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2018

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1223

Full-Text Articles in Law

Marbury In Mexico: Judicial Review's Precocious Southern Migration, M. C. Mirow Dec 2018

Marbury In Mexico: Judicial Review's Precocious Southern Migration, M. C. Mirow

M. C. Mirow

Scholars agree that the United States Supreme Court did not "discover" the general judicial review aspects of Marbury v. Madison (1803) until nearly a century later in 1895. This article reveals that the Mexican Supreme Court, relying heavily on U.S. constitutional sources and actually quoting Marbury, discovered this aspect of the case more than a dozen years earlier than the United States Supreme Court.

In attempting to construct United States-style judicial review for the Mexican Supreme Court in the 1880s, Ignacio Vallarta, president of the court, read Marbury in a way that preceded this use of the case in ...


State Capture, Corporate Ownership Structure, And Institutional Reform Issues In Ethiopia- Abstract.Docx, Seid Y. Hassan Dec 2018

State Capture, Corporate Ownership Structure, And Institutional Reform Issues In Ethiopia- Abstract.Docx, Seid Y. Hassan

Seid Hassan

State capture, corporate ownership structure, and institutional reform issues in Ethiopia[1]
(Working paper, incomplete)
Seid Hassan and Minga Negash[2]
Abstract: Examining the ownership structure and the methods of financing of companies provide important insights for the understanding of the type of institutional reforms in a given socio-economic environment. Much of the literature on corporate accountability in developing economies extends the legal and regulatory reforms done in richer nations and on codes provided by organized professions that in turn rely on virtue-centered ethics. More recently, the capture theory of regulation has been revisited by a number of researchers to ...


Pran Justice: Social Order, Dispute Processing, And Adjudication In The Venezuelan Prison Subculture, Manuel A. Gomez Dec 2018

Pran Justice: Social Order, Dispute Processing, And Adjudication In The Venezuelan Prison Subculture, Manuel A. Gomez

Manuel A. Gómez

No abstract provided.


Smoke But No Fire: When Innocent People Are Wrongly Convicted Of Crimes That Never Happened, Jessica S. Henry Dec 2018

Smoke But No Fire: When Innocent People Are Wrongly Convicted Of Crimes That Never Happened, Jessica S. Henry

Jessica S. Henry

Nearly one-third of exonerations involve the wrongful conviction of an innocent person for a crime that never actually happened, such as when the police plant drugs on an innocent person, a scorned lover invents a false accusation, or an expert mislabels a suicide as a murder. Despite the frequency with which no-crime convictions take place, little scholarship has been devoted to the subject. This Article seeks to fill that gap in the literature by exploring no-crime wrongful convictions as a discrete and unique phenomenon within the wrongful convictions universe. This Article considers three main factors that contribute to no-crime wrongful ...


Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study, Jessica S. Henry, Christopher Salvatore, Bai-Eyse Pugh Dec 2018

Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study, Jessica S. Henry, Christopher Salvatore, Bai-Eyse Pugh

Jessica S. Henry

Virtual life sentences are sentences with a term of years that exceed an individual’s natural life expectancy. This exploratory study is one of the first to collect data that establish the existence, prevalence, and scope of virtual life sentences in state prisons in the United States. Initial data reveal that more than 31,000 people in 26 states are serving virtual life sentences for violent and nonviolent offenses, and suggest racial disparities in the distribution of these sentences. This study also presents potential policy implications and suggestions for future research.


Collaborations Between The Juvenile Justice System And Home Visiting Programs, Francine Sherman, Jessica Greenstone Winestone, Rebecca Fauth Dec 2018

Collaborations Between The Juvenile Justice System And Home Visiting Programs, Francine Sherman, Jessica Greenstone Winestone, Rebecca Fauth

Francine T. Sherman

No abstract provided.


The Rutabaga That Ate Pittsburgh: Federal Regulation Of Free Release Biotechnology, Michael P. Vandenbergh Dec 2018

The Rutabaga That Ate Pittsburgh: Federal Regulation Of Free Release Biotechnology, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Michael Vandenbergh

When the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) first approved a field test of a bioengineered microbe,' one EPA official remarked: "We're not expecting this to be the rutabaga that eats Pittsburgh.' 2 But regulators cannot afford to be wrong. Bioengineered microbes may serve many useful purposes, but they may also cause harm to the environment and to human health.3 Although the risks of an accident stemming from the deliberate release of bioengineered microbes into the environment may be low, the resulting damage could be substantial. This note examines the possible consequences of two recent trends in biotechnology-the development of ...


The Carbon-Neutral Individual, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Anne C. Steinemann Dec 2018

The Carbon-Neutral Individual, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Anne C. Steinemann

Michael Vandenbergh

Reducing the risk of catastrophic climate change will require leveling off greenhouse gas emissions over the short term and reducing emissions by an estimated 60-80% over the long term. To achieve these reductions, we argue that policymakers and regulators should focus not only on factories and other industrial sources of emissions but also on individuals. We construct a model that demonstrates that individuals contribute roughly one-third of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States. This one-third share accounts for roughly 8% of the world's total, more than the total emissions of any other country except China, and more than ...


The New Wal-Mart Effect: The Role Of Private Contracting In Global Governance, Michael P. Vandenbergh Dec 2018

The New Wal-Mart Effect: The Role Of Private Contracting In Global Governance, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Michael Vandenbergh

No abstract provided.


Individual Carbon Emissions: The Low-Hanging Fruit, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Jack Barkenbus, Jonathan Gilligan Dec 2018

Individual Carbon Emissions: The Low-Hanging Fruit, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Jack Barkenbus, Jonathan Gilligan

Michael Vandenbergh

The individual and household sector generates roughly 30 to 40 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and is a potential source of prompt and large emissions reductions. Yet the assumption that only extensive government regulation will generate substantial reductions from the sector is a barrier to change, particularly in a political environment hostile to regulation. This Article demonstrates that prompt and large reductions can be achieved without relying predominantly on regulatory measures. The Article identifies seven "low-hanging fruit:" actions that have the potential to achieve large reductions at less than half the cost of the leading current federal legislation ...


From Smokestack To Suv: The Individual As Regulated Entity In The New Era Of Environmental Law, Michael P. Vandenbergh Dec 2018

From Smokestack To Suv: The Individual As Regulated Entity In The New Era Of Environmental Law, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Michael Vandenbergh

A debate between advocates of command and control regulation and advocates of economic incentives has dominated environmental legal scholarship over the last three decades. Both sides in the debate implicitly embrace the premise that regulatory measures should be directed almost exclusively at large industrial polluters. This Article asserts that for many pollutants the premise is no longer supportable, and that much of the focus of regulation in the future should turn to individuals and households. Examining a wide range of empirical data, the Article presents the first profile of individual behavior as a source of pollution. The profile demonstrates that ...


Climate Change: The China Problem, Michael P. Vandenbergh Dec 2018

Climate Change: The China Problem, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Michael Vandenbergh

The central problem confronting climate change scholars and policymakers is how to create incentives for China and the United States to make prompt, large emissions reductions. China recently surpassed the United States as the largest greenhouse gas emitter, and its projected future emissions far outstrip those of any other nation. Although the United States has been the largest emitter for years, China's emissions have enabled critics in the United States to argue that domestic reductions will be ineffective and will transfer jobs to China. These two aspects of the China Problem, Chinese emissions and their influence on the political ...


Climate Change: The Equity Problem, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Brooke A. Ackerly Dec 2018

Climate Change: The Equity Problem, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Brooke A. Ackerly

Michael Vandenbergh

A substantial proportion of the United States population is at or below the poverty level, yet many of the greenhouse gas emissions reduction measures proposed or adopted to date will increase the costs of energy, motor vehicles, and other consumer goods. This essay suggests that although scholarship and policymaking to date have focused on the disproportionate impact of these increased costs on the low-income population, the costs will have two important additional effects. First, the anticipated costs will generate political opposition from social justice groups, reducing the likelihood that aggressive measures will be adopted. Second, to the extent aggressive measures ...


Beyond Elegance: A Testable Typology Of Social Norms In Corporate Environmental Compliance, Michael P. Vandenbergh Dec 2018

Beyond Elegance: A Testable Typology Of Social Norms In Corporate Environmental Compliance, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Michael Vandenbergh

Social norms scholarship faces the challenge of becoming a mature discipline. Norms theorists have proposed several elegant, widely applicable theories of the origin, evolution and function of norms. For the most part, these theories have suggested that social norms can be viewed as a refinement to the behavioral assumptions of rational choice theory. Although this approach at least implicitly suggests that accounting for norms will improve the predictive capacity of rational choice models, the work must overcome substantial hurdles if it is to do so. The wide range of norms and mechanisms of norm influence on behavior complicate the 'formal ...


An Alternative To Ready, Fire, Aim: A New Framework To Link Environmental Targets In Environmental Law, Michael P. Vandenbergh Dec 2018

An Alternative To Ready, Fire, Aim: A New Framework To Link Environmental Targets In Environmental Law, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Michael Vandenbergh

This Article begins with a brief overview of the state of the environment and the lessons learned from the early development of the command and control system. It then explores recent reform proposals and the scholarship on the democratic impact of means-based approaches. The Article next examines the new model that is emerging in the Netherlands and other countries, and identifies the critical feature of the new model: the development of context for environmental decisionmaking at each of the three levels discussed above. The Article concludes by analyzing the implications of this Framework Approach for the environmental debate and for ...


Climate Change Governance: Boundaries And Leakage, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Mark A. Cohen Dec 2018

Climate Change Governance: Boundaries And Leakage, Michael P. Vandenbergh, Mark A. Cohen

Michael Vandenbergh

This article provides a critical missing piece to the global climate change governance puzzle: how to create incentives for the major developing countries to reduce carbon emissions. The major developing countries are projected to account for 80% of the global emissions growth over the next several decades, and substantial reductions in the risk of catastrophic climate change will not be possible without a change in this emissions path. Yet the global climate governance measures proposed to date have not succeeded and may be locking in disincentives as carbon-intensive production shifts from developed to developing countries. A multi-pronged governance approach will ...


Good For You, Bad For Us: The Financial Disincentive For Net Demand, Jim Rossi, Michael P. Vandenbergh Dec 2018

Good For You, Bad For Us: The Financial Disincentive For Net Demand, Jim Rossi, Michael P. Vandenbergh

Michael Vandenbergh

This Article examines a principal barrier to reducing U.S. carbon emissions — electricity distributors’ financial incentives to sell more of their product — and introduces the concept of net demand reduction (“NDR”) as a primary goal for the modern energy regulatory system. Net electricity demand must decrease substantially from projected levels for the United States to achieve widely-endorsed carbon targets by 2050. Although social and behavioral research has identified cost-effective ways to reduce electricity demand, state-of-the-art programs to curtail demand have not been implemented on a widespread basis. We argue that electric distribution utilities are important gatekeepers that can determine whether ...


Critical Copyright Law & The Politics Of ‘Ip’, Carys J. Craig Dec 2018

Critical Copyright Law & The Politics Of ‘Ip’, Carys J. Craig

Carys Craig

Since its explosion late in the twentieth century, the field of intellectual property scholarship has been a vibrant site for critical legal theorizing. Indeed, it is arguable that US-based intellectual property scholarship effectively generated a resurgence or ‘second wave’ of Critical Legal Studies. Exploring critical engagement with the very idea of ‘intellectual property’ and its conceptual counterpart, the ‘public domain,’ this chapter suggests that a vast swath of copyright scholarship that has bloomed over the past few decades, as copyright has expanded in its reach and relevance, builds implicitly or explicitly on insights gleaned from legal realism, Critical Legal Studies ...


Regulating Strikes In Essential Services - Canada, Eric Tucker Dec 2018

Regulating Strikes In Essential Services - Canada, Eric Tucker

Eric M. Tucker

This chapter was written as a part of a comparative law project examining the regulation of strikes in essential services. It describes and analyses Canada's experience with strikes in essential services, including the historical development of essential service strike regulation, Canada's shifting understanding of essentiality and, most recently, the implications of constitutional labour rights, including the right to strike, for essential service strike regulation. It also looks at the law in action through a consideration of the application of these laws in their specific contest.


When Wage Theft Was A Crime In Canada, 1935-1955: The Challenge Of Using The Master’S Tools Against The Master, Eric Tucker Dec 2018

When Wage Theft Was A Crime In Canada, 1935-1955: The Challenge Of Using The Master’S Tools Against The Master, Eric Tucker

Eric M. Tucker

In recent years the term “wage theft” has been widely used to describe the phenomenon of employers not paying their workers the wages they are owed. While the term has great normative weight, it is rarely accompanied by calls for employers literally to be prosecuted under the criminal law. However, it is a little known fact that in 1935, Canada enacted a criminal wage theft law, which remained on the books until 1955. This article provides an historical account of the wage theft law, including the role of the Royal Commission on Price Spreads, the legislative debates and amendments that ...


Carrying Little Sticks: Is There A ‘Deterrence Gap’ In Employment Standards Enforcement In Ontario, Canada?, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Rebecca Casey, Mark P. Thomas, John Grundy, Andrea M. Noack Dec 2018

Carrying Little Sticks: Is There A ‘Deterrence Gap’ In Employment Standards Enforcement In Ontario, Canada?, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Rebecca Casey, Mark P. Thomas, John Grundy, Andrea M. Noack

Eric M. Tucker

This article assesses whether a deterrence gap exists in the enforcement of the Ontario Employment Standards Act (ESA), which sets minimum conditions of employment in areas such as minimum wage, overtime pay and leaves. Drawing on a unique administrative data set, the article measures the use of deterrence in Ontario’s ESA enforcement regime against the role of deterrence within two influential models of enforcement: responsive regulation and strategic enforcement. The article finds that the use of deterrence is below its prescribed role in either model of enforcement. We conclude that there is a deterrence gap in Ontario.


The International Tax Environment And Simplification Of South African Tax Legislation: A Double-Edged Sword, Jinyan Li, Teresa Pidduck Dec 2018

The International Tax Environment And Simplification Of South African Tax Legislation: A Double-Edged Sword, Jinyan Li, Teresa Pidduck

Jinyan Li

In this paper, we examine the relationship between the international tax environment and legislative complexity in South Africa’s international tax system. We suggest that the international tax environment is a double-edged sword. It causes complexity in South Africa’s tax legislation as it largely responds to the needs of OECD countries and produces tax rules to deal with ‘sophisticated’ tax problems and taxpayers (such as multinational enterprises). When such rules are transplanted into South Africa, they are typically more complex than local rules dealing with local taxpayers. On the other hand, the international tax environment offers ideas for ‘scientific ...


Trends In Civil Justice Reform: A Canadian Perspective, Poonam Puri, Andrew Nichol Dec 2018

Trends In Civil Justice Reform: A Canadian Perspective, Poonam Puri, Andrew Nichol

Poonam Puri

An effective civil litigation system is essential for the operation of a modern state. Access to civil justice promotes contractual certainty, the efficient resolution of tort claims, and provides an effective mechanism for disciplining private action. In order to promote these values a judicial system must provide timely and cost-effective access to court services, the competent adjudication of legal disputes, and consistent legal outcomes. However, the increased volume and complexity of modern civil litigation has created challenges for the administration of Canadian courts. Consequently, the judicial system is increasingly becoming less accessible to a broad class of individuals and the ...


Fight Over Hill's Israel Comments Is Not Helpful, Alan E. Garfield Dec 2018

Fight Over Hill's Israel Comments Is Not Helpful, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.


Clearly Canadian--Hill V. Colorado And Free Speech Balancing In The United States And Canada, Donald L. Beschle Dec 2018

Clearly Canadian--Hill V. Colorado And Free Speech Balancing In The United States And Canada, Donald L. Beschle

Donald L. Beschle

Two doctrines have equally influenced and informed the debate regrading the scope of the First Amendment free speech guarantee: absolutism versus the balancing of competing interests. Despite the language of the United States Constitution that suggests the application of absolutes, the courts have often resorted to balancing in the resolution of cases. This Article examines the debate by comparing the different approaches taken by the courts in the United States and Canada. This examination reveals that perhaps the two doctrines do not need to negate each other in their application, and that a recent decision by the United States Supreme ...


Are Two Clauses Really Better Than One? Rethinking The Religion Clause(S), 80 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 1 (2018), Donald L. Beschle Dec 2018

Are Two Clauses Really Better Than One? Rethinking The Religion Clause(S), 80 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 1 (2018), Donald L. Beschle

Donald L. Beschle

The First Amendment begins with two references to the relationship between government and religion. The prohibition on establishment of religion and the guarantee of free exercise of religion, despite their obvious interaction, are generally regarded as separate clauses, and analyzed under tests developed under one or the other. The current state of Establishment Clause doctrine and Free Exercise doctrine is sharply contested and by no means clear. Supreme Court justices will usually classify a religious freedom case as either presenting non-establishment or free exercise issues. Having done so, they will apply the test framed for that clause. But does that ...


Youth Activism, Art And Transitional Artist: Emerging Spaces Of Memory After The Jasmin Revolution, Arnaud Kurze Dec 2018

Youth Activism, Art And Transitional Artist: Emerging Spaces Of Memory After The Jasmin Revolution, Arnaud Kurze

Arnaud Kurze

This project explores the creation of alternative transitional justice spaces in post-conflict contexts, particularly concentrating on the role of art and the impact of social movements to address human rights abuses. Drawing from post-authoritarian Tunisia, it scrutinizes the work of contemporary youth activists and artists to deal with the past and foster sociopolitical change. Although these vanguard protesters provoked the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in 2011, the power vacuum was quickly filled by old elites. The exclusion of young revolutionaries from political decision-making led to unprecedented forms of mobilization to account for repression and injustice under ...


Demystifying Irs Transcripts, Robert D. Probasco, Nikki Mccain, Ann Garza Dec 2018

Demystifying Irs Transcripts, Robert D. Probasco, Nikki Mccain, Ann Garza

Robert Probasco

No abstract provided.


Facing The Facts: An Empirical Study Of The Fairness And Efficiency Of Foreclosures And A Proposal For Reform, Debra Pogrund Stark Dec 2018

Facing The Facts: An Empirical Study Of The Fairness And Efficiency Of Foreclosures And A Proposal For Reform, Debra Pogrund Stark

Debra Pogrund Stark

Lenders view real estate foreclosures as too expensive and time consuming a process which needlessly increases the costs of making loans. Others complain that the foreclosure process fails to adequately protect the borrower's equity (the value of the property in excess of the debt secured by the property) in the mortgaged property.

This article tests these views by gathering new data on the fairness and efficiency of the foreclosure process. Based on the data collected (which confirms some assumptions but disproves others), the author proposes a reform of the foreclosure process to promote the interest of both lenders and ...


The War(S) On Christmas In The Law Books, Kurt X. Metzmeier Nov 2018

The War(S) On Christmas In The Law Books, Kurt X. Metzmeier

Kurt X. Metzmeier

This piece takes a reference to a December 25, 1823, session of the Kentucky Senate as a starting point to discuss the legal history of Christmas in America and specifically Kentucky from the Puritan era when it was banned, to the early 1800s when it was officially ignored, to the late 19th century when it was raised to a legal holiday (and when many of the day's tradition were created).