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2022

Public health

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Reserve System Design For Allocation Of Scarce Medical Resources In A Pandemic: Some Perspectives From The Field, Parag A. Pathak, Govind C. Persad, Tayfun Sönmez, M. Utku Unver Dec 2022

Reserve System Design For Allocation Of Scarce Medical Resources In A Pandemic: Some Perspectives From The Field, Parag A. Pathak, Govind C. Persad, Tayfun Sönmez, M. Utku Unver

Sturm College of Law: Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Worker Participation In A Time Of Covid: A Case Study Of Occupational Health And Safety Regulation In Ontario, Alan Hall, Eric Tucker Nov 2022

Worker Participation In A Time Of Covid: A Case Study Of Occupational Health And Safety Regulation In Ontario, Alan Hall, Eric Tucker

Articles & Book Chapters

This study examines worker voice in the development and implementation of safety plans or protocols for covid-19 prevention among hospital workers, long-term care workers, and education workers in the Canadian province of Ontario. Although Ontario occupational health and safety law and official public health policy appear to recognize the need for active consultation with workers and labour unions, there were limited – and in some cases no – efforts by employers to meaningfully involve workers, worker representatives (reps), or union officials in assessing covid-19 risks and planning protection and prevention measures. The political and legal efforts of workers and unions …


Law In The Service Of Misinformation: How Anti-Vaccine Groups Use The Law To Help Spin A False Narrative, Dorit R. Reiss, Viridiana Ordonez Nov 2022

Law In The Service Of Misinformation: How Anti-Vaccine Groups Use The Law To Help Spin A False Narrative, Dorit R. Reiss, Viridiana Ordonez

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

Social movements use legal tools to create narratives. Those narratives support social agendas which certain movements leverage to mislead their followers and potential followers. In this Article, we examine one influential anti-vaccine organization, the Informed Consent Action Network (ICAN), that uses its far-reaching platform to create false narratives around legal action. Again and again, this anti-vaccine group misrepresented both the legal and the factual meanings of court decisions, settlements, and other legal actions to create a narrative to galvanize its followers and influence newcomers. ICAN filed lawsuits that make anti-vaccine arguments—even when the legal framework did not fit doing so—and …


Newsletter, Fall 2022 Oct 2022

Newsletter, Fall 2022

Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Parading The Horribles: The Risks Of Expanding Religious Exemptions, Law, Rights, And Religion Project Sep 2022

Parading The Horribles: The Risks Of Expanding Religious Exemptions, Law, Rights, And Religion Project

Center for Gender & Sexuality Law

People of faith now have a constitutional right to practice their religion—even when doing so conflicts with a government law or policy — that is more rigorously protected than nearly any other right. Some states have passed bills that provide an even broader right to such “religious exemptions” from the law than provided under the U.S. Constitution. Other religious exemption bills have been introduced and await consideration.


A Multicenter Weighted Lottery To Equitably Allocate Scarce Covid-19 Therapeutics, Douglas B. White, Erin K. Mccreary, Chung-Chou H. Chang, Mark Schmidhoffer, J. Ryan Bariola, Naudia N. Jonassaint, Govind C. Persad, Robert D. Truog, Parag A. Pathak, Tayfun Sönmez, M. Utku Unver Aug 2022

A Multicenter Weighted Lottery To Equitably Allocate Scarce Covid-19 Therapeutics, Douglas B. White, Erin K. Mccreary, Chung-Chou H. Chang, Mark Schmidhoffer, J. Ryan Bariola, Naudia N. Jonassaint, Govind C. Persad, Robert D. Truog, Parag A. Pathak, Tayfun Sönmez, M. Utku Unver

Sturm College of Law: Faculty Scholarship

Shortages of new therapeutics to treat coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have forced clinicians, public health officials, and health systems to grapple with difficult questions about how to fairly allocate potentially life-saving treatments when there are not enough for all patients in need. Shortages have occurred with remdesivir, tocilizumab, monoclonal antibodies, and the oralantiviral Paxlovid.

Ensuring equitable allocation is especially important in light of the disproportionate burden experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic by disadvantaged groups, including Black, Hispanic/Latino and Indigenous communities, individuals with certain disabilities, and low-income persons. However, many health systems have resorted to first-come, first-served approaches to allocation, which tend …


Data Privacy In The Time Of Plague, Cason Schmit, Brian N. Larson, Hye-Chung Kum Aug 2022

Data Privacy In The Time Of Plague, Cason Schmit, Brian N. Larson, Hye-Chung Kum

Faculty Scholarship

Data privacy is a life-or-death matter for public health. Beginning in late fall 2019, two series of events unfolded, one everyone talked about and one hardly anyone noticed: The greatest world-health crisis in at least 100 years, the COVID-19 pandemic; and the development of the Personal Data Protection Act Committee by the Uniform Law Commissioners (ULC) in the United States. By July 2021, each of these stories had reached a turning point. In the developed, Western world, most people who wanted to receive the vaccine against COVID- 19 could do so. Meanwhile, the ULC adopted the Uniform Personal Data Protection …


Inherent Powers And The Limits Of Public Health Fake News, Michael P. Goodyear Jul 2022

Inherent Powers And The Limits Of Public Health Fake News, Michael P. Goodyear

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

In a Vero Beach, Florida, supermarket, Susan Wiles rode her motorized cart through the produce aisle. In any year other than 2020 or 2021, this would have been a routine trip to the grocery store. But in 2020, Mrs. Wiles was missing an accessory that had become ubiquitous in society during that year: a face mask. Despite causing a commotion, Mrs. Wiles stood by her decision, claiming that the concerns about COVID-19 were overblown: “I don’t fall for this. It’s not what they say it is.” Mrs. Wiles’ statement is emblematic of the year 2020. This is not the …


Does Public Health Start Within Jails? A New Incentive For Reform Of Wisconsin's Bail System, Mahmood N. Abdellatif Jul 2022

Does Public Health Start Within Jails? A New Incentive For Reform Of Wisconsin's Bail System, Mahmood N. Abdellatif

Marquette Law Review

Wisconsin’s Milwaukee and Dane Counties are among many jurisdictions in the country employing modern bail reforms, specifically the Public Safety Assessment (PSA). Most of these jurisdictions adopted the PSA before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, but are increasingly relevant as the virus continues to derail public health measures. Through the intersection of detainees, correctional officers, judicial officials, attorneys, and visitors, millions of Americans filter in and out of correctional facilities on an annual basis. These facilities serve as a microcosm of society and breeding ground for mass infection. The COVID-19 pandemic amplified an existing need …


Gender-Based Violence In Pakistan And Public Health Measures: A Call To Action, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Muzna Sarfraz, Zul Qarnain Jul 2022

Gender-Based Violence In Pakistan And Public Health Measures: A Call To Action, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Muzna Sarfraz, Zul Qarnain

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

No abstract provided.


Advocacy Spotlight: Are You An Advocate?, Vincent Benivegna Dds Jul 2022

Advocacy Spotlight: Are You An Advocate?, Vincent Benivegna Dds

The Journal of the Michigan Dental Association

Advocacy is crucial for dentists in Michigan, as they face a unique opportunity to impact Medicaid dental benefits positively. Governor Gretchen Whitmer's budget proposal for 2023 includes a substantial $240 million investment to revamp dental Medicaid benefits, a historic move for the state. The Michigan Dental Association (MDA) has actively engaged with government offices and legislators to ensure this opportunity is not missed. However, despite the MDA's efforts to mobilize members through action alerts, response rates have disappointed. The article emphasizes the importance of consistent advocacy, as it has the power to influence dental practices and the well-being of patients …


Comparative Laws In Public Health Unmasked, Christine Chasse May 2022

Comparative Laws In Public Health Unmasked, Christine Chasse

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

The COVID-19 pandemic lay bare the vulnerabilities of some countries’ public health responses and praise for others. Comparative law review in public health responses may glean lessons for the United States. For example, the United States had not had a pandemic of this magnitude in over a century and was reluctant to institute early masking policies. Meanwhile, the world raced for a COVID-19 vaccine. This begs the question of who will take the vaccine. Will—or can—governments force their citizens to be inoculated? Global comparisons in personal liberty, freedom, bodily autonomy, and how to parent intersect at the right to (or …


American Public Health Federalism And The Response To The Covid-19 Pandemic, Nicole Huberfeld, Sarah Gordon, David K. Jones May 2022

American Public Health Federalism And The Response To The Covid-19 Pandemic, Nicole Huberfeld, Sarah Gordon, David K. Jones

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter is part of an edited volume studying and comparing federalist government responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. The chapter first briefly provides an overview of the American public health emergency framework and highlights key leadership challenges that occurred at federal and state levels throughout the first year of the pandemic. Then the chapter examines decentralized responsibility in American social programs and states’ prior policy choices to understand how long-term choices affected short-term emergency response. Finally, the chapter explores long-term ramifications and solutions to the governance difficulties the pandemic has highlighted.


Worth A Shot: Encouraging Vaccine Uptake Through “Empathy”, Dr. Jody Lyneé Madeira May 2022

Worth A Shot: Encouraging Vaccine Uptake Through “Empathy”, Dr. Jody Lyneé Madeira

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Pro- and anti-vaccine organizations and individuals have frequently invoked empathy as a strategy for increasing uptake of COVID-19 precautions, including vaccinations. On one hand, vaccine supporters deployed empathy to defuse conflict, prioritize safeguarding the collective welfare, and avoid government mandates. On the other hand, vaccine opponents used empathy to emphasize the alleged individual effects of pandemic precautions, mobilize public voices, and stress the importance of medical freedom in policy-making contexts.

This Article first defines empathy and reviews empathy scholarship, paying particular attention to its relationship with narrative and the contexts where empathy can be difficult or dangerous. It then applies …


The Public/Private Distinction In Public Health: The Case Of Covid-19, Aziza Ahmed, Jason Jackson May 2022

The Public/Private Distinction In Public Health: The Case Of Covid-19, Aziza Ahmed, Jason Jackson

Faculty Scholarship

In this Essay, we argue that the paradigm of the public/private distinction is implicitly operating as a primary frame in the public health response to the pandemic. The public/private distinction is particularly evident in the guidance around masking and other risk-mitigation policies and advice issued by public health agencies. This public health approach reifies the notion of the home as an exceptional private space that exists outside of the possibility of COVID-19 transmission, obscuring the reality of the high risk of transmission in some households. 8 We argue that the manifestation of the public/private distinction in the COVID-19 response is …


Religious Freedom Vs. Compelled Vaccination: A Case-Study Of The 2018-2019 Measles Pandemic Or The Law As A Public Health Response, Barbara Pfeffer Billauer Esq. Apr 2022

Religious Freedom Vs. Compelled Vaccination: A Case-Study Of The 2018-2019 Measles Pandemic Or The Law As A Public Health Response, Barbara Pfeffer Billauer Esq.

Catholic University Law Review

Following the recent decision in Roman Catholic Diocese v. Cuomo,[1] clear guidance regarding the state’s powers to act during a pandemic is wanting. I look here to the 2018–2019 global measles epidemic, with a focus on the New York and Israeli experiences, for that guidance. Measles rates increased dramatically during the 2018–2019 season, both in the United States and globally. This phenomenon reflects a general decline in worldwide vaccination and an increase in vaccine resistance stoked by anti-vax groups. In the United States, the epidemic targeted ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities, as it did in Israel. This Article evaluates the …


Insuring Contraceptive Equity, Jennifer Hickey Apr 2022

Insuring Contraceptive Equity, Jennifer Hickey

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

The United States is in the midst of a family planning crisis. Approximately half of all pregnancies nationwide are unintended. In recognition of the social importance of family planning, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes a “contraceptive mandate” that requires insurers to cover contraception at no cost. Yet, a decade after its enactment, the ACA’s promise of universal contraceptive access for insured women remains unfulfilled, with as many as one-third of U.S. women unable to access their preferred contraceptive without cost.

While much attention has been focused on religious exemptions granted to employers, the primary barrier to no-cost contraception is …


Second Amendment Realism, Michael Ulrich Apr 2022

Second Amendment Realism, Michael Ulrich

Faculty Scholarship

In District of Columbia v. Heller, the Supreme Court declared a constitutionally protected individual right to keep and bear arms. Subsequently, the scope of the right has been hotly debated, resulting in circuit splits and lingering questions about what, exactly, the right entails. Despite these splits, the Court has denied certiorari to the myriad gun cases to land on its doorstep. But the balance of the Court has shifted, and likely, too, its willingness to hear these cases. Among the most pressing questions in Second Amendment jurisprudence is the constitutionality of public carry restrictions. With a constitutional challenge inevitable given …


Click It Or Ticket, But Don’T Admit It? How Unrestrained Drivers And Passengers Take Us For A Ride, E.R. Wright Apr 2022

Click It Or Ticket, But Don’T Admit It? How Unrestrained Drivers And Passengers Take Us For A Ride, E.R. Wright

Mercer Law Review

While the COVID-19 crisis has forced societies and governments to confront new challenges and answer new questions, it has also renewed and reignited longstanding debates about the extent of individuals’ obligations to each other. In particular, the American body politic is once again embroiled in conflict over the reach of an individual’s personal choices and the extent to which consideration of the potentially harmful effects of our choices on others should shape individual behaviors. Today, this fight centers on public health measures intended to reduce the spread and severity of COVID-19, such as masking, distancing, and vaccination. Debates rage over …


Where Is The “Public” In American Public Health? Moving From Individual Responsibility To Collective Action, Cecília Tomori, Dabney P. Evans, Aziza Ahmed, Aparna Nair, Benjamin Mason Meier Mar 2022

Where Is The “Public” In American Public Health? Moving From Individual Responsibility To Collective Action, Cecília Tomori, Dabney P. Evans, Aziza Ahmed, Aparna Nair, Benjamin Mason Meier

Faculty Scholarship

American individualism continues to prove incommensurate to the public health challenge of COVID-19. Where the previous US Administration silenced public health science, neglected rising inequalities, and undermined global solidarity in the early pandemic response, the Biden Administration has sought to take action to respond to the ongoing pandemic. However, the Administration's overwhelming focus on individual responsibility over population-level policy stands in sharp contrast to fundamental tenets of public health that emphasize “what we, as a society, do collectively to assure the conditions for people to be healthy”. When this misalignment of individual responsibility and public health initially became clear with …


Securing A Permanent Homeland: The Federal Government’S Responsibility To Provide Clean Water Access To Tribal Communities, Heather Tanana Mar 2022

Securing A Permanent Homeland: The Federal Government’S Responsibility To Provide Clean Water Access To Tribal Communities, Heather Tanana

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Water is life—critical to the health, socioeconomic, and cultural needs of any community. Every household in the United States needs and deserves access to clean, reliable, and a ordable drinking water. Yet, tribal communities face high rates of water insecurity. More than a half million people—nearly 48 percent of tribal homes in Native communities across the United States—do not have access to reliable water sources, clean drinking water, or basic sanitation. In comparison, as a whole, less than 1 percent of households in the United States lack these facilities. This persistent problem became a matter of life or death during …


The 2025 Michigan State Oral Health Plan, Ellen Sugrue Hyman Jd Mar 2022

The 2025 Michigan State Oral Health Plan, Ellen Sugrue Hyman Jd

The Journal of the Michigan Dental Association

This feature article explores the 2025 Michigan State Oral Health Plan (SOHP), a comprehensive initiative developed by the Michigan Oral Health Coalition (MOHC) and a statewide coalition, including the Michigan Dental Association (MDA). With a focus on enhancing oral health for all Michigan residents, the SOHP prioritizes addressing economic and racial disparities. The plan, guided by three key goals—Increasing Awareness and Education, Dental-Health Integration, and Access and Infrastructure—aims to improve oral health outcomes. The article discusses the plan's development process, key findings highlighting existing disparities, workforce challenges, and the strategic implementation of the SOHP through collaborative efforts and workgroups.


Risk Tradeoffs And Equitable Decision-Making In The Covid-19 Pandemic, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sarah A. Wetter Feb 2022

Risk Tradeoffs And Equitable Decision-Making In The Covid-19 Pandemic, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sarah A. Wetter

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, societies have faced agonizing decisions about whether to close schools, shutter businesses, delay nonemergency health care, restrict travel, and authorize the use of emergency Covid-19 countermeasures under limited scientific understanding. Measures to control the spread of COVID-19 have disrupted our health, educational, and economic systems, tarnished our mental health, and took away our cherished time with family and friends. Conflicting advice from health agencies on the utility of public health measures left us wondering, was it all worth it? We still do not have all the answers to guide us through difficult risk-risk …


Time, Equity, And Sexual Harassment, Joseph Seiner Feb 2022

Time, Equity, And Sexual Harassment, Joseph Seiner

Faculty Publications

Sexual harassment remains a pervasive problem in the workplace. Recent studies and empirical research reveal that this unlawful conduct continues to pervade all industries and sectors of the economy. The #MeToo movement has made great progress in raising awareness of this problem and in demonstrating the lengths that some employers will go to conceal a hostile work environment. The movement has further identified the lasting emotional toll workplace harassment can have on its victims.

The research in this area demonstrates that the short timeframe harassment victims have to bring a federal discrimination charge—180 or 300 days depending on the state—is …


Zoonotic Pathogens From Illegally Traded Wildlife Justify Adopting The One Health Perspective In Disease Response, Marianne Allison G. Lee, Vinyl Joseph S. Valeza, Jonathan Patrick H. Yan, Ronald Allan L. Cruz Jan 2022

Zoonotic Pathogens From Illegally Traded Wildlife Justify Adopting The One Health Perspective In Disease Response, Marianne Allison G. Lee, Vinyl Joseph S. Valeza, Jonathan Patrick H. Yan, Ronald Allan L. Cruz

Biology Faculty Publications

Recent studies have described a direct relationship between the illegal wildlife trade (IWT) and the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in human populations. In the Philippines, the Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR) framework outlines the monitoring, response, and management of disease outbreaks, but needs to be updated in the wake of zoonoses from IWT. Here, we identified zoonotic pathogens that may be introduced to human populations through the IWT, pinpointed potential outbreak hotspots, and provided recommendations on how to improve the Philippines’ public health response while considering One Health. Using seizure data from the Biodiversity Management Bureau (DENR-BMB) covering …


Pandemic Federalism, Cary Coglianese Jan 2022

Pandemic Federalism, Cary Coglianese

All Faculty Scholarship

Legislators, agency officials, and the public have a lot to learn from the United States’ experience in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. If policymakers take seriously their responsibility to identify past mistakes, and then act now to prepare for future viral outbreaks, the nation can do better in the next crisis. One needed change will take the form of clarifying the essential role for the national government and its leadership in responding to pandemics. The United States needs to create a structure for a pandemic federalism that temporarily but responsively allows for a reconfiguration of public health authority, such that …


The Emergency Next Time, Noa Ben-Asher Jan 2022

The Emergency Next Time, Noa Ben-Asher

Faculty Publications

This Article offers a new conceptual framework to understand the connection between law and violence in emergencies. It is by now well-established that governments often commit state violence in times of national security crisis by implementing excessive emergency measures. The Article calls this type of legal violence “Emergency-Affirming Violence.” But Emergency Violence can also be committed through governmental non-action. This type of violence, which this Article calls, “Emergency-Denying Violence,” has manifested in the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Article offers a taxonomy to better understand the phenomenon of Emergency Violence. Using 9/11 and COVID-19 as examples, the Article proposes …


The Legal Role In Building Sustainable Public Health (Symposium Transcript), Joanna K. Sax Jan 2022

The Legal Role In Building Sustainable Public Health (Symposium Transcript), Joanna K. Sax

Faculty Scholarship

The article presents a discussion of food as a public health issue, beginning with why science matters and utilizing science to solve food as a public health issue, especially as it relates to sustainability and climate change. Consumer misperceptions of the risk created by new scientific technologies (e.g., GMOs), or even older scientific technologies, may thwart use of such technologies to solve sustainability problems. The talk addresses why consumers might inappropriately assign risk to certain scientific applications and ways that we might want to think about resolving that issue or closing the divide between consumer misperception of risk and evidence-based …


Aging, Health, Equity, And The Law: Foreword, Joan C. Foley Jan 2022

Aging, Health, Equity, And The Law: Foreword, Joan C. Foley

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.