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2018

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Employment Prospects Of International Students In The U.S. And Canada: Socio-Political Implications For Colleges And Universities, Taiwo O. Soetan, David Hoa K. Nguyen Dec 2018

Employment Prospects Of International Students In The U.S. And Canada: Socio-Political Implications For Colleges And Universities, Taiwo O. Soetan, David Hoa K. Nguyen

Journal of Curriculum, Teaching, Learning and Leadership in Education

While the increase of the international student population has been a significant issue on a global scale, it is rarely discussed in the context of two border countries in North America – the U.S. and Canada. In addition, attention to skilled migration as a policy preference has increased among governments in an effort to address labor market gaps arising from economic shifts and structural aging. Governments invent a list of desirable characteristics in international students, such as education, age, language, and work experience, that allows them to be able to apply for employment after graduation. Countries like Canada and Australia …


On The Legal Regulation Of Electronic Education In The Republic Of Uzbekistan, A.Z. Karimov, N.N. Xikmatov Dec 2018

On The Legal Regulation Of Electronic Education In The Republic Of Uzbekistan, A.Z. Karimov, N.N. Xikmatov

Review of law sciences

The article deals with the current state of legal regulation of electronic education in the Republic of Uzbekistan. In connection with the rapid development of electronic networking technologies, it is proposed to strengthen the regulatory framework of the national education system by adopting the Law «On amendments to the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On education"». The article has information about concept as blended learning, electronic training and distant education. Moreover, it offers an introduction of the blended and electronic training. Besides that, it provides the main advantages and shortcomings of such types of training.


Education Reform And Detroit’S Right To Literacy Litigation, Kristine L. Bowman Dec 2018

Education Reform And Detroit’S Right To Literacy Litigation, Kristine L. Bowman

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Ongoing education reform litigation arising out of Detroit, Michigan presents an innovative claim: Children have an unenumerated federal constitutional right of access to literacy. On June 29, 2018, the district court granted defendants’ motion to dismiss. The case is now on appeal to the Sixth Circuit and is expected to be argued in the first half of 2019. This litigation has already broken new ground and, regardless of the ultimate outcome, it is valuable because it invites us to revisit fundamental questions about rights, remedies, and the role of courts in education reform.


Sb 339 - Education, Daniel F. Barrett, Alexander Hegner Dec 2018

Sb 339 - Education, Daniel F. Barrett, Alexander Hegner

Georgia State University Law Review

The Act amends the statutes in the Georgia Code applicable to the University System and Board of Regents statutes in the Georgia Code. It adds new sections that place affirmative requirements on the Board of Regents to adopt and publish new policies, which aim to encourage the dissemination of free speech across university campuses. Further, the Act directs that universities must implement disciplinary sanctions for anyone subject to the jurisdiction of the University System who interferes with the free speech of invited speakers and others on campus. Finally, the Board of Regents must publish annual reports regarding any barriers to …


Public Dollars, Private Discrimination: Protecting Lgbt Students From School Voucher Discrimination, Adam Mengler Dec 2018

Public Dollars, Private Discrimination: Protecting Lgbt Students From School Voucher Discrimination, Adam Mengler

Fordham Law Review

More than a dozen states operate school voucher programs, which allow parents to apply state tax dollars to their children’s private school tuition. Many schools that participate in voucher programs are affiliated with religions that disapprove of homosexuality. As such, voucher-accepting schools across the country have admissions policies that discriminate against LGBT students and students with LGBT parents. Little recourse exists for students who suffer discrimination at the hands of voucher-accepting schools. This Note considers two ways to provide protection from such discrimination for LGBT students and ultimately argues that the best route is for an LGBT student to bring …


The Purpose (And Limits) Of The University, John Inazu Dec 2018

The Purpose (And Limits) Of The University, John Inazu

Utah Law Review

Scholars of the university have produced volumes about growing pressures on the coherence and purpose of institutions of higher education. Meanwhile, legal scholars’ writing about the university has typically focused on its First Amendment dimensions. This Article links insights from these two groups of scholars to explore the purpose of the university and defend it against increasing technological, ideological, and cultural pressures. It argues that a better understanding of the relationship between the First Amendment and the university can help strengthen the coherence of the university’s purpose against these pressures. The connection between the First Amendment and institutional purpose is …


Dialing It Back: Why Courts Should Rethink Students’ Privacy And Speech Rights As Cell Phone Communications Erode The ‘Schoolhouse Gate’, Nicholas J. Mcguire Nov 2018

Dialing It Back: Why Courts Should Rethink Students’ Privacy And Speech Rights As Cell Phone Communications Erode The ‘Schoolhouse Gate’, Nicholas J. Mcguire

Duke Law & Technology Review

The ubiquity of cell phones in today’s society has forced courts to change or dismiss established, but inapplicable analytical frameworks. Two such frameworks in the school setting are regulations of student speech and of student searches. This Article traces the constitutional jurisprudence of both First Amendment off-campus speech protection and Fourth Amendment search standards as applied to the school setting. It then analyzes how the Supreme Court’s ruling in Riley v. California complicates both areas. Finally, it proposes a pragmatic solution: by recognizing a categorical First Amendment exception for “substantial threats” against the school community, courts could accommodate students’ constitutional …


The Epidemic Of Higher Levels Of Depression And Anxiety In Each Successive Generation Of Youth: Proposed Causes, Detrimental Effects, And The Introduction Of Positive Psychology In The Classroom, Rosemarie Parasole Nov 2018

The Epidemic Of Higher Levels Of Depression And Anxiety In Each Successive Generation Of Youth: Proposed Causes, Detrimental Effects, And The Introduction Of Positive Psychology In The Classroom, Rosemarie Parasole

Florida Law Review

The past few decades have witnessed a major increase in each successive generation of youth reporting higher levels of mental illness. The detrimental effects of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety, demand a solution that addresses a change in thinking and wellbeing among youth. Research illustrates the substantial impact the teachings of positive psychology have on developing minds. Additionally, positive psychology addresses and attempts to remedy many of the proposed factors contributing to youth depression and anxiety. This Note calls for legislation to introduce positive psychology classes on a statewide level within the K–12 curriculum in all Florida public schools.


Is That Appropriate?: Clarifying The Idea's Free Appropriate Public Education Standard Post-Endrew F., Josh Cowin Nov 2018

Is That Appropriate?: Clarifying The Idea's Free Appropriate Public Education Standard Post-Endrew F., Josh Cowin

Northwestern University Law Review

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires schools to provide all students who qualify for special education services with a free appropriate public education (FAPE). However, the IDEA does not specify how much substantive educational benefit students must be afforded in order to receive a FAPE, leaving this question for the courts. For over thirty years, courts split over the amount of educational benefit that school districts must provide to their special education students, leading to significant confusion and anxiety among parents and school officials regarding their legal rights. The Supreme Court sought to clarify this standard in Endrew …


You Are Not Cordially Invited: How Universities Maintain First Amendment Rights And Safety In The Midst Of Controversial On-Campus Speakers, Alyson R. Hamby Nov 2018

You Are Not Cordially Invited: How Universities Maintain First Amendment Rights And Safety In The Midst Of Controversial On-Campus Speakers, Alyson R. Hamby

Cornell Law Review

Against a backdrop of national political turmoil, universities have experienced volatile reactions from their student bodies and outsiders in protest of the inflammatory speakers that schools host on their campuses. This Note discusses the tension between First Amendment protections and tort liability in the context of higher education. Specifically, it focuses on the interplay between controversial, on-campus speakers and the violent protests that arise in reaction to them. While examining this interaction, this Note emphasizes the legal duties of academic institutions in facilitating these on-campus speakers while also protecting their students’ constitutional rights and safety. In examining these conflicts, the …


Children Are Crying And Dying While The Supreme Court Is Hiding: Why Public Schools Should Have Broad Authority To Regulate Off-Campus Bullying "Speech", Jennifer Butwin Nov 2018

Children Are Crying And Dying While The Supreme Court Is Hiding: Why Public Schools Should Have Broad Authority To Regulate Off-Campus Bullying "Speech", Jennifer Butwin

Fordham Law Review

Bullying has long been a concern for students, parents, teachers, and school administrators. But technological advances—including the internet, cell phones, and social media—have transformed the nature of bullying and allow “cyberbullies” to extend their reach far beyond the schoolhouse gate. The U.S. Supreme Court established that schools may regulate on-campus speech if the speech creates a substantial disruption of, or material interference with, school activities. However, the Court has yet to rule on a school’s ability to regulate students’ off-campus bullying speech. This Note examines how various courts have approached the issue, analyzes the current circuit split, and ultimately proposes …


Keeping The "I" In The Idea: A Response To A Proposal To Abandon Individualization In Special Education In Favor Of Rule-Based Delivery Models, Thomas A. Mayes Nov 2018

Keeping The "I" In The Idea: A Response To A Proposal To Abandon Individualization In Special Education In Favor Of Rule-Based Delivery Models, Thomas A. Mayes

Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Minding The Gap: Improving Parental Involvement To Bridge Education Gaps Between American Indian And Non-Indian Students, Cassidy Wadsworth Skousen Nov 2018

Minding The Gap: Improving Parental Involvement To Bridge Education Gaps Between American Indian And Non-Indian Students, Cassidy Wadsworth Skousen

Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Dear Colleague: Due Process Is Not Under Attack At Colleges And Universities, As Shown Through A Comparative Analysis Of College Disciplinary Committees And American Juries, Mara Emory Shingleton Oct 2018

Dear Colleague: Due Process Is Not Under Attack At Colleges And Universities, As Shown Through A Comparative Analysis Of College Disciplinary Committees And American Juries, Mara Emory Shingleton

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Post-Accountability Accountability, Nicole Stelle Garnett Oct 2018

Post-Accountability Accountability, Nicole Stelle Garnett

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Over the past few decades, parental choice has exploded in the United States. Yet, despite early proponents’ hopes that parental choice would eliminate the need to regulate school quality—since parents’ choices would serve an accountability function—demands to use the law to hold chosen schools accountable for their academic performance are central features of education-reform debates today. This is an opportune time to consider the issue of academic accountability and parental choice. Parental choice has gained a firm foothold in the American educational landscape. As it continues to expand, debates about accountability for chosen schools will only intensify. The questions of …


Laying Siege To The Ivory Tower: Resource Allocation In Response To The Heckler's Veto On University Campuses, Macklin W. Thornton Oct 2018

Laying Siege To The Ivory Tower: Resource Allocation In Response To The Heckler's Veto On University Campuses, Macklin W. Thornton

San Diego Law Review

High in the towers of academia, the lofty ideals of free speech are tossed around with a deceptive ease. However, as legal minds grapple with heady legal doctrines, free speech has concrete consequences down at the foot of those towers. At this ivory base, the property line between the university and the community blur. Students and nonstudents assemble and deliver conflicting speech that, at times, foments violence. Molotov cocktails, gun shots, broken windows, disgruntled students. All attempts to trigger the dreaded heckler’s veto—an attempt the government has an obligation to prevent. In addition to the public relations disasters grown from …


Principles And Consequences In A Virtue Ethics Analysis Of Affirmative Action, Caleb H A Brown Sep 2018

Principles And Consequences In A Virtue Ethics Analysis Of Affirmative Action, Caleb H A Brown

Montview Journal of Research & Scholarship

In this paper, I evaluate affirmative action from the framework of virtue ethics. In doing so, I consider the principles behind affirmative action as well as its consequences because a perfectly virtuous person will act per just principles but will also be concerned with the consequences of her actions. An attempt to restore justice that utilizes a mechanism known to be ineffective is not truly an attempt to restore justice, and so is not virtuous. Therefore, if affirmative action is principally justified, a complete virtue ethical analysis will still ask, “Do we know if it works?” I conclude that affirmative …


Searching For The Parental Causes Of The School-To-Prison Pipeline Problem: A Critical, Conceptual Essay, Reginald Leamon Robinson Sep 2018

Searching For The Parental Causes Of The School-To-Prison Pipeline Problem: A Critical, Conceptual Essay, Reginald Leamon Robinson

Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development

(Abstract)

In this critical, conceptual essay, the author argues that the School-to-Prison Pipeline (“STPP”) simply does not exist. Long before Columbine and the enactment of zero tolerance, caregivers have been wrongly harming their children, something causing them toxic stress that triggers their stress-response system, and making it nigh impossible for children easily ensnared by suspensions, expulsions, referrals to alternative schools, and SRO arrests to have the best developmental start and cognitive abilities to succeed in public schools. Further, teachers and administrators who are pressured to report great educational metrics, and for their own childhood reasons have a near inflexible need …


Examining The School-To-Prison Pipeline: Sending Students To Prison Instead Of School, Fatema Ghasletwala Sep 2018

Examining The School-To-Prison Pipeline: Sending Students To Prison Instead Of School, Fatema Ghasletwala

Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development

(Excerpt)

Juvenile delinquents are often thought of as intrinsically evil. These youths are blamed for their own plight, believed to be a result of innate character flaws. However, such an obtuse perception is problematic. In many cases, these juvenile delinquents were made delinquents by a faulty system, namely, the School-to-Prison Pipeline. The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a troubling phenomenon in which students are suspended, expelled or even arrested for minor offenses instead of being sent simply to an administrator’s office. Often, these students have backgrounds of poverty, abuse, neglect, and may even have learning disabilities. Instead of being offered counseling, “unruly” …


State Laws For Due Process Hearings Under The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, Perry A. Zirkel Sep 2018

State Laws For Due Process Hearings Under The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, Perry A. Zirkel

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Preferencing Educational Choice: The Constitutional Limits, Derek W. Black Sep 2018

Preferencing Educational Choice: The Constitutional Limits, Derek W. Black

Cornell Law Review

Rapidly expanding charter and voucher programs are establishing a new education paradigm in which access to traditional public schools is no longer guaranteed. In some areas, charter and voucher programs are on a trajectory to phase out traditional public schools altogether. This Article argues that this trend and its effects violate the constitutional right to public education embedded in all fifty state constitutions.

Importantly, this Article departs from past constitutional arguments against charter and voucher programs. Past arguments have attempted to prohibit such programs entirely and have assumed, with little evidentiary support, that they endanger statewide education systems. Unsurprisingly, litigation …


Cooperation And Turnover In Law Faculties: A Game-Theoretic Model And An Empirical Study Sep 2018

Cooperation And Turnover In Law Faculties: A Game-Theoretic Model And An Empirical Study

Marquette Law Review

A standard account of group cooperation would predict that group stability would bring about greater cooperation because repeat-play games would allow for sanctions and rewards. In an academic unit such as a department or a law faculty, one might thus expect that faculty stability would bring about greater cooperation. However, academic units are not like most other groups. Tenured professors face only limited sanctions for failing to cooperate, for engaging in unproductive conflict, or for shirking. This article argues counter-intuitively that within limits, some level of faculty turnover may enhance cooperation. Certainly, excessive and persistent loss of faculty is demoralizing, …


The Plot To Overthrow Genocide: State Laws Mandating Education About The Foulest Crime Of All Sep 2018

The Plot To Overthrow Genocide: State Laws Mandating Education About The Foulest Crime Of All

Marquette Law Review

This Article shines a light on a little noticed phenomenon in American law: the promulgation of ten state statutes and one state regulation, each requiring education about genocide in elementary and/or secondary schools. The mandates, adopted from 1989 through 2018, appear to be only the beginning inasmuch as in 2017 another nineteen states publicly pledged to pass such mandates as well.

The Article describes each of the existing mandates and compares them to each other, including an analysis of the laws’ respective strong and weak points. This exposition, of interest in itself, also sets the stage for proposals to improve …


Bureau For Private Postsecondary Education, Daniel Ballinger, R. C. Fellmeth, J. D. Fellmeth Aug 2018

Bureau For Private Postsecondary Education, Daniel Ballinger, R. C. Fellmeth, J. D. Fellmeth

California Regulatory Law Reporter

No abstract provided.


Culture Wars On Campus: Academic Freedom, The First Amendment, And Partisan Outrage In Polarized Times, Jason M. Shepard, Kathleen B. Culver Aug 2018

Culture Wars On Campus: Academic Freedom, The First Amendment, And Partisan Outrage In Polarized Times, Jason M. Shepard, Kathleen B. Culver

San Diego Law Review

After a California community college professor called the election of President Donald Trump an “act of terrorism” in her classroom the week after the vote, a student-recorded viral video sparked a national conservative media firestorm. Critics said the professor should be fired for outrageous liberal bias, while supporters defended her comments as being protected by academic freedom and the First Amendment. The student, meanwhile, was suspended for his unauthorized recording while defenders decried his punishment as evidence of anti-conservative discrimination and harassment. By examining tensions between faculty and student speech rights, the use of technologies to take ideological disagreements viral …


The Future Of State Blaine Amendments In Light Of Trinity Lutheran: Strengthening The Nondiscrimination Argument, Margo A. Borders Aug 2018

The Future Of State Blaine Amendments In Light Of Trinity Lutheran: Strengthening The Nondiscrimination Argument, Margo A. Borders

Notre Dame Law Review

In Part I, this Note will examine a brief history of the proposed federal Blaine Amendment, and the subsequent adoption of many State Blaines across the nation. Next, in Part II, the Note will discuss why the State Blaines are frequently debated, specifically in the context of the issue of school choice. The Note will then examine two of the main arguments against the constitutionality of State Blaines—the animus arguments and the First Amendment arguments—and will examine the strengths and weaknesses of each argument. In Part III, the Note will discuss the culmination of recent caselaw in the Trinity Lutheran …


The Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program: The Need For Better Employment Eligibility Regulations, Gregory Crespi Aug 2018

The Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program: The Need For Better Employment Eligibility Regulations, Gregory Crespi

Buffalo Law Review

A few people have now applied for and obtained tax-exempt debt forgiveness of their federal student Direct Loans under the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program after satisfying the requirements of 10 years of post-October 1, 2007 employment in a “public service job.” While only a relatively small number of people have received debt forgiveness to date, I estimate that as the number of persons eligible ramps up sharply in 2018 and thereafter eventually 200,000 people a year or more will obtain debt forgiveness under the PSLF program, at a total cost to the Treasury of $12 billion per year …


Does The African American Need Separate Charter Schools?, Julian Vasquez Heilig, Steven Nelson, Matt Kronzer Jul 2018

Does The African American Need Separate Charter Schools?, Julian Vasquez Heilig, Steven Nelson, Matt Kronzer

Minnesota Journal of Law & Inequality

No abstract provided.


Memories Of Our Dear Teacher: Scientific Legacy, The Life Path Of Academician A.Agzamkhojaev, I Akhmedov Jul 2018

Memories Of Our Dear Teacher: Scientific Legacy, The Life Path Of Academician A.Agzamkhojaev, I Akhmedov

ProAcademy

This article describes brillia n t life path a n d activities, scientific heritage o f p rom in e nt law yer a n d acad e m ic A nvar Agzam ovich A gzam xodjaev.


Against Shaming: Preserving Dignity, Decency, And A Moral-Educative Mission In American Schools, Amanda Harmon Cooley Jun 2018

Against Shaming: Preserving Dignity, Decency, And A Moral-Educative Mission In American Schools, Amanda Harmon Cooley

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

While there has been an extensive amount of scholarly discourse regarding the propriety of shaming as a criminal sanction, there has been almost no critical discussion about the validity of shaming punishments as disciplinary measures in schools. This Article is designed to initiate this needed dialogue by arguing for the cessation of school shaming through a legal theory lenses. To accomplish this objective, Part I of this Article provides a definitional foundation of shaming punishments. Part II of the Article presents the normative rejection of school shaming, which is grounded in both legal punishment theory and educational theory. It …