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Investor-State Arbitration And Human Rights, Timothy Feighery Jan 2018

Investor-State Arbitration And Human Rights, Timothy Feighery

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

After decades of growth and popularity, the international investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) regime has come under intense criticism recently-particularly concerning the perceived chilling effect the regime imposes on states' ability to regulate in the public interest. This Article seeks to contextualize this criticism by examining the historical antecedent of ISDS in international law: the law of diplomatic protection. It proceeds to focus on the flexibility of ISDS as a critical advance over diplomatic protection, and shows how ISDS has evolved over time-particularly as developed states have moved from approaching the regime from a predominantly investment-exporting perspective to a more balanced ...


The Limits Of International Copyright Exceptions For Developing Countries, Ruth L. Okediji Jan 2018

The Limits Of International Copyright Exceptions For Developing Countries, Ruth L. Okediji

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The relationship between intellectual property (IP) protection and economic development is not better understood today than it was five decades ago at the height of the independence era in the Global South. Development indicators in many developing and least-developed countries reflect poorly in precisely the areas that are most closely associated with copyright law's objectives, such as promoting democratic governance, facilitating a robust marketplace of ideas, fostering domestic markets in cultural goods, and improving access to knowledge. Moreover, evidence suggests that copyright law has not been critical to the business models of the creative sectors in leading emerging markets ...


Evil Nudges, Michal Lavi Jan 2018

Evil Nudges, Michal Lavi

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

No abstract provided.


The Price Is (Not) Right: Mandatory Arbitration Of Claims Arising Out Of Sexual Violence Should Not Be The Price Of Earning A Living, Nicolette Sullivan Jan 2018

The Price Is (Not) Right: Mandatory Arbitration Of Claims Arising Out Of Sexual Violence Should Not Be The Price Of Earning A Living, Nicolette Sullivan

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

As demonstrated by the #MeToo movement, current attempts to curtail systemic sexual violence in the workplace have fallen flat: approximately sixty million US workers are subject to mandatory arbitration clauses, which employers tend to bury deep within the fine print of employment contracts. These clauses, often coupled with confidentiality agreements, have provided offenders--and their employers--with a mechanism to escape liability and public scrutiny. Under the existing judicial framework, whether a court will allow victims of workplace sexual violence to escape binding arbitration remains unclear. Congress attempted to address this uncertainty by proposing the Ending Forced Arbitration of Sexual Harassment Act ...


Eli Lilly And The International Investment Law Challenge To A Neo-Federal Ip Regime, Jason Yackee, Shubha Ghosh Jan 2018

Eli Lilly And The International Investment Law Challenge To A Neo-Federal Ip Regime, Jason Yackee, Shubha Ghosh

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Article examines the implications of the Eli Lilly case-and international investment law (IIL) more generally-for the operation of an international intellectual property (IP) regime that functions along the lines of the "neo-federalist" model developed by Professors Dinwoodie and Dreyfuss. The neo-federalist model involves a world in which the international IP regime grants national political communities substantial discretion to pursue their own visions of the normatively proper balance between the rights of IP creators and of those who seek to use it. Importantly, that discretion involves the ability to alter the existing normative balance in either the direction of more ...


Socially Responsible Corporate Ip, Janewa J. Oseitutu Jan 2018

Socially Responsible Corporate Ip, Janewa J. Oseitutu

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Many companies practice corporate social responsibility (CSR) as part of their branding and public relations efforts. As part of their CSR strategies, some companies adopt voluntary codes of conduct in an effort to respect human rights. This Article contemplates the application of CSR principles to trade-related intellectual property (IP). In theory, patent and copyright laws promote progress and innovation, which is why IP rights are beneficial for both IP owners and for the public. Trademark rights encourage businesses to maintain certain standards and allow consumers to make more efficient choices. Though IP rights are often discussed in relation to the ...


Equal Protection For Equal Play: A Constitutional Solution To Gender Discrimination In International Sports, Jenna N. Rowan Jan 2018

Equal Protection For Equal Play: A Constitutional Solution To Gender Discrimination In International Sports, Jenna N. Rowan

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Note considers the extent of gender discrimination in international sports, providing an overview of gender discrimination in sports and detailing the inadequacies of current statutory remedies. Additionally, this Note describes why constitutional remedies are unavailable for these athletes, highlighting a 1987 Supreme Court case holding that sports governing bodies are not state actors. This Note proposes overruling that case to hold instead that international sports governing bodies are state actors and are, therefore, subject to the provisions in the US Constitution. Under this solution, international athletes could bring gender discrimination claims against these bodies under an equal protection rationale.


Corporate Cybersecurity: The International Threat To Private Networks And How Regulations Can Mitigate It, Eric J. Hyla Jan 2018

Corporate Cybersecurity: The International Threat To Private Networks And How Regulations Can Mitigate It, Eric J. Hyla

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Cyberattacks are occurring at an accelerating pace. Foreign nations are increasingly utilizing hacking as a tool for economic gain, acts of aggression, or international political expression. At risk are US consumers'personal data, private firms' bottom line, and the economies'integrity. In response, federal and state lawmakers have issued a series of disparate, uncoordinated policies seeking to strengthen cybersecurity practices. However, recent events indicate that these policies are less than ideal. This Note suggests that a unified response to cybersecurity is required and calls for the establishment of a single, central federal agency with authority over all cybersecurity regulations. Such ...


Reconceptualizing Isds: When Is Ip An Investment And How Much Can States Regulate It, Rochelle Dreyfuss, Susy Frankel Jan 2018

Reconceptualizing Isds: When Is Ip An Investment And How Much Can States Regulate It, Rochelle Dreyfuss, Susy Frankel

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Victories by states in two investor-state dispute settlements (ISDS), one involving Uruguay's regulation of tobacco trademarks and the other challenging a doctrine of Canadian patent law, have suggested to some that ISDS is not a threat to state regulation involving intellectual property rights. In this Article, we dispute that notion. We show how these awards open pathways for future disputes and we argue that neither the resolution of these cases nor changes in more recent investment agreements meaningfully alter the threat of ISDS and the chill it imposes on legitimate regulatory activity. We suggest that there would be fewer ...


"I Call Alexa To The Stand": The Privacy Implications Of Anthropomorphizing Virtual Assistants Accompanying Smart-Home Technology, Christopher B. Burkett Jan 2018

"I Call Alexa To The Stand": The Privacy Implications Of Anthropomorphizing Virtual Assistants Accompanying Smart-Home Technology, Christopher B. Burkett

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Note offers a solution to the unique privacy issues posed by the increasingly humanlike interactions users have with virtual assistants, such as Amazon's Alexa, which accompany smart-home technology. These interactions almost certainly result in the users engaging in the cognitive phenomenon of anthropomorphism--more specifically, an assignment of agency. This is a phenomenon that has heretofore been ignored in the legal context, but both the rapidity of technological advancement and inadequacy of current applicable legal doctrine necessitate its consideration now. Since users view these anthropomorphized virtual assistants as persons rather than machines, the law should treat them as such ...


Data At The Docks: Modernizing International Trade Law For The Digital Economy, Andrew D. Mitchell, Neha Mishra Jan 2018

Data At The Docks: Modernizing International Trade Law For The Digital Economy, Andrew D. Mitchell, Neha Mishra

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The World Trade Organization (WTO) has been slow so far in responding to the various challenges arising from the integration of electronic commerce into cross-border trading activities. This slow response in the multilateral system is largely attributable to the complex, multifaceted nature of digital trade or electronic commerce, coupled with the conflict among countries on issues of Internet regulation and digital development. Nonetheless, international trade agreements, particularly at the WTO, play an important role in the creation of a secure, predictable, and trustworthy global regulatory framework for digital trade, and therefore, need to be reformed in a timely and meaningful ...


Freedom To Discriminate: Assessing The Lawfulness And Utility Of Biased Broadband Networks, Rob Frieden Jan 2018

Freedom To Discriminate: Assessing The Lawfulness And Utility Of Biased Broadband Networks, Rob Frieden

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Article assesses the potential for harm to broadband consumers and competitors when Internet service providers (ISPs) tier service by combining so-called "unlimited usage" with reduced video image resolution and also by not metering usage when subscribers access specific content sources. ISPs previously generated no regulatory concerns when they developed different tiers of service and price points based on content transmission speeds and monthly allotment of data consumption.

However, recent "zero rating" and "unlimited" data offers have triggered questions as to whether ISPs engage in unlawful paid prioritization of certain traffic from specific sources or in traffic degradation by receiving ...


"Ask Me No Questions": The Struggle For Disclosure Of Cultural And Genetic Resource Utilization In Design, Margo A. Bagley Jan 2018

"Ask Me No Questions": The Struggle For Disclosure Of Cultural And Genetic Resource Utilization In Design, Margo A. Bagley

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

New issues relating to the intersection of design protection and cultural and genetic resource utilization are arising from the confluence of an increased interest in design protection, the sustained allure of exotic cultural expressions, and novel uses of biological and genetic resources in crafting the appearance of articles protected by industrial design rights. As awareness of the many ways in which cultural and genetic resource use and misappropriation can occur is evolving, some developing countries have begun exploring the appropriateness of--and in some cases even instituting--a requirement that a designer disclose the origin of traditional cultural expressions, traditional knowledge, and ...


When Discretion To Record Becomes Assertive: Body Camera Footage As Hearsay, Natalie P. Pike Jan 2018

When Discretion To Record Becomes Assertive: Body Camera Footage As Hearsay, Natalie P. Pike

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

As police body camera footage pervades courtrooms across the country as evidence in criminal trials, courts must reevaluate whether, and under which evidentiary frameworks, they will admit the footage to prove that what the footage depicts is true. This Note analyzes the frameworks under which courts have historically admitted filmic evidence: namely, through authentication and as demonstrative evidence. It concludes that body camera footage is distinct from evidence traditionally admitted through those frameworks because body camera footage is akin to an officer's assertive statement--the officer has discretion to activate and aim the body camera. Courts should therefore exclude the ...


A Twenty-First-Century Olympic And Amateur Sports Act, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2018

A Twenty-First-Century Olympic And Amateur Sports Act, Dionne L. Koller

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Recent scandals involving national governing bodies for sport and allegations of athlete abuse have captured media attention. The most recent, focusing on the actions of USA Gymnastics, prompted Congress to propose legislation to require better protections for Olympic Movement athletes. Signed into law on February 14, 2018, the Protecting Young Victims from Sexual Abuse and Safe Sport Authorization Act of 2017 designates the United States Center for SafeSport (SafeSport) as the independent organization charged with exercising jurisdiction over the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) and sport national governing bodies to safeguard amateur athletes against all forms of abuse. Congress's ...


When Trade Secrecy Goes Too Far: Public Health And Safety Should Trump Corporate Profits, Julie E. Zink Jan 2018

When Trade Secrecy Goes Too Far: Public Health And Safety Should Trump Corporate Profits, Julie E. Zink

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Article addresses the historical and ongoing use of trade secrets to withhold critical information from the public. Through its text and footnotes, the Article discusses the positives and negatives of trade secret protection; addresses historical and current examples of trade secret abuse; analyzes the inadequate solutions that have been tried and proposed; and, ultimately, recommends changing trade secret law by incorporating the precautionary principle into the definition of a trade secret to ensure that protection will no longer be available for information that endangers public health.

This Article is both timely and necessary, as the public is continually bombarded ...


Reexamining Eli Lilly V. Canada: A Human Rights Approach To Investor-State Disputes, Cynthia M. Ho Jan 2018

Reexamining Eli Lilly V. Canada: A Human Rights Approach To Investor-State Disputes, Cynthia M. Ho

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Article provides valuable insight to the broader discussion of reforming investor-state disputes. Many have noted that the system is in a crisis due to a lack of democratic accountability and inconsistent decisions, which create a chilling effect on legitimate domestic law and policy. Despite substantial discussion in recent years concerning how to reform investor-state disputes, there is only limited discussion concerning the extent to which such disputes challenge domestic intellectual property (IP) limits, as well as global IP norms. Moreover, even among those who recognize the challenge to IP limits, the relevance of human rights is generally not addressed ...


Behind The Steele Curtain: An Empirical Study Of Trademark Conflicts Law, 1952-2016, Tim W. Dornis Jan 2018

Behind The Steele Curtain: An Empirical Study Of Trademark Conflicts Law, 1952-2016, Tim W. Dornis

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The law on international trademark disputes is founded on precedent from 1952. Steele v. Bulova Watch Co. is the first and only Supreme Court decision addressing the question of how far the Lanham Act should be extended beyond the United States' national borders when international infringement is at issue. The decision laid the foundation for a three-pronged test that focuses on the factors of defendant nationality, effects on US commerce, and conflicts with foreign law. Although international trademark conflicts have multiplied dramatically--particularly throughout the last decade--there has been no systematic and comprehensive account of the actual state of the law ...


The New Separability, Lili Levi Jan 2018

The New Separability, Lili Levi

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

In Star Athletica v. Varsity Brands, the Supreme Court recently unveiled a new approach to separability. Because copyright law protects expression, not function, aesthetic features of useful articles are eligible for copyright protection only if they are separable from the functional work in which they are incorporated. But the Copyright Act does not define separability, and Star Athletica is the latest judicial effort to try to fill that void. Unfortunately, the new separability is open to a wide range of critiques. Relatively low-hanging fruit are the vagueness and indeterminacy of the new test, the Court's unsatisfactory attempts to avoid ...


A Free Ride: Data Brokers'rent-Seeking Behavior And The Future Of Data Inequality, Krishnamurty Muralidhar, Laura Palk Jan 2018

A Free Ride: Data Brokers'rent-Seeking Behavior And The Future Of Data Inequality, Krishnamurty Muralidhar, Laura Palk

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Historically, researchers obtained data from independent studies and government data. However, as public outcry for privacy regarding the government's maintenance of data has increased, the discretionary release of government data has decreased or become so anonymized that its relevance is limited. Research necessarily requires access to complete and accurate data. As such, researchers are turning to data brokers for the same, and often more, data than they can obtain from the government. Data brokers base their products and services on data gathered from a variety of free public sources and via the government-created Internet. Data brokers then recategorize the ...


Virtual Reality Exceptionalism, Gilad Yadin Jan 2018

Virtual Reality Exceptionalism, Gilad Yadin

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Virtual reality is here. In just a few years, the technology moved from science fiction to the Internet, from specialized research facilities to living rooms. These new virtual reality environments are connected, collaborative, and social-built to deliver a subjective psychological effect that believably simulates spatial physical reality. Cognitive research shows that this effect is powerful enough that virtual reality users act and interact in ways that mirror real-world social and moral norms and behavior.

Contemporary cyberlaw theory is largely based on the notion that cyberspace is exceptional enough to warrant its own specific rules. This premise, a descendant of early ...


Linking The Public Benefit To The Corporation: Blockchain As A Solution For Certification In An Age Of "Do-Good" Business, Margaret D. Fowler Jan 2018

Linking The Public Benefit To The Corporation: Blockchain As A Solution For Certification In An Age Of "Do-Good" Business, Margaret D. Fowler

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

As part of its now-infamous emissions scandal, Volkswagen spent tens of millions of dollars on advertising geared toward environmentally conscious consumers. The scandal is an example of "greenwashing," which, along with the corresponding term "fairwashing," represents the information asymmetry present in product markets that involve claims of social and environmental responsibility in companies' production practices. As consumers and investors demand responsible production practices from both traditional corporations and entities organized under the newer corporate form known as public benefit corporations (PBCs), it becomes even more important to verify that those entities' supply chains are, in fact, meeting standards for the ...


What Happens When Police Robots Violate The Constitution?, Vid Sankar Jan 2018

What Happens When Police Robots Violate The Constitution?, Vid Sankar

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Public concern surrounding excessive use of force by police officers and the overmilitarization of the police continues to grow. The use of police robots, both with and without artificial intelligence capabilities, is already transforming the practice of policing. Police use of robots gained national attention on July 7, 2016, when Dallas police used a robot to disarm and kill an active shooter who killed five and injured several others in a hostage situation. The qualified immunity doctrine was designed to protect police officers, but under the Supreme Court's current qualified immunity framework, police robots may pose a challenge to ...


Fashioning Worker Protections To Combat The Thin Ideal's Cost On Fashion Models And Public Health, Erin E. Meyers Jan 2018

Fashioning Worker Protections To Combat The Thin Ideal's Cost On Fashion Models And Public Health, Erin E. Meyers

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Studies linking thin-obsessed media consumption to poor health outcomes for women have permeated the medical literature for years. The pressures female fashion models face to sacrifice their health for their jobs are perhaps even more disturbing. These harrowing issues are symptoms of the "thin ideal," the social norm glorifying a female body type so thin it is unattainable for most women. Despite the clear harm imposed by the thin ideal, the United States has done little to combat its effect on the working conditions of fashion models and on public health more generally. This Note suggests that the US fashion ...


Beyond Copyright: Applying A Radical Idea--Expression Dichotomy To The Ownership Of Fictional Characters, Tze Ping Lim Jan 2018

Beyond Copyright: Applying A Radical Idea--Expression Dichotomy To The Ownership Of Fictional Characters, Tze Ping Lim

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Copyright protection for fictional characters in the United States is expanding on an uncertain and incoherent basis. With the event of the case Towle v. DC Comics, courts have now applied three different tests to discern a character's copyrightability. Towle was a significant decision because it was the first time a US court had held that a car (the Batmobile) was a copyrightable character. Although courts have utilized the ideas-expression dichotomy to differentiate unprotectable character "ideas" from protectable character 'expressions', the dichotomy is unlikely to alleviate the law's uncertainty and incoherence. Both the US ideas-expression dichotomy and character ...


The Bot Legal Code: Developing A Legally Compliant Artificial Intelligence, Edmund Mokhtarian Jan 2018

The Bot Legal Code: Developing A Legally Compliant Artificial Intelligence, Edmund Mokhtarian

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The advent of sophisticated artificial intelligence (AI) agents, or bots, raises the question: How do we ensure that these bots act appropriately? Within a decade, AI will be ubiquitous, with billions of active bots influencing nearly every industry and daily activity. Given the extensiveness of AI activity, it will be nearly impossible to explicitly program bots with detailed instructions on permitted and prohibited actions, particularly as they face unpredictable, novel situations. Rather, if risks to humans are to be mitigated, bots must have some overriding moral or legal compass--a set of "AI Laws"--to allow them to adapt to whatever ...


Differential Privacy: A Primer For A Non-Technical Audience, Alexandra Wood, Micah Altman, Aaron Bembenek, Mark Bun, Marco Gaboardi, James Honaker, Kobbi Nissim, David R. O'Brien, Thomas Steinke, Salil Vadhan Jan 2018

Differential Privacy: A Primer For A Non-Technical Audience, Alexandra Wood, Micah Altman, Aaron Bembenek, Mark Bun, Marco Gaboardi, James Honaker, Kobbi Nissim, David R. O'Brien, Thomas Steinke, Salil Vadhan

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Differential privacy is a formal mathematical framework for quantifying and managing privacy risks. It provides provable privacy protection against a wide range of potential attacks, including those currently unforeseen. Differential privacy is primarily studied in the context of the collection, analysis, and release of aggregate statistics. These range from simple statistical estimations, such as averages, to machine learning. Tools for differentially private analysis are now in early stages of implementation and use across a variety of academic,industry, and government settings. Interest in the concept is growing among potential users of the tools, as well as within legal and policy ...


Prescriptions At A Price: America's Opioid Crisis And The Increasing Toll On Drug Record Privacy, Reem Blaik Jan 2018

Prescriptions At A Price: America's Opioid Crisis And The Increasing Toll On Drug Record Privacy, Reem Blaik

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

How should the US Constitution govern patient privacy in the face of a public health emergency? Declaring the United States' opioid crisis as a public health emergency may put the already-compromised integrity of drug record privacy at higher risk by virtue of emerging administrative responses, existing Supreme Court precedent, and acquiescent state laws. The White House convened a summit on opioids where the then-US attorney general discussed law enforcement responses to the crisis. Although the Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, the Supreme Court's third-party doctrine generally grants state and federal actors access to records released to ...