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Full-Text Articles in Law

An Ethical Gap In Agency Adjudication, Louis J. Virelli Iii Dec 2021

An Ethical Gap In Agency Adjudication, Louis J. Virelli Iii

Buffalo Law Review

There is an ongoing crisis of confidence in American government. Accusations of incompetence and political self-dealing dominate news cycles as public institutions seek to combat—with varying degrees of success—the public health and economic consequences of a global pandemic. Highlighted in this struggle is the larger issue of the importance of integrity to the efficacy and legitimacy of administrative government. This is especially true for agency adjudication, as it is the form of agency action that most directly impacts individuals. Recusal—the process by which an adjudicator is removed, voluntarily or involuntarily, from a specific proceeding—is a time-honored way of protecting the …


The Complexities Of Conscience: Reconciling Death Penalty L Aw With Capital Jurors’ Concerns, Meredith Martin Rountree, Mary R. Rose Dec 2021

The Complexities Of Conscience: Reconciling Death Penalty L Aw With Capital Jurors’ Concerns, Meredith Martin Rountree, Mary R. Rose

Buffalo Law Review

Jurors exercise unique legal power when they are asked to decide whether to sentence someone to death. The Supreme Court emphasizes the central role of the jury’s moral judgment in making this sentencing decision, noting that it is the jurors who are best able to “express the conscience of the community on the ultimate question of life or death.” Manylower courts nevertheless narrow the range of admissible evidence at the mitigation phase of a capital trial, insisting on a standard of legal relevance that interferes with the jury’s ability to exercise the very moral judgment the Supreme Court has deemed …


Ai, On The Law Of The Elephant: Toward Understanding Artificial Intelligence, Emile Loza De Siles Dec 2021

Ai, On The Law Of The Elephant: Toward Understanding Artificial Intelligence, Emile Loza De Siles

Buffalo Law Review

Machine learning and other artificial intelligence (AI) systems are changing our world in profound, exponentially rapid, and likely irreversible ways.3 Although AI may be harnessed for great good, it is capable of and is doing great harm at scale to people, communities, societies, and democratic institutions. The dearth of AI governance leaves unchecked AI’s potentially existential risks. Whether sounding urgent alarm or merely jumping on the bandwagon, law scholars, law students, and lawyers at bar are contributing volumes of AI policy and legislative proposals, commentaries, doctrinal theories, and calls to corporate and international organizations for ethical AI leadership. Unfortunately, erroneous, …


Pain Is Enough: Chronic Pain As Disability, Katherine L. Moore Dec 2021

Pain Is Enough: Chronic Pain As Disability, Katherine L. Moore

Buffalo Law Review

States have historically failed to recognize chronic pain as a disability. In medicine, chronic pain has gained increasing recognition as a disability in and of itself, even absent a current, medically determinable physical impairment. The law, however, has been slow to catch up. This Article argues that chronic pain is a disability, even without medical evidence of an underlying impairment, because of pain’s significant functional impact on the body and mind. In the 2018 case of Saunders v. Wilkie, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit recognized that “pain is enough” for a veteran to be …


Funding Crises: An Empirical Study Of The Paycheck Protection Program, William A. Birdthistle, Joshua Silver Dec 2021

Funding Crises: An Empirical Study Of The Paycheck Protection Program, William A. Birdthistle, Joshua Silver

Buffalo Law Review

In the early weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States Congress funded the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) to address the devastating consequences of business closures and millions of employees losing both their jobs and healthcare coverage during a public health emergency. That program immediately pumped more than a half-trillion dollars of forgivable loans out to five million businesses. But criticism was swift and widespread, if sometimes spurious, with detractors attacking the award of loans to wealthy celebrities such as Kanye West, politically connected donors such as the Kushner family, and large corporations such as Shake Shack and Ruth’s Chris …


When Provocation Is No Excuse: Making Gun Owners Bear The Risks Of Carrying In Public, Eric A. Johnson Oct 2021

When Provocation Is No Excuse: Making Gun Owners Bear The Risks Of Carrying In Public, Eric A. Johnson

Buffalo Law Review

Markeis McGlockton, an unarmed 28-year-old African-American father of three, was shot to death in front of his five-year-old son by “wannabe police officer” Michael Drejka during an argument over parking. Because McGlockton had shoved Drejka before Drejka shot him, Drejka was convicted only of heat-of-passion manslaughter, not murder. This Article argues that the heat-of-passion defense shouldn’t be available in cases like Drejka’s—cases where the defendant was carrying a loaded gun in public at the time of the provocation and used the gun to kill his provoker. The heat-of-passion defense is a concession to the difficulty of complying with the law’s …


Blockchain Copyright Exchange – A Prototype, Jiarui Liu Oct 2021

Blockchain Copyright Exchange – A Prototype, Jiarui Liu

Buffalo Law Review

The copyright market for creative works such as music and movies traditionally involves a complex web of licensing transactions and exorbitant transaction costs. Out of every dollar that consumers pay, an artist who writes, performs, and produces her own work may receive less than fifteen cents while the rest are diverted to cover the costs of financing new production, marketing new works, and distributing royalties. Although artists are typically scheduled to receive royalties on a quarterly basis, a payment may lag as far as two years after users paid. Furthermore, if a collecting society is unable to identify the rightful …


Protecting Consumer Protection: Filling The Federal Enforcement Gap, Amy Widman Oct 2021

Protecting Consumer Protection: Filling The Federal Enforcement Gap, Amy Widman

Buffalo Law Review

Since 2014, when a first-of-its-kind empirical study looked at how public enforcers use their authority under unfair and deceptive acts and practices (“UDAP”) laws, the enforcement landscape has changed. Most notably, the Trump Administration weakened enforcement on the federal level. In the wake of this political shift, many state enforcers rushed to fill the gap left by weak federal enforcement. At the same time, the state enforcers themselves experienced changes both internal (including changes to budgets and stated policy priorities) and external (electoral changes regarding state Attorneys General, changes to statutory authority, and other changes governing the enforcer’s authority).

This …


Antitrust Law’S Harm To Competition: A New Understanding Of Exclusivity, Ittai Paldor Oct 2021

Antitrust Law’S Harm To Competition: A New Understanding Of Exclusivity, Ittai Paldor

Buffalo Law Review

One of the long-accepted axioms of antitrust law is that the competitive danger posed by exclusivity agreements increases as the market share foreclosed by these arrangements increases. The larger the market share foreclosed by an exclusivity agreement, the less likely the arrangement is to be upheld by courts. And exclusivity arrangements foreclosing extremely large market shares are practically never upheld. The business community has responded by forsaking such arrangements (or concealing them). This Article challenges this very intuitive axiom. It shows that due to an unobserved feature of exclusivity, when extremely large market shares are foreclosed, the competitive danger posed …


Roper’S Unfinished Business: A New Approach To Young Offender Death Penalty Eligibility, Nichole M. Austin Oct 2021

Roper’S Unfinished Business: A New Approach To Young Offender Death Penalty Eligibility, Nichole M. Austin

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Solidarity As A Constitutional Value, Tamar Hostovsky Brandes Sep 2021

Solidarity As A Constitutional Value, Tamar Hostovsky Brandes

Buffalo Human Rights Law Review

No abstract provided.


Considering Rehabilitation Of Minors Sentenced In Juvenile Military Courts - Initial Proposals And Thoughts For The Future, Shai Farber, Sharon Rivlin Achai Sep 2021

Considering Rehabilitation Of Minors Sentenced In Juvenile Military Courts - Initial Proposals And Thoughts For The Future, Shai Farber, Sharon Rivlin Achai

Buffalo Human Rights Law Review

No abstract provided.


Access To University Education By Learners With Physical Disabilities: Combating The Barriers, Edwin O. Abuya, Jane W. Githinji Sep 2021

Access To University Education By Learners With Physical Disabilities: Combating The Barriers, Edwin O. Abuya, Jane W. Githinji

Buffalo Human Rights Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Role Of International Law In The Food–Energy–Water Nexus, Waseem Ahmad Qureshi Aug 2021

The Role Of International Law In The Food–Energy–Water Nexus, Waseem Ahmad Qureshi

Buffalo Environmental Law Journal

The current relationship of water, food, and energy is deeply entangled as it functions within different sectors, such as industry and agriculture, the latter of which water is essential for irrigating crops. Similarly, adequate water storage facilities are also required for hydroelectricity generation. Moreover, in many regions, electrical energy is used to operate tube wells for extracting groundwater to irrigate crops for food. Within the intricate nature of the mutual relationship of water, energy, and food, each plays its role in ensuring the security of the others. For instance, both energy security and food security are dependent upon water security, …


Lake Erie Bill Of Rights Struck Down: Why The Rights Of Nature Movement Is A Nonviable Legislative Strategy For Municipalities Plagued By Pollution, Kathleen M. Mannard Aug 2021

Lake Erie Bill Of Rights Struck Down: Why The Rights Of Nature Movement Is A Nonviable Legislative Strategy For Municipalities Plagued By Pollution, Kathleen M. Mannard

Buffalo Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Muddying The Waters: The Need For More Clarity Under The Clean Water Act, Georgia D. Reid Aug 2021

Muddying The Waters: The Need For More Clarity Under The Clean Water Act, Georgia D. Reid

Buffalo Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


One Man’S Trash: Constitutional Principles Of Federalism And Privacy Implicated In San Francisco’S Mandatory Recycling Ordinance And Future Similar Legislation, J. Tyler Smith Aug 2021

One Man’S Trash: Constitutional Principles Of Federalism And Privacy Implicated In San Francisco’S Mandatory Recycling Ordinance And Future Similar Legislation, J. Tyler Smith

Buffalo Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


A New Paradigm: Rideshare Drivers, Collective Labor Action, Andantitrust, Thomas W. Joo, Leticia Saucedo Jun 2021

A New Paradigm: Rideshare Drivers, Collective Labor Action, Andantitrust, Thomas W. Joo, Leticia Saucedo

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Legislative Framework To Avoid A Vulgar Trademark System, Jordan Kilijanski Jun 2021

A Legislative Framework To Avoid A Vulgar Trademark System, Jordan Kilijanski

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Bostock’S Paradox: Textualism, Legal Justice, And The Constitution, Marc Spindelman Jun 2021

Bostock’S Paradox: Textualism, Legal Justice, And The Constitution, Marc Spindelman

Buffalo Law Review

The Supreme Court’s opinion in Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia—recognizing that anti-gay and anti-trans discrimination are forms of sex discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act—has already gained a steady reputation as a textualist statutory interpretation decision. The reality of the ruling is far more complicated than that. Bostock is a textualist decision, but, as the argument here shows, Bostock also offers a construction of Title VII’s sex discrimination rule that sounds in a rule-of-law norm of legal justice about LGBT equality that itself traces roots to the Supreme Court’s constitutional LGBT rights jurisprudence. Bostock’s rule-of-law norm …


Taking Restorative Justice Seriously, Adriaan Lanni Jun 2021

Taking Restorative Justice Seriously, Adriaan Lanni

Buffalo Law Review

Those seeking to reduce mass incarceration have increasingly pointed to restorative justice—an approach that typically brings thoseaffected by a criminal offense together in an attempt to address the harmcaused by the offense rather than to mete out punishment. This Article is an attempt to think seriously about incorporating restorative justice throughout the criminal legal system. For restorative justice proponents, expanding these practices raises a host of questions: Does the opportunity to alleviate mass incarceration justify collaboration with a deeply flawed criminal legal system? Will the threat of criminal prosecution destroy the voluntariness and sincerity that is essential for a successful …


Temporary Eminent Domain, Amnon Lehavi Jun 2021

Temporary Eminent Domain, Amnon Lehavi

Buffalo Law Review

Times of emergency call for drastic measures. These steps may include the physical takeover of privately-owned assets by the government for a certain period of time and for various purposes, aimedat addressing the state of emergency. When will such acts amount to a taking, and what compensation should be paid to the property owner? How do temporary physical appropriations during times of emergencydiverge, if at all, from temporary takeovers in more ordinary times?

The doctrinal and theoretical analysis of potential temporary takings has been done mostly in the context of non-physical government intervention with private property, such as when a …


Public Comments Run Amok: Reforming The Notice And Comment Processto Help Reduce The Negative Effects Of Mass And Fake Comments, Gwendolyn Mckee Savitz Jun 2021

Public Comments Run Amok: Reforming The Notice And Comment Processto Help Reduce The Negative Effects Of Mass And Fake Comments, Gwendolyn Mckee Savitz

Buffalo Law Review

The Administrative Procedure Act requires agencies to give the public an opportunity to submit comments in response to proposed regulations. When the proposed regulations address particularly hot-button issues, agencies can be flooded with millions of comments fromthe public in response. This most memorably occurred twice when JohnOliver exhorted viewers of his show to write in to protect net neutrality.The vast majority of the millions of comments submitted in both processes were duplicative, providing no benefit for the agency; sent inunder the name of a person who did not submit them; or both. If the vastmajority of the comments coming in …


Green Energy V. The Constitution: New York State’S Battle With Home Rule Provisions In The Age Of Environmentalism, Alexa L. Archambault Jun 2021

Green Energy V. The Constitution: New York State’S Battle With Home Rule Provisions In The Age Of Environmentalism, Alexa L. Archambault

Buffalo Law Review

In the era of metal straws, reusable grocery bags, and glass water bottles, there is no doubt society is becoming more and more environmentally conscious. This ecological ethos has manifested itself inhuge policy shifts away from traditional fossil fuel energy and toward renewable energy, such as wind and solar power. Lawmakers throughoutthe world are making agreements and commitments aimed at decreasingreliance on fossil fuels. In the United States, New York State has taken a leading role in the quest toward renewable energy. With New York State’s ambitious climate goals, though, have come serious encroachments on powers traditionally held by local …


Whither The Neutral Agency? Rethinking Bias In Regulatory Administration, Daniel B. Rodriguez Apr 2021

Whither The Neutral Agency? Rethinking Bias In Regulatory Administration, Daniel B. Rodriguez

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cannabis Capitalism, Paul J. Larkin Jr. Apr 2021

Cannabis Capitalism, Paul J. Larkin Jr.

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Mayor Pete, Obergefell Gays, And White Male Privilege, Russell K. Robinson Apr 2021

Mayor Pete, Obergefell Gays, And White Male Privilege, Russell K. Robinson

Buffalo Law Review

This Article argues that Mayor Pete Buttigieg seized the national imagination and a substantial number of Democratic delegates through the combination of his gay identity and his alignment with masculinity norms generally assigned to heterosexual men, and by taking aim at more senior and qualified women candidates, namely Senators Elizabeth Warren and Amy Klobuchar. Buttigieg’s unprecedented success suggests that some White gay men now enjoy a unique pathway to reclaiming their status as men and asserting White male privilege. In short, contrary to pervasive media claims, Buttigieg’s success should be read as a breakthrough for certain White gay men, but …


Modify State “Piracy” After Allen: Introducing Apology To The U.S. Copyright Regime, Runhua Wang Apr 2021

Modify State “Piracy” After Allen: Introducing Apology To The U.S. Copyright Regime, Runhua Wang

Buffalo Law Review

Copyright protection from state offenders is onerous because of the imbalanced bargaining power between states and authors, which is increased by the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Allen v. Cooper. This decision clarifies that state sovereign immunity is not abrogated by the Copyright Remedy Clarification Act of 1990 (“CRCA”). It secures states’ constitutional rights, the public interest, and the efficiency of copyright infringement litigations against states. However, a paradox of this decision is that it may harm innovation incentives or spirits of creativity due to the increased imbalanced bargaining power to prevent authors from being repaired for their economic or …


“I Am Better At Narrative Than Analytical History”: Schlegel’S Version Of Intellectual History, G. Edward White Jan 2021

“I Am Better At Narrative Than Analytical History”: Schlegel’S Version Of Intellectual History, G. Edward White

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Saying Thanks With Some Self-Reflection, John Henry Schlegel Jan 2021

Saying Thanks With Some Self-Reflection, John Henry Schlegel

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.