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Full-Text Articles in Law

Is A Ban On Non-Competes Supported By Empirical Evidence?, Sarah Oh Lam, Thomas Lenard, Scott Wallsten Dec 2023

Is A Ban On Non-Competes Supported By Empirical Evidence?, Sarah Oh Lam, Thomas Lenard, Scott Wallsten

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has proposed a rule to declare virtually all non-compete agreements unfair methods of competition under Section 5 of the FTC Act and therefore, illegal. However, the empirical literature on non-compete agreements cited by the FTC in its Notice for Proposed Rulemaking (“NPRM”) shows mixed results on earnings, job creation, firm formation, entrepreneurship, training, investment, and firm value. Evidence in other current studies also does not support an economy-wide ban. The FTC concludes that the proposed rule would yield net benefits even though by its own admission it lacks the information necessary to conduct a …


The Public’S Companies, Andrew K. Jennings Dec 2023

The Public’S Companies, Andrew K. Jennings

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

This Essay uses a series of survey studies to consider how public understandings of public and private companies map into urgent debates over the role of the corporation in American society. Does a social-media company, for example, owe it to its users to follow the free-speech principles embodied in the First Amendment? May corporate managers pursue environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) policies that could reduce short-term or long-term profits? How should companies respond to political pushback against their approaches to free expression or ESG?

The studies’ results are consistent with understandings that both public and private companies have greater public …


Divined Comity: Assessing The Vitamin C Antitrust Litigation And Updating The Second Circuit’S Prescriptive Comity Framework, William Weingarten Dec 2023

Divined Comity: Assessing The Vitamin C Antitrust Litigation And Updating The Second Circuit’S Prescriptive Comity Framework, William Weingarten

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

In re Vitamin C Antitrust Litigation, recently decided by the Second Circuit, sets a grave precedent for American plaintiffs seeking redress for antitrust injuries wrought by foreign defendants. The case involved a group of Chinese manufacturers and exporters of vitamin C, who conspired to fix prices and restrict output in the export market, injuring American consumers in import commerce. The foreign manufacturers conceded that they had colluded in fixing prices and restricting output, in flagrant violation of U.S. antitrust law. And yet, with the assistance of the Chinese government—intervening as amicus curiae—the defendants were successfully able to argue, on appeal …


Pooling And Exchanging Competitively Sensitive Information Among Rivals: Absolutely Illegal Not Just Unreasonable, Peter C. Carstensen, Annkathrin Marschall Dec 2023

Pooling And Exchanging Competitively Sensitive Information Among Rivals: Absolutely Illegal Not Just Unreasonable, Peter C. Carstensen, Annkathrin Marschall

University of Cincinnati Law Review

An agreement to exchange competitive sensitive information among rivalrous competitors usually results from an intent to inhibit or restrict the discretion of those firms to engage in competition. Basic economic logic about competition leads to that conclusion. Hence, such an exchange is in itself a naked agreement in restraint of trade without legal justification. Currently, case law requires a more convoluted and irrelevant inquiry into market definition and market power before a court can condemn such agreements. This is the result of ambiguous Supreme Court decisions as well as the recognition that in a few instances there are plausible arguments …


A Comment On Markovits's Welfare Economics And Antitrust, Keith N. Hylton Dec 2023

A Comment On Markovits's Welfare Economics And Antitrust, Keith N. Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

I criticize two features of the new book by Richard Markovits. One is the notion that ethics or moral judgments should be part of our analysis of antitrust. The other is the notion that market definition is incoherent.


Jurisdiction Beyond Our Borders: United States V. Alcoa And The Extraterritorial Reach Of American Antitrust, 1909–1945, Laura Phillips Sawyer Nov 2023

Jurisdiction Beyond Our Borders: United States V. Alcoa And The Extraterritorial Reach Of American Antitrust, 1909–1945, Laura Phillips Sawyer

Scholarly Works

Chapter in the book Antimonopoly and American Democracy by Daniel A. Crane and William J. Novak, eds., Oxford University Press, 2023.

In 1945, Judge Learned Hand wrote one of the most influential opinions in modern antitrust law. In declaring that the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) had illegally monopolized the industry for virgin aluminum and had participated in an illegal international cartel, Hand both revived and extended American antitrust law. The ruling is famous for several reasons: it narrowly defined the relevant market in favor of the government; it expanded the category of impermissible dominant firm conduct; it interpreted congressional …


The Slogans And Goals Of Antitrust Law, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2023

The Slogans And Goals Of Antitrust Law, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

All Faculty Scholarship

This is a comparative examination of the slogans and goals most advocated for antitrust law today – namely, that antitrust should be concerned with “bigness,” that it should intervene when actions undermine the “competitive process,” or that it should be concerned about promoting some conception of welfare. “Bigness” as an antitrust concern targets firms based on absolute size rather than share of a market, as antitrust traditionally has done. The bigness approach entails that antitrust cannot be concerned about low prices, or the welfare of consumers and labor. Nondominant firms could not sustain very high prices or cause significant reductions …


Why Economists Should Support Populist Antitrust Goals, Mark Glick, Gabriel A. Lozada, Darren Bush Jun 2023

Why Economists Should Support Populist Antitrust Goals, Mark Glick, Gabriel A. Lozada, Darren Bush

Utah Law Review

Antitrust policy can be a powerful tool to tackle important social and economic problems. For decades antitrust enforcement has been shackled by the so-called Consumer Welfare Standard (“CWS”) that has limited the goals considered to be “legitimate.” The CWS limits antitrust goals to those that impact demand in markets, and primarily in output markets. Recently, new voices have come forward to suggest that antitrust policy should address several other important social objectives. Such goals include the traditional antitrust goals that motivated passage of the antitrust statutes, and which were discussed in Pre-Rehnquist Court opinions, including dispersion of economic and political …


Antitrust For Dominant Digital Platforms: An Alternative To The Monopoly Power Standard To Restore Competition, Jordan Ramsey May 2023

Antitrust For Dominant Digital Platforms: An Alternative To The Monopoly Power Standard To Restore Competition, Jordan Ramsey

Senior Honors Theses

Antitrust law is meant to promote competition by prohibiting anticompetitive business practices such as mergers and acquisitions as well as exclusionary conduct. Judicial interpretation of antitrust law has allowed dominant digital platforms to undertake anticompetitive actions without prosecution. The Sherman Antitrust Act should be amended to remove the monopoly power standard that allows firms to engage in anticompetitive conduct as long as the conduct does not create or uphold monopoly power. The amendment would make anticompetitive conduct illegal regardless of monopoly power, as long as six proof requirements are met. This would result in lessened market concentration, which would benefit …


About-Face: How Facebook’S Restrictions On User Posts Could Violate Antitrust Law, Efrem Berk Apr 2023

About-Face: How Facebook’S Restrictions On User Posts Could Violate Antitrust Law, Efrem Berk

Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property

This Note examines whether Facebook’s restrictions on its users’ posts are subject to Sherman Act § 2. This Note looks at the economic activity generated by social media activity and argues that posts are commerce. While this piece finds that current antitrust jurisprudence likely favors Facebook, an alternative approach sought by some antitrust scholars could influence judges to preclude the platform’s restrictions.


Stop The Games: How Broker-Dealer Gamification Affronts Antitrust, Tanner Dowdy Mar 2023

Stop The Games: How Broker-Dealer Gamification Affronts Antitrust, Tanner Dowdy

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Merger Enforcement Statistics: 2001-2020, Logan Billman, Steven C. Salop Mar 2023

Merger Enforcement Statistics: 2001-2020, Logan Billman, Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article summarizes merger enforcement data for the period between 2001 and 2020, using a database created by the authors. The database lists the identity and outcome of every transaction that received a second request during this 20-year period. The database also lists the identity and outcome of every challenge to an already-consummated merger during the period. To our knowledge, it is the only complete database for the listing and outcomes of all such transactions. The goal of creating the database is to provide further information on merger enforcement, which hopefully can inform policy and spur additional analysis. We describe …


The Microsoft Litigation’S Lessons For United States V. Google, John E. Lopatka, William H. Page Feb 2023

The Microsoft Litigation’S Lessons For United States V. Google, John E. Lopatka, William H. Page

University of Miami Law Review

The United States Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and three overlapping groups of states have filed federal antitrust cases alleging Google has monopolized internet search, search advertising, internet advertising technologies, and app distribution on Android phones. In this Article, we focus on the DOJ’s claims that Google has used contracts with tech firms that distribute Google’s search services in order to exclude rival search providers and thus to monopolize the markets for search and search advertising—the two sides of Google’s search platform. The primary mechanisms of exclusion, according to the DOJ, are the many contracts Google has used to secure its …


Freezing Innovation: How The Platform Competition And Opportunity Act Will Freeze Funds In The Tech Start-Up Market, Brandon Wong Feb 2023

Freezing Innovation: How The Platform Competition And Opportunity Act Will Freeze Funds In The Tech Start-Up Market, Brandon Wong

Pepperdine Law Review

The rise of technological giants like Amazon, Apple, Google, and Facebook motivated the House Judiciary Committee to pass a slew of new antitrust legislation bills to curb these companies’ considerable market power. The Platform Competition and Opportunity Act proposes to significantly cut a dominant online platform’s ability to continue growing by deeming certain acquisitions presumptively unlawful. The Act shifts the burden to the acquiring company to prove the proposed transaction would not be anticompetitive by eliminating a potential competitor. In an effort to protect competition, the Act has good intentions to protect start-up companies that are fearful of being acquired …


Free Market State (Of Mind): Antitrust Federalism, John J. Flynn And The Utah Constitution’S Free Market Clause, Jorge L. Contreras Feb 2023

Free Market State (Of Mind): Antitrust Federalism, John J. Flynn And The Utah Constitution’S Free Market Clause, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Review

The Utah Constitution states that “[i]t is the policy of the state of Utah that a free market system shall govern trade and commerce in this state to promote the dispersion of economic and political power and the general welfare of all the people.” Utah’s so-called Free Market Clause, adopted in 1992, is unique among the constitutions of the fifty states. Through an excavation of the historical record and contemporary literature, this Article shows that the Free Market Clause owes its existence to the influence of Professor John J. Flynn of the University of Utah, whose pioneering work on antitrust …


Worker Welfare And Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jan 2023

Worker Welfare And Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

All Faculty Scholarship

The important field of antitrust and labor has gone through a profound change in orientation. For the great bulk of its history labor has been viewed as a competitive threat, and the debate over antitrust and labor was framed around whether there should be a labor “immunity” from the antitrust laws. In just the last decade, however, the orientation has flipped. Most new writing views labor as a target of anticompetitive restraints imposed by employers. Antitrust is increasingly concerned with protecting labor rather than challenging its conduct.

Antitrust interest in labor markets is properly focused on two things. The smaller …


Hospital Mergers: The Symptoms Of Anticompetitive Consolidation & A Routine Checkup On The Horizontal Merger Guidelines, Stefan Rao Kostas Jan 2023

Hospital Mergers: The Symptoms Of Anticompetitive Consolidation & A Routine Checkup On The Horizontal Merger Guidelines, Stefan Rao Kostas

University of Miami Business Law Review

In 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that addressed the negative implications of market concentration within the healthcare industry. Specifically, President Biden called for the revision of the Horizontal and Vertical Merger Guidelines to enact antitrust safeguards that limit unchecked hospital mergers and promote competition. This Article delves into the role of the healthcare sector in the U.S. economy and how the current state of hospital mergers limits competition and, thus, the quality of care available to patients. Further, this Article studies U.S. federal regulations, case law, and merger retrospectives to uncover pitfalls within the current Horizontal Merger Guidelines. …


Now Streaming: How Streaming Services Are Following In The Antitrust Footsteps Of Hollywood’S Golden Age, Megan Elizabeth Norris Jan 2023

Now Streaming: How Streaming Services Are Following In The Antitrust Footsteps Of Hollywood’S Golden Age, Megan Elizabeth Norris

University of Miami Business Law Review

The entertainment industry is undergoing quite the transformation following the recent termination of the Paramount Consent Decrees, which effectively regulated the industry to prevent monopolization and promote competition for almost a century. The industry now faces a drastic surge in the utilization of streaming services and a new wave of antitrust issues.

“With great power comes great responsibility;” however, the dominant streaming companies in the industry have raised suspicion about emerging anticompetitive concerns. While long overdue, the termination of the Paramount Consent Decrees leaves a gaping hole in antitrust policy regarding the nuanced business practice of streaming platforms. Existing antitrust …


Anticompetitive Corporate Spin-Offs, Alexa Rosen Grealis Jan 2023

Anticompetitive Corporate Spin-Offs, Alexa Rosen Grealis

University of Miami Business Law Review

Section 355 of the Internal Revenue Code allows corporations to “spin-off” parent-controlled businesses tax-free. Traditionally an important tool for divestitures and restructurings with U.S. tax consequences, recent trends suggest section 355 is also of interest to firms facing US antitrust consequences. Statements and maneuvering by some such companies indicate firms are considering spinning-off businesses to avert liability and ‘break up’ on their own terms. Despite widespread renewed interest in using antitrust laws to break up large corporations, the antitrust implications of corporate spin-offs have thus far escaped scholarly notice and scrutiny.

This Note posits that it is a mistake to …


In Support Of Ureaa: The Case For Timely, Uniform, And Comprehensive Action Against Restrictive Employment Agreements, Ryan Greenberg Jan 2023

In Support Of Ureaa: The Case For Timely, Uniform, And Comprehensive Action Against Restrictive Employment Agreements, Ryan Greenberg

University of Miami Business Law Review

Tens of millions of American workers across a range of occupations are bound by restrictive employment agreements. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused people to leave their jobs in search of more money, flexibility, and happiness—deemed the Great Resignation—shining a new light on the volatility of labor markets. But restrictive employment agreements limit workers’ exit options and stymie competition, in tension with our nation’s antitrust laws. The effects of these agreements are particularly damaging to low-wage workers. Rightfully so, policymakers across jurisdictions and political ideologies are increasingly introducing measures to curtail the abuse of these agreements. This area of the law …


Epic Games, Inc. V. Apple, Inc.: An Epic Opinion For Software Developers, Gabriella Veronica Coffield Jan 2023

Epic Games, Inc. V. Apple, Inc.: An Epic Opinion For Software Developers, Gabriella Veronica Coffield

University of Miami Business Law Review

Aside from Google Play, Apple’s App Store is where the majority of apps are downloaded from across the world. Recently, Apple has faced scrutiny for its management of the App Store and the control Apple has over the market due to the lack of competition. Additionally, developers have criticized the 30% fee Apple charges them for in-app purchases. The recent ruling by the Northern District of California in Epic Games, Inc. v. Apple, Inc., 559 F. Supp. 3d 898 (N.D. Cal. 2021) addressed this issue and issued an injunction allowing the possibility for developers to direct consumers to external links …


Renewing Faith In Antitrust: Unveiling The Hidden Network Behind Pharmaceutical Product Hopping, Victoria Field Jan 2023

Renewing Faith In Antitrust: Unveiling The Hidden Network Behind Pharmaceutical Product Hopping, Victoria Field

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Patents grant time-limited market exclusivity to drug manufacturers, meaning that other companies are prohibited from copying and selling the patented pharmaceutical. This allows manufacturers to lawfully charge monopoly prices. Generic competition starts at the expiration of the patent. To maintain coveted monopoly power, manufacturers often release an alternative formulation of the drug with a fresh patent that enjoys continued market exclusivity. Manufacturers who can convert their consumer base to the new formulation can continue charging peak prices. This process, called “product hopping,” has been the target of significant antitrust inquiry, with mixed results.

A product hop may be the result …


The Battle With Big Tech: Analyzing Antitrust Enforcement And Proposed Reforms, Youngjae Lee, Morgan Hagenbuch Jan 2023

The Battle With Big Tech: Analyzing Antitrust Enforcement And Proposed Reforms, Youngjae Lee, Morgan Hagenbuch

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

No abstract provided.


Stakeholderism Silo Busting, Aneil Kovvali Jan 2023

Stakeholderism Silo Busting, Aneil Kovvali

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The fields of antitrust, bankruptcy, corporate, and securities law are undergoing tumultuous debates. On one side in each field is the dominant view that each field should focus exclusively on a specific constituency—antitrust on consumers, bankruptcy on creditors, corporate law on shareholders, and securities regulation on financial investors. On the other side is a growing insurgency that seeks to broaden the focus to a larger set of stakeholders, including workers, the environment, and political communities. But these conversations have largely proceeded in parallel, with each debate unfolding within the framework and literature of a single field. Studying these debates together …


The Summary Judgment Revolution That Wasn't, Jonathan R. Nash, D. Daniel Sokol Jan 2023

The Summary Judgment Revolution That Wasn't, Jonathan R. Nash, D. Daniel Sokol

Faculty Articles

The U.S. Supreme Court decided a trilogy of cases on summary judgment in 1986. Questions remain as to how much effect these cases have had on judicial decision-making in terms of wins and losses for plaintiffs. Shifts in wins, losses, and what cases get to decisions on the merits impact access to justice. We assemble novel datasets to examine this question empirically in three areas of law that are more likely to respond to shifts in the standard for summary judgment: antitrust, securities regulation, and civil rights. We find that the Supreme Court’s decisions had a statistically significant effect in …


Section 5 In Action: Reinvigorating The Ftc Act And The Rule Of Law, Lina M. Khan Jan 2023

Section 5 In Action: Reinvigorating The Ftc Act And The Rule Of Law, Lina M. Khan

Faculty Scholarship

The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 didn’t just create a new agency. It created new law for that agency to enforce. The heart of that law is Section 5, which provides that ‘unfair methods of competition in or affecting commerce’ are ‘hereby declared unlawful’. In passing this law, Congress also tasked the FTC with identifying the range of methods of competition that qualify as unfair, since lawmakers recognized they could not specify them all prospectively.

This is a straightforward reading of the statute, and yet it is somewhat controversial. There is a school of thought that considers Section 5’s …


Race-Ing Antitrust, I. Bennett Capers, Gregory Day Jan 2023

Race-Ing Antitrust, I. Bennett Capers, Gregory Day

Faculty Scholarship

Antitrust law has a race problem. To spot an antitrust violation, courts inquire into whether an act has degraded consumer welfare. Since anticompetitive practices are often assumed to enhance consumer welfare, antitrust offenses are rarely found. Key to this framework is that antitrust treats all consumers monolithically; that consumers are differently situated, especially along lines of race, simply is ignored.

We argue that antitrust law must disaggregate the term “consumer” to include those who disproportionately suffer from anticompetitive practices via a community welfare standard. As a starting point, we demonstrate that anticompetitive conduct has specifically been used as a tool …


Antitrust Worker Protections: Rejecting Multi-Market Balancing As A Justification For Anticompetitive Harms To Workers, Laura Alexander, Steven C. Salop Jan 2023

Antitrust Worker Protections: Rejecting Multi-Market Balancing As A Justification For Anticompetitive Harms To Workers, Laura Alexander, Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Anticompetitive conduct toward upstream trading partners may have the effect of benefiting downstream consumers even as the conduct harms the firms’ workers or suppliers. Defendants may attempt to justify their upstream conduct—and may rely on the ancillary restraints doctrine in doing so—on the grounds that the restraints create efficiencies benefitting ` purchasers, rather than focusing solely on the impact of the restraint on the workers or suppliers in the upstream market. Such balancing of harms against out-of-market benefits achieved by a different group should be rejected by antitrust doctrine generally, and specifically in the case of harms to workers. This …


The Power Of Antitrust Personhood, Herbert Hovenkamp Jan 2023

The Power Of Antitrust Personhood, Herbert Hovenkamp

University of Pennsylvania Journal of Business Law

Antitrust law addresses conspiracy, or collaborative conduct, more harshly than it does unilateral conduct. One person acting alone can get away with far more than groups of firms acting by agreement. In most cases that distinction is justified. Creating substantial market power unilaterally is difficult and relatively uncommon, but it can be created in a moment’s time by an agreement among firms. But how do antitrust tribunals determine when conduct is unilateral rather than collaborative? Often the ansawer is obvious, but sometimes it is not. Two statutory provisions were intended to be the umpire of such decisions. A section of …


Coercive Rideshare Practices: At The Intersection Of Antitrust And Consumer Protection Law In The Gig Economy, Christopher L. Peterson, Marshall Steinbaum Jan 2023

Coercive Rideshare Practices: At The Intersection Of Antitrust And Consumer Protection Law In The Gig Economy, Christopher L. Peterson, Marshall Steinbaum

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This Essay considers antitrust and consumer protection liability for coercive practices vis-à-vis drivers that are prevalent in the rideshare industry. Resale price maintenance, nonlinear pay practices, withholding data, and conditioning data access on maintaining a minimum acceptance rate all curtail platform competition, sustaining a high-price, tacitly collusive equilibrium among the few incumbents. Moreover, concealing relevant trip data from drivers is both deceptive and unfair when the platforms are in full possession of the relevant facts. In the absence of these coercive practices, customers too would be better off due to platform competition, which would lower average prices by sharpening competition …