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Climate Change: The China Problem, Michael P. Vandenbergh Dec 2018

Climate Change: The China Problem, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Michael Vandenbergh

The central problem confronting climate change scholars and policymakers is how to create incentives for China and the United States to make prompt, large emissions reductions. China recently surpassed the United States as the largest greenhouse gas emitter, and its projected future emissions far outstrip those of any other nation. Although the United States has been the largest emitter for years, China's emissions have enabled critics in the United States to argue that domestic reductions will be ineffective and will transfer jobs to China. These two aspects of the China Problem, Chinese emissions and their influence on the political ...


Climate Change Governance: Boundaries And Leakage, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Mark A. Cohen Dec 2018

Climate Change Governance: Boundaries And Leakage, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Mark A. Cohen

Michael Vandenbergh

This article provides a critical missing piece to the global climate change governance puzzle: how to create incentives for the major developing countries to reduce carbon emissions. The major developing countries are projected to account for 80% of the global emissions growth over the next several decades, and substantial reductions in the risk of catastrophic climate change will not be possible without a change in this emissions path. Yet the global climate governance measures proposed to date have not succeeded and may be locking in disincentives as carbon-intensive production shifts from developed to developing countries. A multi-pronged governance approach will ...


The International Tax Environment And Simplification Of South African Tax Legislation: A Double-Edged Sword, Jinyan Li, Teresa Pidduck Dec 2018

The International Tax Environment And Simplification Of South African Tax Legislation: A Double-Edged Sword, Jinyan Li, Teresa Pidduck

Jinyan Li

In this paper, we examine the relationship between the international tax environment and legislative complexity in South Africa’s international tax system. We suggest that the international tax environment is a double-edged sword. It causes complexity in South Africa’s tax legislation as it largely responds to the needs of OECD countries and produces tax rules to deal with ‘sophisticated’ tax problems and taxpayers (such as multinational enterprises). When such rules are transplanted into South Africa, they are typically more complex than local rules dealing with local taxpayers. On the other hand, the international tax environment offers ideas for ‘scientific ...


Youth Activism, Art And Transitional Artist: Emerging Spaces Of Memory After The Jasmin Revolution, Arnaud Kurze Dec 2018

Youth Activism, Art And Transitional Artist: Emerging Spaces Of Memory After The Jasmin Revolution, Arnaud Kurze

Arnaud Kurze

This project explores the creation of alternative transitional justice spaces in post-conflict contexts, particularly concentrating on the role of art and the impact of social movements to address human rights abuses. Drawing from post-authoritarian Tunisia, it scrutinizes the work of contemporary youth activists and artists to deal with the past and foster sociopolitical change. Although these vanguard protesters provoked the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in 2011, the power vacuum was quickly filled by old elites. The exclusion of young revolutionaries from political decision-making led to unprecedented forms of mobilization to account for repression and injustice under ...


Three Questions That Will Make You Rethink The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, 7 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 412 (2008), Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Three Questions That Will Make You Rethink The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, 7 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 412 (2008), Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Commentators have attributed China’s piracy and counterfeiting problems to the lack of political will on the part of Chinese authorities. They have also cited the many political, social, economic, cultural, judicial, and technological problems that have arisen as a result of the country’s rapid economic transformation and accession to the WTO. This provocative essay advances a third explanation. It argues that the failure to resolve piracy and counterfeiting problems in China can be partly attributed to the lack of political will on the part of U.S. policymakers and the American public to put intellectual property protection at ...


The Harmonization Game: What Basketball Can Teach About Intellectual Property And International Trade, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

The Harmonization Game: What Basketball Can Teach About Intellectual Property And International Trade, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

In the recent World Men's Basketball Championships in Indianapolis, Team USA found out painfully that the international game is very different from what they play at home and that the gap between USA Basketball and the rest of the world has been closing. While the United States' losses might have a significant impact on how the country will prepare for the 2004 Olympics in Athens and on how Americans train youngsters to play basketball, their teachings go beyond basketball. The international harmonization process is a game with different rules, different officials, and players with different visions and mindsets. By ...


Succession By Estoppel: Hong Kong's Succession To The Iccpr, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Succession By Estoppel: Hong Kong's Succession To The Iccpr, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

This Article argues that Hong Kong succeeded to the ICCPR and the reporting obligations under the Covenant. Part I of the Article traces the development of the ICCPR in Hong Kong before 1997. This development is important because the Joint Declaration provides only for the continuation of the ICCPR as applied to Hong Kong before the transition. Parts II and III examine whether Hong Kong succeeded to the ICCPR. Since the Covenant is ambiguous as to whether the contracting parties are limited to sovereign states, Part II evaluates whether Hong Kong satisfies the membership requirement as stipulated in Article 48 ...


Still Dissatisfied After All These Years: Intellectual Property, Post-Wto China, And The Avoidable Cycle Of Futility, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Still Dissatisfied After All These Years: Intellectual Property, Post-Wto China, And The Avoidable Cycle Of Futility, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


A Half-Century Of Scholarship On The Chinese Intellectual Property System, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

A Half-Century Of Scholarship On The Chinese Intellectual Property System, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Transnational Identity And Migration, Enid Trucios-Haynes Oct 2018

The Role Of Transnational Identity And Migration, Enid Trucios-Haynes

Enid F. Trucios-Haynes

No abstract provided.


Transboundary Legal Perspective: International Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein Oct 2018

Transboundary Legal Perspective: International Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

This chapter provides readers with an introduction to international law in general and international water law in particular. The chapter discusses the scope, principle tenets, procedural obligations, and sources of international water law, and delves into discussions about transboundary aquifers and joint institutional mechanisms. An appendix that provides exercises and discussion topics to help readers retain and apply important information.


Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part One, Gabriel Eckstein, Salman M.A. Salman, Dinara Ziganshina, Kishor Uprety, Götz Reichert Oct 2018

Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part One, Gabriel Eckstein, Salman M.A. Salman, Dinara Ziganshina, Kishor Uprety, Götz Reichert

Gabriel Eckstein

This is the first part of a two-part research report on opinions of prominent international water lawyers from each continent on the potential impacts of the 1997 UN Convention on Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The second part of the report was published in Water Policy 17(1).

The following compilation is reproduced and adapted from a series of essays that appeared in the blog of the International Water Law Project (www.internationalwaterlaw.org). The series was solicited in preparation for the coming into force of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The Convention had ...


State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Ground Water Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger Oct 2018

State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Ground Water Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Throughout the world, international and state political boundaries divide ground water resources into politically convenient jurisdictions. Subsurface water, however, does not recognize such borders and flows freely without regard to overlying politics. This disregard for the political dimension, coupled with the growing global importance of fresh water, has the potential for aggravating disputes and conflicts over the use, allocation, and preservation of such resources. To date, widely accepted norms of international law applicable to transboundary aquifers have yet to emerge. However, local and regional agreements, including both formal and unofficial arrangements, suggest the emergence of state practice that should be ...


Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part Two, Gabriel Eckstein, Patricia Wouters, Robyn Stein, Georgina Mackenzie, Maria Querol, Richard Paisley, Salman M.A. Salman Oct 2018

Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part Two, Gabriel Eckstein, Patricia Wouters, Robyn Stein, Georgina Mackenzie, Maria Querol, Richard Paisley, Salman M.A. Salman

Gabriel Eckstein

This is the second part of a research report on opinions of prominent international water lawyers from each continent on the potential impacts of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The first part of the report was published in Water Policy 16(6).

The following compilation is reproduced and adapted from a series of essays that appeared in the blog of the International Water Law Project (www.internationalwaterlaw.org). The series was solicited in preparation for the coming into force of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The Convention had ...


Of Solemn Oaths And Obligations: The Environmental Impact Of The Icj’S Decision In The Case Of The Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project, Stephen Stec, Gabriel Eckstein Oct 2018

Of Solemn Oaths And Obligations: The Environmental Impact Of The Icj’S Decision In The Case Of The Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project, Stephen Stec, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

Chapter Extract:

The law of treaties often conjures up images of states as rotund gentlemen with whiskers, vests, and watch-chains proclaiming solemn and chivalric oaths upon their honour. Treaties are sacred in the same way that a man's word is his bond. This type of relationship among states is largely unquestioned since much of the way we live in the world depends upon the assumption of the inviolability of sovereign states and their treaties. Any challenge to these assumptions would surely evoke horror at the unmentionable void that would result-except in lawyers who make their livings shaving nuances. However ...


Public International Law: Environmental Law, Gilbert M. Bankobeza, Susan Biniaz, Clare Breidenich, Melanne Andromecca Civic, Gabriel E. Eckstein, David Favre, Paul E. Hagen, Teresa Hobgood, Karissa Taylor Kovner, Gregory F. Maggio, Howard Mann, Darlene A. Pearson, Margaret F. Spring, Katherine E. Mills, David W. Wagner, John Barlow Weiner Oct 2018

Public International Law: Environmental Law, Gilbert M. Bankobeza, Susan Biniaz, Clare Breidenich, Melanne Andromecca Civic, Gabriel E. Eckstein, David Favre, Paul E. Hagen, Teresa Hobgood, Karissa Taylor Kovner, Gregory F. Maggio, Howard Mann, Darlene A. Pearson, Margaret F. Spring, Katherine E. Mills, David W. Wagner, John Barlow Weiner

Gabriel Eckstein

Noteworthy international activity relating to the environment occurred in a wide variety of fora in 2000. This chapter provides brief updates on some of the most significant developments. Though by no means a comprehensive review, the chapter reflects the wide sweep of issues and large number of entities now involved in the development of international environmental law, at the start of this new century. It also reflects how critical and complex this international work is, and how much remains to be done.


Ground Water Resources And International Law In The Middle East Process, Yoram Eckstein, Gabriel Eckstein Oct 2018

Ground Water Resources And International Law In The Middle East Process, Yoram Eckstein, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

Next to issues of land, water resources are the major bone of contention in the peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Arabs. The objective of negotiations is de facto setting the clock back to the eve of the Israel War of Independence, when the Jews accepted the 1947 UN resolution of partition, while the Arabs rejected it. The Arabs now accept the principle of territorial partition, but at the same time, they demand re-apportioning of resources, mainly of water. The Palestinians contend that the facts created on the ground unilaterally by Israel during the last 50 years, namely the ...


International Water Law, Groundwater Resources And The Danube Dam Case, Gabriel Eckstein, Yoram Eckstein Oct 2018

International Water Law, Groundwater Resources And The Danube Dam Case, Gabriel Eckstein, Yoram Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

International water law is generally applied to disputes between states concerning surface bodies of water crossing international borders. Disputes and policy-making over transboundary ground water resources, however, have traditionally been determined on an ad hoc basis or based on regional custom. This disparate treatment stems primarily from the misunderstood nature of ground water and its relationship to surface water among government officials, policy-makers, jurists, and others. The result often has been the degradation of subsurface waters on both sides of political boundaries, and unwittingly, of numerous international surface bodies of water.

International concern over regional and global availability and quality ...


Cooperative Transboundary Mechanism, Alena Drieschova, Gabriel Eckstein Oct 2018

Cooperative Transboundary Mechanism, Alena Drieschova, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

Management of transboundary waters in increasingly becoming more challenging, and climate change is likely to exacerbate these pressures. Not least because climate change is a global issue, adaptation will require an international response. This book aims to identify issues, both theoretical and practical, that States face in establishing cooperative transboundary mechanisms to effectively adapt water management to climate change. Furthermore, it will address complex legal hurdles that existing transboundary water institutions face when attempting to adapt existing mechanisms to function in a changing climate. It will also provide an overview of best practices in transboundary adaptive water governance thus far ...


The Blurring Of The Public/Private Distinction Or The Collapse Of A Category? The Story Of Investment Arbitration, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez Aug 2018

The Blurring Of The Public/Private Distinction Or The Collapse Of A Category? The Story Of Investment Arbitration, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

The paper is a response piece to Deborah Hensler and Damira Khatam’s new article, Re-inventing Arbitration: How Expanding the Scope of Arbitration Is Re-Shaping Its Form and Blurring the Line Between Private and Public Adjudication. Their main argument regarding the public-private distinction is that the arbitral procedure has changed as a consequence of the substantive issues resolved in this particular ADR system. According to them the arbitral system, which was originally conceived for commercial purposes, has become another way of litigating public law, but without the accountability mechanisms attached to public courts. In this paper, I agree in large ...


Mexico's Energy Reform And The 2012 U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Agreement. An Opportunity For Efficient, Effective And Safe Exploitation Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez Aug 2018

Mexico's Energy Reform And The 2012 U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Agreement. An Opportunity For Efficient, Effective And Safe Exploitation Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Nature knows no legal boundaries. Resources cannot be stopped by walls with barbwire; no matter how high some people want to build them. They cross- national territories and expand under their logic. They belong to many nations, and they are there for the responsible exploitation of their communities. The Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and its rich hydrocarbon deposits are no exceptions. The implication of this is that for the development of this enclosed sea area to be efficient, effective, and safe it requires not only the cooperation of government officials but also the inclusion of other actors, such as academic ...


Ip Enforcement Under The Tpp: Civil And Administrative Procedures And Remedies, Provisional Measures In Tpp (Articles 18.71–18.76), J. Janewa Osei-Tutu Jul 2018

Ip Enforcement Under The Tpp: Civil And Administrative Procedures And Remedies, Provisional Measures In Tpp (Articles 18.71–18.76), J. Janewa Osei-Tutu

J. Janewa Osei-Tutu

No abstract provided.


Chapter 8: Indigenous Belonging: Membership And Identity In The Undrip: Articles 9, 33, 35, And 36, Shin Imai, Kathryn Gunn Jul 2018

Chapter 8: Indigenous Belonging: Membership And Identity In The Undrip: Articles 9, 33, 35, And 36, Shin Imai, Kathryn Gunn

Shin Imai

The recognition of Indigenous peoples' right to determine their own membership is crucial for their ability to meaningfully exercise their right to self-determination. The Declaration addresses rights of membership directly in Article 9 (right to belong), 33 (right to determine membership), 35 (right to determine responsibilities of members), and 36 (right to maintain relations across borders). Together, these provisions reinforce the right of Indigenous peoples to define themselves, both in terms of membership and geographic scope.


The Rcep And Trans-Pacific Intellectual Property Norms, Peter K. Yu Jul 2018

The Rcep And Trans-Pacific Intellectual Property Norms, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

In the past few years, the Trans-Pacific Partnership has garnered considerable media, policy and scholarly attention. Rarely analyzed and only occasionally mentioned is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). This agreement is currently being negotiated between Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea and the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Launched in November 2012 under the ASEAN 6 framework, the RCEP negotiations built on past trade and non-trade discussions between ASEAN and its six major Asia-Pacific neighbors.

This article examines the RCEP with a focus on the intellectual property norms that it seeks to ...


The Rcep And Intellectual Property Normsetting In The Asia-Pacific, Peter K. Yu Jul 2018

The Rcep And Intellectual Property Normsetting In The Asia-Pacific, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Commissioned for the CEIPI-ICTSD Series on Global Perspectives and Challenges for the Intellectual Property System, this article examines the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) with a focus on the intellectual property norms it seeks to develop. It begins by briefly discussing the partnership’s historical origins and ongoing negotiations. It then examines the latest leaked draft of the RCEP intellectual property chapter, highlighting the key provisions concerning copyright and related rights, trademarks, patents, trade secrets and undisclosed information, and intellectual property enforcement. This article concludes by exploring three scenarios concerning the future of this chapter--namely, the lack of an intellectual ...


The Quest For A User-Friendly Copyright Regime In Hong Kong, Peter K. Yu Jul 2018

The Quest For A User-Friendly Copyright Regime In Hong Kong, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

The quest for a user-friendly copyright regime began a decade ago when the Hong Kong government launched a public consultation on "Copyright Protection in the Digital Environment" in December 2006. Although this consultation initially sought to address Internet-related challenges, such as those caused by peer-to-peer file-sharing technology, the reform effort quickly evolved into a more comprehensive digital upgrade of the Hong Kong copyright regime.

A decade later, however, Hong Kong still has not yet amended its Copyright Ordinance. Thus far, three consultation exercises have been launched in December 2006, April 2008 and July 2013. Two bills have also been introduced ...


Five Decades Of Intellectual Property And Global Development, Peter K. Yu Jul 2018

Five Decades Of Intellectual Property And Global Development, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

The 2016-2017 biennium marks the historical milestones of several major pro-development initiatives relating to intellectual property law and policy. These important milestones include the Intellectual Property Conference of Stockholm in 1967, the adoption of the Declaration on the Right to Development (UNDRD) in 1986 and the establishment of the WIPO Development Agenda in 2007.

On January 1, 2016, the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) also came into force. Adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2015, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development featured 17 SDGs and 169 targets. Prominently mentioned in Target 3.b of SDG 3 are the ...


Using The Theories Of Exit, Voice, Loyalty, And Procedural Justice To Reconceptualize Brazil's Rejection Of Bilateral Investment Treaties, Nancy A. Welsh, Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Kathryn Rimpfel Jul 2018

Using The Theories Of Exit, Voice, Loyalty, And Procedural Justice To Reconceptualize Brazil's Rejection Of Bilateral Investment Treaties, Nancy A. Welsh, Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Kathryn Rimpfel

Nancy Welsh

In the past decade, investor-state arbitration has made tremendous gains in both credibility and use. There is now widespread accession to the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (“ICSID Convention” or “Washington Convention”). States have executed more than 2,000 bilateral investment treaties (BITs) defining the terms and conditions under which one (“investor”) state’s nationals and companies will invest in the other (“host”) state. Such terms include provisions allowing foreign investors to initiate arbitration proceedings against the host state, and at this point, more than 500 disputes have been submitted to ...


The Thoughtful Integration Of Mediation Into Bilateral Investment Treaty Arbitration, Nancy A. Welsh, Andrea Kupfer Schneider Jul 2018

The Thoughtful Integration Of Mediation Into Bilateral Investment Treaty Arbitration, Nancy A. Welsh, Andrea Kupfer Schneider

Nancy Welsh

While the current system of investment treaty arbitration has definitely improved upon the “gunboat diplomacy” used at times to address disputes between states and foreign investors, there are signs that reform is needed: states and investors increasingly express concerns regarding the costs associated with the arbitration process, some states refuse to comply with arbitral awards, other states hesitate to sign new bilateral investment treaties, and citizens have begun to engage in popular unrest at the prospect of investment treaty arbitration. As a result, both investors and states are advocating for the use of mediation to supplement investor-state arbitration. This Article ...


Mandatory Mediation And Its Variations, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Mandatory Mediation And Its Variations, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

The use of arbitration to resolve international investment disputes clearly represents an improvement over “gunboat diplomacy” and its implicit threat of violent confrontation. Nonetheless, investors, States and other stakeholders have begun to express dissatisfaction with some elements of arbitration in the international investment treaty context. First, arbitration proceedings can be quite lengthy, and their transaction costs seem to be increasing. Second, parties’ compliance is not guaranteed. Some States suggest they may refuse to abide by arbitral awards. Third, the process focuses parties on their legal rights when non-legal issues may be equally important and useful to achieve resolution. Fourth, arbitration ...