them have now begun, Technological development has helped in recent years - Which accelerated in the current period - In the emergence of many of these crimes, The advanced programming of some Artificial intelligence machines has given the ability to build self-experience, Enabling them to make individual decisions in any situations they face like human beings; So we aim from this study legalization of Artificial intelligence crimes To determine the responsible for those crimes and the penalty is imposed on it; The importance of the subject lies in That at ...


From Automation To Autonomy: Legal And Ethical Responsibility Gaps In Artificial Intelligence Innovation, David Nersessian, Ruben Mancha Jan 2021

From Automation To Autonomy: Legal And Ethical Responsibility Gaps In Artificial Intelligence Innovation, David Nersessian, Ruben Mancha

Michigan Technology Law Review

The increasing prominence of artificial intelligence (AI) systems in daily life and the evolving capacity of these systems to process data and act without human input raise important legal and ethical concerns. This article identifies three primary AI actors in the value chain (innovators, providers, and users) and three primary types of AI (automation, augmentation, and autonomy). It then considers responsibility in AI innovation from two perspectives: (i) strict liability claims arising out of the development, commercialization, and use of products with built-in AI capabilities (designated herein as “AI artifacts”); and (ii) an original research study on the ethical practices ...


Brain-Computer-Interfacing & Respondeat Superior: Algorithmic Decisions, Manipulation, And Accountability In Armed Conflict, Salahudin Ali Jan 2021

Brain-Computer-Interfacing & Respondeat Superior: Algorithmic Decisions, Manipulation, And Accountability In Armed Conflict, Salahudin Ali

Catholic University Journal of Law and Technology

This article examines the impact that brain-computer-interfacing platforms will have on the international law of armed conflict’s respondeat superior legal regime. Major Ali argues that the connection between the human brain and this nascent technology’s underlying technology of artificial intelligence and machine learning will serve as a disruptor to the traditional mental prerequisites required to impart culpability and liability on commanders for actions of their troops. Anticipating that BCI will become increasingly ubiquitous, Major Ali’s article offers frameworks for solution to BCI’s disruptive potential to the internal law of armed conflict.


Sounds Of Science: Copyright Infringement In Ai Music Generator Outputs, Eric Sunray Jan 2021

Sounds Of Science: Copyright Infringement In Ai Music Generator Outputs, Eric Sunray

Catholic University Journal of Law and Technology

The music business is no stranger to disruptive technology. The industry’s apparent comeback from the devastating downturn caused by illegal file sharing seems to have arrived just in time for what may be an even more disruptive technological phenomenon: artificial intelligence (“AI”). Much has been said about the implications of AI-generated music, ranging from issues of ownership, to rights of publicity. However, there has been surprisingly little discussion of infringement in the AI systems’ outputs. By examining the functionality of AI music generators through the lens of de minimis use case law, this paper will explain how the outputs ...


Book Review, Aamir S. Abdullah Jan 2021

Book Review, Aamir S. Abdullah

Articles

No abstract provided.


Algorithms In Business, Merchant-Consumer Interactions, & Regulation, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2021

Algorithms In Business, Merchant-Consumer Interactions, & Regulation, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

The shift towards the use of algorithms in business has transformed merchant–consumer interactions. Products and services are increasingly tailored for consumers through algorithms that collect and analyze vast amounts of data from interconnected devices, digital platforms, and social networks. While traditionally merchants and marketeers have utilized market segmentation, customer demographic profiles, and statistical approaches, the exponential increase in consumer data and computing power enables them to develop and implement algorithmic techniques that change consumer markets and society as a whole. Algorithms enable targeting of consumers more effectively, in real-time, and with high predictive accuracy in pricing and profiling strategies ...


Taxing Big Data: A Proposal To Benefit Society For The Use Of Private Information, Ziva Rubinstein Jan 2021

Taxing Big Data: A Proposal To Benefit Society For The Use Of Private Information, Ziva Rubinstein

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

Artificial intelligence, the technology that is currently shaping our world, relies on the data that each individual supplies. In 2017, the Economist magazine asserted that “the world’s most valuable resource is no longer oil, but data.” This assertion is supported by the current data market, which became a hundred-billion-dollar industry in the data broker market alone. However, despite its immense value, individuals are not compensated when their data is collected, shared, or when that data is used to replace them in the job market. Further, companies are legally avoiding taxes on this resource, both during its collection and on ...


Beyond Algorithms: Toward A Normative Theory Of Automated Regulation, Felix Mormann Jan 2021

Beyond Algorithms: Toward A Normative Theory Of Automated Regulation, Felix Mormann

Faculty Scholarship

The proliferation of artificial intelligence in our daily lives has spawned a burgeoning literature on the dawn of dehumanized, algorithmic governance. Remarkably, the scholarly discourse overwhelmingly fails to acknowledge that automated, non-human governance has long been a reality. For more than a century, policymakers have relied on regulations that automatically adjust to changing circumstances, without the need for human intervention. This article surveys the track record of self-adjusting governance mechanisms to propose a normative theory of automated regulation.

Effective policymaking frequently requires anticipation of future developments, from technology innovation to geopolitical change. Self-adjusting regulation offers an insurance policy against the ...


Contracting For Algorithmic Accountability, Cary Coglianese, Erik Lampmann Jan 2021

Contracting For Algorithmic Accountability, Cary Coglianese, Erik Lampmann

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As local, state, and federal governments increase their reliance on artificial intelligence (AI) decision-making tools designed and operated by private contractors, so too do public concerns increase over the accountability and transparency of such AI tools. But current calls to respond to these concerns by banning governments from using AI will only deny society the benefits that prudent use of such technology can provide. In this Article, we argue that government agencies should pursue a more nuanced and effective approach to governing the governmental use of AI by structuring their procurement contracts for AI tools and services in ways that ...


Law And Technology: Company Law, Hans Tijo, Pey Woan Lee, Pearlie M. C. Koh Jan 2021

Law And Technology: Company Law, Hans Tijo, Pey Woan Lee, Pearlie M. C. Koh

Research Collection School Of Law

In this chapter, we discuss areas of company law where technology has already played a part and also predict where it may soon transform legal practice. We focus on shareholder rights, share capital, informational costs, fundraising and artificial intelligence. The central theme, though, is that to prevent statutory obsolescence, laws should be drafted with enough flexibility to accommodate changes in technology. This will allow practitioners the leeway to push on the edge of the envelope and let market forces help in determining the most efficient ways of doing things in a volatile business environment.


Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese Jan 2021

Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the future, administrative agencies will rely increasingly on digital automation powered by machine learning algorithms. Can U.S. administrative law accommodate such a future? Not only might a highly automated state readily meet longstanding administrative law principles, but the responsible use of machine learning algorithms might perform even better than the status quo in terms of fulfilling administrative law’s core values of expert decision-making and democratic accountability. Algorithmic governance clearly promises more accurate, data-driven decisions. Moreover, due to their mathematical properties, algorithms might well prove to be more faithful agents of democratic institutions. Yet even if an automated ...


Human-Machine Teaming And Its Legal And Ethical Implications, Jim Q. Chen, Thomas Wingfield Dec 2020

Human-Machine Teaming And Its Legal And Ethical Implications, Jim Q. Chen, Thomas Wingfield

Military Cyber Affairs

Humans rely on machines in accomplishing missions while machines need humans to make them more intelligent and more powerful. Neither side can go without the other, especially in complex environments when autonomous mode is initiated. Things are becoming more complicated when law and ethical principles should be applied in these complex environments. One of the solutions is human-machine teaming, as it takes advantage of both the best humans can offer and the best that machines can provide. This article intends to explore ways of implementing law and ethical principles in artificial intelligence (AI) systems using human-machine teaming. It examines the ...


Law Enforcement’S Use Of Facial Recognition Software In United States Cities, Samantha Jean Wunschel Dec 2020

Law Enforcement’S Use Of Facial Recognition Software In United States Cities, Samantha Jean Wunschel

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Facial recognition software is something we use every day, whether it’s a suggested tag on our Facebook post or a faster way to unlock our phones. As technology becomes increasingly pervasive in our lives, law enforcement has adapted to utilize the new tools available in accessory to their investigations and the legal process.


The Middle Ground: A Meaningful Balance Between The Benefits And Limitations Of Artificial Intelligence To Assist With The Justice Gap, Katherine L. W. Norton Dec 2020

The Middle Ground: A Meaningful Balance Between The Benefits And Limitations Of Artificial Intelligence To Assist With The Justice Gap, Katherine L. W. Norton

University of Miami Law Review

Access to justice continues to be an ongoing battle for those who cannot afford an attorney in civil legal matters. These civil legal matters touch issues that significantly impact daily life, from issues relating to health, such as advance directives, to family, such as custody of children. Lawyers, courts, and scholars have attempted to tackle this ongoing problem in our justice system. Some suggest that providing free counsel for all civil legal matters is the solution, while others suggest that self-help materials provide more immediate access to services and information. Regardless of the position one takes, the need is clear ...


The Innovation Of Singapore's Ai Ethics Model Framework, Yihan Goh, Nydia Remolina Leon Dec 2020

The Innovation Of Singapore's Ai Ethics Model Framework, Yihan Goh, Nydia Remolina Leon

Research Collection School Of Law

In this article, the authors discuss recent policy initiatives undertaken in Singapore such as the launch of the Model Artificial Intelligence Governance Framework and the National AI Strategy.