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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Improving Law Enforcement’S Victim-Centric Responses To Sexual Assault: Global Best Practice Catalog, Ayesha Ashraf, Sebastián Galleguillos Agurto, Frederick Geyer, Kamela Gjoka, Jasmine Hwang, Stanley Montinat, Jessica Moor, Pierre Reyes, Tara Ventimiglia, Hongda Xu Dec 2019

Improving Law Enforcement’S Victim-Centric Responses To Sexual Assault: Global Best Practice Catalog, Ayesha Ashraf, Sebastián Galleguillos Agurto, Frederick Geyer, Kamela Gjoka, Jasmine Hwang, Stanley Montinat, Jessica Moor, Pierre Reyes, Tara Ventimiglia, Hongda Xu

Publications and Research

This catalog was compiled as part of a U.S. State Department Diplomacy Lab Project entitled “Improving Law Enforcement’s Victim-Centric Responses to Sexual Assault,” in fall semester of 2019, for American Citizens Services, US Embassy Bangkok. It is intended to cover best practices in law enforcement response to sexual assault across the globe, including laws, policies and programs.Ten multilingual graduate students in the capstone seminar of the Master of Arts Degree Program in International Crime and Justice at John Jay College of Criminal Justice (CUNY) established criteria for inclusion and standardized elements for each entry in this catalog. The ultimate aim …


Christianity And Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr. Dec 2019

Christianity And Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

Although the term “bankruptcy” is nowhere to be found in the Bible, debt and the consequences of default are a major theme both in the Hebrew Bible and in the New Testament. In Israel, as in the ancient Near East generally, a debtor who defaulted on his obligations was often sold into slavery or servitude. Biblical law moderated the harshness of this system by prohibiting Israelites from charging interest on loans to one another, thus diminishing the risk of default, and by requiring the release of slaves after seven years of service. Jesus alluded to the lending laws at least …


Nof Kdumim: Remaking The Ancient Landscape In East Jerusalem’S National Parks, Irus Braverman Dec 2019

Nof Kdumim: Remaking The Ancient Landscape In East Jerusalem’S National Parks, Irus Braverman

Journal Articles

This article explores two national parks in East Jerusalem and their legal administration as the focus of contradictory and complementary attempts at preservation, colonization, and normalization. Drawing on in-depth interviews with, and observations of, officials from the Israel Nature and Parks Authority and others, I expose the Judaizing of the landscape in Jerusalem. Nature never stands for itself; it is always an echo of a human presence and, in this case, of a Jewish past and its modern reunion. The project of imagining the natural landscape as one that embodies an ancient past—what Israeli officials have referred to in our …


Ua12/2/1 College Heights Herald, Vol. 95, No. 11 [13], Wku Student Affairs Nov 2019

Ua12/2/1 College Heights Herald, Vol. 95, No. 11 [13], Wku Student Affairs

WKU Archives Records

WKU campus newspaper reporting campus, athletic and Bowling Green, Kentucky news. This issue contains articles:

  • Chisenhall, Jeremy. WKU Deals Offer Chances to Study in China – Shaanxi Normal University
  • Collins, Michael. How DACA Rulings Could Affect WKU Students – Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
  • Stahl, Matt. WKU Basketball Records Request Heads to In-camera Review
  • Burris, Lily. 5 Questions with Dean Larry Snyder
  • Lamb, Cassady. Students Can Pay Back Library Fines in a New Way
  • Stack, Madalyn. Editorial Cartoon re: Freedom of the Press
  • Penalizing the Press – China
  • Mattison, Reed. On Ice – SoKY Ice Rink
  • Holland, Kelley. Folklore Class …


Awareness Of Sex Offender Registration Policies And Self-Reported Sexual Offending In A Community Sample Of Adolescents, Cynthia J. Najdowski, Hayley M. D. Cleary Nov 2019

Awareness Of Sex Offender Registration Policies And Self-Reported Sexual Offending In A Community Sample Of Adolescents, Cynthia J. Najdowski, Hayley M. D. Cleary

Psychology Faculty Scholarship

Sex offender registration laws are widely implemented, increasingly restrictive, and intended to serve both specific and general deterrent functions. Most states have some form of policy mechanism to place adolescents on sex offender registries, yet it remains unclear whether adolescents possess the requisite policy awareness to be deterred from sexual offending. This study examined awareness of sex offender registration as a potential sanction and its cross-sectional association with engagement in several registrable sexual behaviors (sexting, indecent exposure, sexual solicitation, and forcible touching) in a community sample of 144 adolescents. Results revealed that many adolescents were unaware that these behaviors could …


The Law And Economics Of Redistribution, Matthew Dimick Oct 2019

The Law And Economics Of Redistribution, Matthew Dimick

Journal Articles

Should legal rules be used to redistribute income? Or should income taxation be the exclusive means for reducing income inequality? This article reviews the legal scholarship on this question. First, it traces how the most widely cited argument in favor of using taxes exclusively--Kaplow & Shavell's (1994) double-distortion argument--evolved from previous debates about whether legal rules could even be redistributive and whether law and economics should be concerned exclusively with efficiency or with distribution as well. Next, it surveys the responses to the double-distortion argument. These responses appear to have had only limited success in challenging the sturdy reputation of …


Law Versus Action: How Five Cape Town Organizations Are Combating High Rates Of Sexual Assault And The Failure Of Progressive Sexual Offences Legislation, Anna Tinker Oct 2019

Law Versus Action: How Five Cape Town Organizations Are Combating High Rates Of Sexual Assault And The Failure Of Progressive Sexual Offences Legislation, Anna Tinker

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This Independent Study Project (ISP) seeks to understand the work various Cape Town organizations are doing to help survivors of sexual assault gain access to justice. Previous research finds that social norms defining masculinity as well as rape myths and stereotypes lead to the high levels of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa. This research led to my hypothesis that organizations fighting GBV would target these norms to help survivors access the justice system that so frequently ignores them. Eight organizations were contacted requesting an interview to discuss their work and two agreed to participate. Participants were asked to discuss …


Logistic And Structural Considerations For The Use Of Psychological First Aid In Humanitarian Emergencies, Taylor Johnson Oct 2019

Logistic And Structural Considerations For The Use Of Psychological First Aid In Humanitarian Emergencies, Taylor Johnson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Following the IASC recommendations for implementation of psychological first aid (PFA) in 2007, providing PFA in humanitarian emergencies as a method of psychosocial support has become one of the standard interventions in the wake of crises. However, the impact of PFA on future mental health outcomes remains largely unstudied and many structural and logistic factors (e.g. training of PFA providers, reviewing evidence to inform practice, and policy considerations) must be managed in order to ensure appropriate, high-quality PFA in humanitarian emergencies. This research aims to synthesize both primary interview data and the existing literature surrounding PFA in humanitarian emergencies to …


Checking A Box Or Creating Change? Examining The Overall State Of Gender Mainstreaming In Humanitarian Action, Jenna Thoretz Oct 2019

Checking A Box Or Creating Change? Examining The Overall State Of Gender Mainstreaming In Humanitarian Action, Jenna Thoretz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Humanitarian organizations provide aid and assistance to millions of individuals impacted by natural disasters and armed conflict every day. However, not all individuals are equally impacted by humanitarian crises. Since the 1995 Beijing Conference on Women introduced the term ‘gender mainstreaming’, humanitarian organizations have recognized and taken steps to address gender specific needs in crisis situations.

While there is an abundance of research concerning these gender specific needs, there is little research on the overall state of gender mainstreaming in humanitarian policy. This paper seeks to fill this gap by examining gender mainstreaming in the humanitarian community through some of …


Los Efectos De La Minería En La Salud: El Movimiento Social Aymara En Torno Al Cerro Márquez, Maya Hajny Fernandez Oct 2019

Los Efectos De La Minería En La Salud: El Movimiento Social Aymara En Torno Al Cerro Márquez, Maya Hajny Fernandez

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

With the political and social state of Chile’s history, mining has been present for hundreds of years, affecting the land and the indigenous populations in the country. This study asked how mining in the town of Ticnamar would affect the community, what positive and negative results mining activity has, what the most important elements of the social movement against mining are and how all of these elements influence health. The study sought to learn and study the impact of and the motivations that mining could have in the community of Ticnamar, and how it is perceived by the community. More …


“Para Nunca Más Vivirlo, Nunca Más Negarlo”: El Legado De Violencia Sexual Durante La Dictadura, Isabel De La Torre Oct 2019

“Para Nunca Más Vivirlo, Nunca Más Negarlo”: El Legado De Violencia Sexual Durante La Dictadura, Isabel De La Torre

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Research Question: What are the mental health effects of sexual political violence against women during the dictatorship and during the current socio-political movement?

Objectives: The general objective of this study is to identify how sexual political violence has been used in Chile against women and to analyze its consequences on the mental health of survivors. More specifically, this study attempts to investigate the mechanisms sexual political torture during the dictatorship and now, visibilize the unique damages to mental health caused by this type of violence, and analyze the dictatorial legacy in regards to sexual violence and the current socio-political climate. …


Privacidad Digital En Ecuador: El Papel De La Vigilancia, La Jurisprudencia Y Los Derechos Humanos, Giselle Valdez Oct 2019

Privacidad Digital En Ecuador: El Papel De La Vigilancia, La Jurisprudencia Y Los Derechos Humanos, Giselle Valdez

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Este documento es un estudio de caso sobre la privacidad digital en Ecuador, cómo se protege y cómo se debe mejorar las protecciones. Comienzo presentando la falta de privacidad de la persona en Ecuador, a través de la reciente violación de datos y las tecnologías de vigilancia en todo el país desde China. Luego, para analizar la jurisprudencia y la falta de protección de la privacidad en la ley, hago la transición a un análisis legal de la privacidad de datos en Ecuador a través de la Constitución de 2008. Cuando establezco que falta privacidad digital en Ecuador, demuestro una …


Systems Of Crime And Castigation: A Reevaluation Of The Punishment Bureaucracy, Lia Pikus Oct 2019

Systems Of Crime And Castigation: A Reevaluation Of The Punishment Bureaucracy, Lia Pikus

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Models of reform within the criminal justice system often operate from a top-down perspective, affecting change on surface levels to attempt to better the system. One example of such a reform is Scotland’s Presumption Against Short Sentences. These kinds of changes, as I will illustrate in this paper, both fall short of achieving genuine change and often produce negative side effects. However, a few countries have made deeper changes to the ways their systems both view and handle crime and punishment; one such system is Norway. Through rehabilitation and restorative justice, Norway has greatly decreased rates of recidivism, increased social …


The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz Oct 2019

The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As part of its reconstruction process following the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, Rwanda introduced several laws and policies protecting gender equality, which stood it stark contrast to traditional patriarchal norms and structures. This study focuses on the relationship between institutional gender reform and local perceptions. Specifically, it seeks to explore the extent to which perceptions around gender have caught up to legal changes and identify where the greatest gaps exist across political, social, and economic dimensions. Data collection occurred in two parts: quantitatively, a multiple-choice survey was distributed to 76 Rwandan adults investigating their perceptions of gender in political, …


Barriers Between Effective Transnational Changemaking: Relationships Between Ingos And Moroccan Ngos, Julia Walters Oct 2019

Barriers Between Effective Transnational Changemaking: Relationships Between Ingos And Moroccan Ngos, Julia Walters

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper seeks to explore the relationships held between international non-governmental organizations, primarily based in the West, and Moroccan NGOs. The existing literature on the topic explores the ways in which international NGOs can both benefit and harm domestic NGOs, which seek to fix issues not thoroughly addressed and solved by the state or by the market, such as issues of gender-based violence, female education, and lack of rural healthcare. The data gathered was organized into two types of relationships; financial and non-financial. Financial relationships between INGOs and NGOs were often depicted as crucial in enabling critical projects, such as …


The Middle Ground: A Comparative Study On Mexico And Morocco As Transit And Forthcoming Host Nations, Christina Sarai Roca Oct 2019

The Middle Ground: A Comparative Study On Mexico And Morocco As Transit And Forthcoming Host Nations, Christina Sarai Roca

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Migration has always existed but has increased with globalization as societies are becoming more interconnected through different mediums, surging the larger scale of movement between borders and the increasing inequalities in wealth between nations. As transit countries, Mexico and Morocco function as nations seen receiving migrants in transit to their countries of destinations. Central American migrants and migrants from the South-of-the-Sahara are two prominent migrant populations in Mexico and Morocco for many years, but due to the increased political discourse, legislation, and increased enforcement at these border regions, these migrants find themselves remaining for extended periods or even settling permanently …


Not-So-Decriminalized: Consequences Of Intersectional Identity For Migrant Sex Workers In Switzerland, Teagan Langseth-Depaolis Oct 2019

Not-So-Decriminalized: Consequences Of Intersectional Identity For Migrant Sex Workers In Switzerland, Teagan Langseth-Depaolis

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Sex work in Switzerland, which was decriminalized long ago, has been regarded as one of the most liberal systems of sex work in the world. However, this reputation is contested when factoring in the interaction between immigration and sex work policies. Migrant sex workers in Switzerland are put at a precarious intersection of decriminalized sex industry and restrictive migration policy and attitudes, and are not addressed or protected from violations of the law or violations of their human rights. Using databases containing Swiss legislation, I will critically examine the intersectional effects of migration policy and the treatment of migrants on …


Pensaba Que Te Había Olvidado: El Daño Duradero De La Trauma Que Viene De Tortura En La Dictadura Chilena, Antonia Mcdonnell Capossela Oct 2019

Pensaba Que Te Había Olvidado: El Daño Duradero De La Trauma Que Viene De Tortura En La Dictadura Chilena, Antonia Mcdonnell Capossela

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Research question: Is there a more useful model to characterize the torture that was implemented in Chile using the context of theory and history to establish an in-depth understanding of the symptomology and effects of the experience of torture survivors?

Objective: The general objective of this study is to establish the origin of the methods of torture used during the Pinochet dictatorship and use these results to suggest a model of reparations that is more wholistic. The specific objectives are to understand the intervention and instruction by the CIA in Chile, to study the testimonies of torture during the dictatorship …


“Not Yet A Priority:” The Intersectional Exploration Of Labor Market Access For People With Disabilities, Anona Neal Oct 2019

“Not Yet A Priority:” The Intersectional Exploration Of Labor Market Access For People With Disabilities, Anona Neal

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Approximately one in four families in Morocco are affected by disability. Of those affected by disability, many are in vulnerable situations, because there is an explicit linkage between having a disability and likelihood of experiencing poverty. The primary reasons for this phenomenon include lack of access to education, employment and health care. Following the Arab Spring, the Moroccan government implemented Article 166 which explicitly banned workplace discrimination against people with disabilities (PWD); however, only 13% of those affected by disability of working age can find employment. In this paper, I investigate the obstacles PWD face that prevent them from accessing …


The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith Oct 2019

The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bordering Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Israel/Palestine, with Lebanon not too far away, Jordan’s location makes it at high risk for violent extremism. Although Jordan is considered one of the safest countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the country is known for having one of the highest numbers of foreign fighters in the world, and for being the homeland of the father of ISIS (Abu Musab al-Zarqawi). Also worrisome is the increasing number of desperate people turning to extremist ideologies due to the country’s economic crisis and lack of opportunities for political engagement. Jordan could be …


Bus Robberies In Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Solutions For Safe Travel, Elenice De Souza De Souza Oliveira, Mangai Natarajan, Bráulio Da Silva Sep 2019

Bus Robberies In Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Solutions For Safe Travel, Elenice De Souza De Souza Oliveira, Mangai Natarajan, Bráulio Da Silva

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This study examines the spatial patterns and other situational determinants leading to the high number of bus robberies in Belo Horizonte. Main research questions include patterns of robberies, spatial concentration, locations prone to robberies, and environmental characteristics therein. This study also provides a variety of safety measures based on the Situational Crime Prevention approach. The Rapid Assessment Methodology (RAM) was employed using both quantitative and qualitative data. It involves spatial analysis, direct observation of hot spots using a safety audit protocol, and focus group discussions with key participants. Bus robberies involve minimum risk and low detection and arrest. The “hottest …


Knowledge Commons (2019), Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Katherine J. Strandburg Sep 2019

Knowledge Commons (2019), Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Katherine J. Strandburg

Book Chapters

This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of the knowledge commons research framework. Knowledge commons refers to an institutional approach (commons) to governing the production, use, management, and/or preservation of a particular type of resource (knowledge). The research framework supplies a template for interrogating the details of knowledge commons institutions on a case study basis, generating qualitative data that may be used to support comparative analysis.


Law School News: Roger Williams Celebrates Pride 06-17-2019, Michael M. Bowden Jun 2019

Law School News: Roger Williams Celebrates Pride 06-17-2019, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Abolitionist Feminism As Prisons Close: Fighting The Racist And Misogynist Surveillance “Child Welfare” System, Venezia Michalsen Jun 2019

Abolitionist Feminism As Prisons Close: Fighting The Racist And Misogynist Surveillance “Child Welfare” System, Venezia Michalsen

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The global prison industrial complex was built on Black and brown women’s bodies. This economy will not voluntarily loosen its hold on the bodies that feed it. White carceral feminists traditionally encourage State punishment, while anti-carceral, intersectional feminism recognizes that it empowers an ineffective and racist system. In fact, it is built on the criminalization of women’s survival strategies, creating a “victimization to prison pipeline.” But prisons are not the root of the problem; rather, they are a manifestation of the over-policing of Black women’s bodies, poverty, and motherhood. Such State surveillance will continue unless we disrupt these powerful systems …


“It’S Hard Out Here If You’Re A Black Felon”: A Critical Examination Of Black Male Reentry, Jason M. Williams, Sean K. Wilson, Carrie Bergeson May 2019

“It’S Hard Out Here If You’Re A Black Felon”: A Critical Examination Of Black Male Reentry, Jason M. Williams, Sean K. Wilson, Carrie Bergeson

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Formerly incarcerated Black males face many barriers once they return to society after incarceration. Research has long established incarceration as a determinant of poor health and well-being. While research has shown that legally created barriers (e.g., employment, housing, and social services) are often a challenge post-incarceration, far less is known of Black male’s daily experiences of reentry. Utilizing critical ethnography and semi-structured interviews with formerly incarcerated Black males in a Northeastern community, this study examines the challenges Black males experience post-incarceration.


Race As A Carceral Terrain: Black Lives Matter Meets Reentry, Jason Williams May 2019

Race As A Carceral Terrain: Black Lives Matter Meets Reentry, Jason Williams

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

In the United States, racialized people are disproportionately selected for punishment. Examining punishment discourses intersectionally unearths profound, unequal distinctions when controlling for the variety of victims’ identities within the punishment regime. For example, trans women of color are likely to face the harshest of realities when confronted with the prospect of punishment. However, missing from much of the academic carceral literature is a critical perspective situated in racialized epistemic frameworks. If racialized individuals are more likely to be affected by punishment systems, then, certainly, they are the foremost experts on what those realities are like. The Black Lives Matter hashtag …


From Reformatories, To Today, And Into The Future: What Needs To Change For Female Offenders, Alyson Berry May 2019

From Reformatories, To Today, And Into The Future: What Needs To Change For Female Offenders, Alyson Berry

Senior Honors Projects

In society, and within the criminal justice system, women have always been deemed insignificant and many of their problems have been neglected. Even as time has progressed, convicted women's physical and mental needs are still disregarded as well as their motivation, risk, and recidivism rates. Since the late 1800s, the number of incarcerated women has risen. This indicates a need for change in the current system to decrease the population of female offenders and their likelihood of becoming repeat offenders. In order to determine what aspects have worked and which ones need to be revised, different time periods need to …


Best Training Practices For Probation Officers And Staff Toward Building A More Sophisticated, Fair, And Effective System Of Juvenile Justice In San Diego County, Carissa Carrasquillo May 2019

Best Training Practices For Probation Officers And Staff Toward Building A More Sophisticated, Fair, And Effective System Of Juvenile Justice In San Diego County, Carissa Carrasquillo

Ethnic Studies Senior Capstone Papers

This report illustrates how probation leadership, officers, and staff in San Diego County can adopt best training practices to address and alleviate incidents in juvenile detention facilities and build a sophisticated, fair, and effective system of juvenile justice. The goal of implementing best training practices for probation officers and staff is to build a knowledgeable workforce to better serve youth and families and reduce racial and ethnic disparities in the juvenile justice system. This report analyzes how innovations in management and the introduction of new programs has proven effective through research- and evidence-based practices and direct community involvement. In particular, …


Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election, Volumes I And Ii (Redacted Version Of April 18, 2019), Robert S. Mueller Iii Apr 2019

Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election, Volumes I And Ii (Redacted Version Of April 18, 2019), Robert S. Mueller Iii

United States Department of Justice: Publications and Materials

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TO VOLUME I

RUSSIAN SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN

The Internet Research Agency (IRA) carried out the earliest Russian interference operations identified by the investigation–a social media campaign designed to provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States. The IRA was based in St. Petersburg, Russia, and received funding from Russian oligarch Yevgeniy Prigozhin and companies he controlled. Priozhin is widely reported to have ties to Russian President Vladimir Putin [redacted]

In mid-2014, the IRA sent employees to the United States on an intelligence-gathering mission with instructions [redacted]

The IRA later used social media accounts and interest …


Supbrime Lending/Foreclosure Crisis, Jacob Rugh Apr 2019

Supbrime Lending/Foreclosure Crisis, Jacob Rugh

Faculty Publications

Subprime mortgage lending in the USA rose alongside home prices and lasted about 15 years, ending abruptly in late 2007, setting off a national foreclosure crisis. Between 2007 and 2012 there were 9 to 12 million foreclosures filings and 4 to 5 million completed foreclosures. The ensuing foreclosure crisis stemmed more from falling home prices but its unequal distribution across society by race and space was also the product of legacies of exclusion and a shared consensus on the expansion of mortgage credit and home ownership. Modest federal interventions to buffer communities and homeowners from the crisis likely reinforced the …