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2018

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Civil Rights and Discrimination

Institution
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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Price Is Rights: Getting The United Arab Emirates Up To International Speed In The Labor Law Department, Janae C. Cummings Dec 2018

The Price Is Rights: Getting The United Arab Emirates Up To International Speed In The Labor Law Department, Janae C. Cummings

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Despite a rapidly growing economy and a tremendous accumulation of wealth, the United Arab Emirates has facilitated many human rights abuses against migrant workers from impoverished countries throughout the world. The UAE’s system of recruitment, payment and living conditions put already vulnerable populations in considerably worse economic conditions by exploiting their labor and creating significant barriers to challenging the unjust employment system. After being sold on the idea that migrating to the UAE would bring a semblance of economic advancement, many migrants find themselves in inhumane working conditions and debt from having to pay excessive amounts of money to recruitment …


Armenia And Azerbaijan's Struggle With Occupation In Nagorno-Karabakh, Carolyn Morway Dec 2018

Armenia And Azerbaijan's Struggle With Occupation In Nagorno-Karabakh, Carolyn Morway

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The corrupt occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and its surrounding areas has resulted in displaced civilians, chaotic military violence, poor judicial law-making, and hostile international relations. Analyzing the international law of occupation’s purposes and its humanitarian requirements illustrates that there is a need for change. Set against the backdrop of Nagorno-Karabakh’s precarious situation, the international community should take this opportunity to reformulate the international law of occupation with sovereignty and humanitarian principles guiding the change. The effort could prevent another such “frozen conflict.”


Moving From Management To Termination: A Case Study Of Prolonged Occupation, David Hughes Dec 2018

Moving From Management To Termination: A Case Study Of Prolonged Occupation, David Hughes

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In 2017, the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories reached a half-century in duration. This reignited a conversation amongst legal scholars. In articles and books, lawyers questioned the efficacy of occupation law. They asked whether it had become an anachronism. Across Israel and the Palestinian territories, those that directly invoke the law of occupation sought a more effective means of adapting the law to meet the exigencies of a fifty-year-old occupation. The accompanying debates recalled questions concerning the legal treatment of prolonged occupation. This article seeks to fundamentally alter the recurring discourse. Built around a detailed case study of Israel’s …


Pursuing A Universal Threshold For Regulating Incitement To Discrimination, Hostility Or Violence, Rebecca Meyer Dec 2018

Pursuing A Universal Threshold For Regulating Incitement To Discrimination, Hostility Or Violence, Rebecca Meyer

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) recognizes that although the right to freedom of expression is essential, it is not absolute. The ICCPR prohibits speech that incites to discrimination, hostility, or violence. The provision prohibiting such speech is important to protect individuals and communities. Yet, not all countries are adequately enforcing its mandate. Such countries are letting inciting speech spread and, in some instances, violence has ensued. Conversely, some countries are taking enforcement too far, using the criminalization of inciting speech as a tool to silence political dissent. In light of the divergent interpretations—each problematic in its …


August 2017 - August 2018 Case Law On American Indians, Thomas P. Schlosser Dec 2018

August 2017 - August 2018 Case Law On American Indians, Thomas P. Schlosser

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Civil Rights Notes: American Indians And Banishment, Jury Trials, And The Doctrine Of Lenity, Grant Christensen Dec 2018

Civil Rights Notes: American Indians And Banishment, Jury Trials, And The Doctrine Of Lenity, Grant Christensen

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Father Of Modern Constitutional Liberalism, John Lawrence Hill Dec 2018

The Father Of Modern Constitutional Liberalism, John Lawrence Hill

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


A Reparative Justice Approach To Assessing Ancestral Classifications Aimed At Colonization’S Harms, Susan K. Serrano Dec 2018

A Reparative Justice Approach To Assessing Ancestral Classifications Aimed At Colonization’S Harms, Susan K. Serrano

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Breaking The Silence: Holding Texas Lawyers Accountable For Sexual Harassment, Savannah Files Dec 2018

Breaking The Silence: Holding Texas Lawyers Accountable For Sexual Harassment, Savannah Files

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

Following the 2017 exposure of Harvey Weinstein, the #MeToo movement spread rapidly across social media platforms calling for increased awareness of the prevalence of sexual harassment and assault and demanding change. The widespread use of the hashtag brought attention to the issue and successfully facilitated a much-needed discussion in today’s society. However, this is not the first incident prompting a demand for change.

Efforts to bring awareness and exact change in regards to sexual harassment in the legal profession date back to the 1990s. This demonstrates that the legal profession is not immune from these issues. In fact, at least …


Sb 339 - Education, Daniel F. Barrett, Alexander Hegner Dec 2018

Sb 339 - Education, Daniel F. Barrett, Alexander Hegner

Georgia State University Law Review

The Act amends the statutes in the Georgia Code applicable to the University System and Board of Regents statutes in the Georgia Code. It adds new sections that place affirmative requirements on the Board of Regents to adopt and publish new policies, which aim to encourage the dissemination of free speech across university campuses. Further, the Act directs that universities must implement disciplinary sanctions for anyone subject to the jurisdiction of the University System who interferes with the free speech of invited speakers and others on campus. Finally, the Board of Regents must publish annual reports regarding any barriers to …


Public Dollars, Private Discrimination: Protecting Lgbt Students From School Voucher Discrimination, Adam Mengler Dec 2018

Public Dollars, Private Discrimination: Protecting Lgbt Students From School Voucher Discrimination, Adam Mengler

Fordham Law Review

More than a dozen states operate school voucher programs, which allow parents to apply state tax dollars to their children’s private school tuition. Many schools that participate in voucher programs are affiliated with religions that disapprove of homosexuality. As such, voucher-accepting schools across the country have admissions policies that discriminate against LGBT students and students with LGBT parents. Little recourse exists for students who suffer discrimination at the hands of voucher-accepting schools. This Note considers two ways to provide protection from such discrimination for LGBT students and ultimately argues that the best route is for an LGBT student to bring …


Venezuela: A Uniquely Senian Insight Into A Human Rights Crisis, Andrea I. Scheer Dec 2018

Venezuela: A Uniquely Senian Insight Into A Human Rights Crisis, Andrea I. Scheer

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

For over twenty decades, Venezuelan political leaders have blatantly disregarded their citizens’ human rights, leading to the downfall of Venezuela’s economy and democratic institutions, including severe food and medicine shortages, as well as staggering inflation rates. As a result, Venezuela provides a unique affirmation of the Capabilities Approach introduced by Professor Amartya Sen, which focuses not only on the freedoms that individuals possess, but also on what individuals are capable of doing as possessors of these freedoms. This Note seeks to use Sen’s Capabilities Approach to understand the nature and scope of Venezuela’s multidimensional crisis, arguing that a Senian approach …


Exited Prostitution Survivor Policy Platform, Marian Hatcher, Alisa L. Bernard, Allison Franklin, Audrey Morrissey, Beth Jacobs, Cherie Jimenez, Kathi Hardy, Marlene Carson, Nikki Bell, Rebecca Bender, Rebekah Charleston, Shamere Mckenzie, Vednita Carter Dec 2018

Exited Prostitution Survivor Policy Platform, Marian Hatcher, Alisa L. Bernard, Allison Franklin, Audrey Morrissey, Beth Jacobs, Cherie Jimenez, Kathi Hardy, Marlene Carson, Nikki Bell, Rebecca Bender, Rebekah Charleston, Shamere Mckenzie, Vednita Carter

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Survivors of prostitution propose a policy reform platform including three main pillars of priority: criminal justice reforms, fair employment, and standards of care. The sexual exploitation of prostituted individuals has lasting effects which can carry over into many aspects of life. In order to remedy these effects and give survivors the opportunity to live a full and free life, we must use a survivor-centered approach to each of these pillars to create change. First, reform is necessary in the criminal justice system to recognize survivors as victims of crime and not perpetrators, while holding those who exploited them fully responsible. …


Geographic Discrimination: Of Place, Space, Hillbillies, And Home, William Rhee, Stephen C. Scott Dec 2018

Geographic Discrimination: Of Place, Space, Hillbillies, And Home, William Rhee, Stephen C. Scott

West Virginia Law Review

This Essay explores the two-sided challenge of geographic discrimination, where U.S. citizens receive disparate treatment from other citizens or the government solely because of where they live or self-identify as home, through the interdisciplinary concepts of space, place, and distance; and an original examination of discrimination against Appalachians. Such disparate treatment is unavoidable and even arguably politically correct. Where we call home matters in a number of legitimate ways to include our access to jobs and services, culture, educational opportunities, and other basic human capabilities. Although technology has increased individual mobility more than ever before, a majority of Americans nevertheless …


Old Lines In New Battles: An Overlooked Yet Useful Statute To Confront Exploitation Of Undocumented Workers By Employers And By Ice, Aviam Soifer Dec 2018

Old Lines In New Battles: An Overlooked Yet Useful Statute To Confront Exploitation Of Undocumented Workers By Employers And By Ice, Aviam Soifer

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


University Title Ix Compliance: A Work In Progress In The Wake Of Reform, Michelle J. Harnik Dec 2018

University Title Ix Compliance: A Work In Progress In The Wake Of Reform, Michelle J. Harnik

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Thirteenth Amendment And Minimum Wage Laws, Ruben J. Garcia Dec 2018

The Thirteenth Amendment And Minimum Wage Laws, Ruben J. Garcia

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Slavery, Liberty, And The Right To Contract, Rebecca E. Zietlow Dec 2018

Slavery, Liberty, And The Right To Contract, Rebecca E. Zietlow

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


42 U.S.C. § 1981’S Equal Benefit Clause: Debating The Application To Private Actor Discrimination, Lauren Pope Nov 2018

42 U.S.C. § 1981’S Equal Benefit Clause: Debating The Application To Private Actor Discrimination, Lauren Pope

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

No abstract provided.


Is That Appropriate?: Clarifying The Idea's Free Appropriate Public Education Standard Post-Endrew F., Josh Cowin Nov 2018

Is That Appropriate?: Clarifying The Idea's Free Appropriate Public Education Standard Post-Endrew F., Josh Cowin

Northwestern University Law Review

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires schools to provide all students who qualify for special education services with a free appropriate public education (FAPE). However, the IDEA does not specify how much substantive educational benefit students must be afforded in order to receive a FAPE, leaving this question for the courts. For over thirty years, courts split over the amount of educational benefit that school districts must provide to their special education students, leading to significant confusion and anxiety among parents and school officials regarding their legal rights. The Supreme Court sought to clarify this standard in Endrew …


Explicit Bias, Jessica A. Clarke Nov 2018

Explicit Bias, Jessica A. Clarke

Northwestern University Law Review

In recent decades, legal scholars have advanced sophisticated models for understanding prejudice and discrimination, drawing on disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and economics. These models explain how inequality is implicit in cognition and seamlessly woven into social structures. And yet, obvious, explicit, and overt forms of bias have not gone away. The law does not need empirical methods to identify bias when it is marching down the street in Nazi regalia, hurling misogynist invective, or trading in anti-Muslim stereotypes. Official acceptance of such prejudices may be uniquely harmful in normalizing discrimination. But surprisingly, many discrimination cases ignore explicit bias. Courts …


You Are Where You Eat: Discrimination In The National School Lunch Program, Anna Karnaze Nov 2018

You Are Where You Eat: Discrimination In The National School Lunch Program, Anna Karnaze

Northwestern University Law Review

The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) serves over thirty million children daily in over one hundred thousand schools across the United States. Though it is regulated at the federal level, state and local education agencies have a great deal of authority when it comes to actually implementing the NSLP. As a result, a number of schools nationwide have adopted practices that identify students who participate in the NSLP, which causes those students to experience stigmatization. This Note focuses on two of these practices: (1) the physical separation of paying and nonpaying students in the cafeteria, often resulting in de facto …


Rethinking Title Vii's Protections Against Sex Discrimination In An Employment Context, Tyler Corcoran Nov 2018

Rethinking Title Vii's Protections Against Sex Discrimination In An Employment Context, Tyler Corcoran

Tennessee Journal of Law and Policy

No abstract provided.


Expedited Removal And Due Process: “A Testing Crucible Of Basic Principle” In The Time Of Trump, Daniel Kanstroom Nov 2018

Expedited Removal And Due Process: “A Testing Crucible Of Basic Principle” In The Time Of Trump, Daniel Kanstroom

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


287(G) Agreements In The Trump Era, Huyen Pham Nov 2018

287(G) Agreements In The Trump Era, Huyen Pham

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


Property, Persons, And Institutionalized Police Interdiction In Byrd V. United States, Eric J. Miller Nov 2018

Property, Persons, And Institutionalized Police Interdiction In Byrd V. United States, Eric J. Miller

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

During a fairly routine traffic stop of a motorist driving a rental car, two State Troopers in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, discovered that the driver, Terrence Byrd, was not the listed renter. The Court ruled that Byrd nonetheless retained a Fourth Amendment right to object to the search. The Court did not address, however, why the Troopers stopped Byrd in the first place. A close examination of the case filings reveal suggests that Byrd was stopped on the basis of his race. The racial feature ofthe stop is obscured by the Court’s current property-basedinterpretation of the Fourth Amendment’s right to privacy.

Although …


Nomzamo: Teaching Complexity Through The Life Of Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, Meghan Healy-Clancy Nov 2018

Nomzamo: Teaching Complexity Through The Life Of Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, Meghan Healy-Clancy

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Wrongful Termi(Gay)Tion: A Comparative Analysis Of Employment Non-Discrimination Laws And The Lgbtq+ Workplace Protections In South Africa And The United States, Jared Ham Nov 2018

Wrongful Termi(Gay)Tion: A Comparative Analysis Of Employment Non-Discrimination Laws And The Lgbtq+ Workplace Protections In South Africa And The United States, Jared Ham

Cornell Law Review

Although the United States has made great strides toward equality for its LGBTQ+ citizens in recent years, South Africa has demonstrated far greater progress concerning equal protection and employment non-discrimination of its LGBTQ+ citizens. The South African Constitution, South African Constitutional Court cases, and laws passed by the South African Parliament all mandate that LGBTQ+ South Africans be treated equally to their heterosexual counterparts. Discrimination against LGBTQ+ South Africans is expressly forbidden— including in the employment context. The United States still lacks comprehensive federal employment non-discrimination laws or workplace protections for LGBTQ+ individuals. Extending Title VII—either via court decision or …


The People's Lawyer: The Role Of Attorney General In The Twenty-First Century, Mark J. Herring Nov 2018

The People's Lawyer: The Role Of Attorney General In The Twenty-First Century, Mark J. Herring

University of Richmond Law Review

For the last five years, it has been my privilege to serve the people as their attorney general. The origin of the position of attorney general can be traced back centuries, but in a world that has become more interconnected, complex, and fast-paced, what does the role of a state attorney general entail in the twenty-first century and beyond? Is the proper role as a diligent but reactive defender of statutes and state agencies, or is there a deeper responsibility that calls for a more proactive and engaged use of its tools and authority? I have found that the job …


How The Feres Doctrine Prevents Cadets And Midshipmen Of Military-Service Academies From Achieving Justice For Sexul Assault, Katherine Shin Nov 2018

How The Feres Doctrine Prevents Cadets And Midshipmen Of Military-Service Academies From Achieving Justice For Sexul Assault, Katherine Shin

Fordham Law Review

Sixty-seven years ago, Feres v. United States foreclosed service members from pursuing claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) for “injuries incident to their service.” The progeny of case law that has since developed, the basis for what is known as the Feres doctrine, expanded the scope of what the Feres Court originally articulated as an injury incident to service. Now, cadets and midshipmen of military-service academies who allege that the government (i.e., the administration of military-service academies) was negligent in handling their sexual assaults are precluded from bringing an FTCA claim because their injuries are classified as “incident …