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Immigration Law Under The Mclachlin Court, Catherine Dauvergne Dec 2018

Immigration Law Under The Mclachlin Court, Catherine Dauvergne

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No abstract provided.


Regulating Short-Term Accommodation Within Condominium, Douglas C. Harris Dec 2018

Regulating Short-Term Accommodation Within Condominium, Douglas C. Harris

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Owning land within condominium, or strata property as it is known in British Columbia, includes holding an individual strata lot, a share of the common property, and the right to participate in governing the uses of the private and common property. Owners participate in governing through membership and voting rights in a strata corporation which has the responsibility to maintain the common property and the authority to establish bylaws that restrict the use of the common and private property. The corollary of membership and a voice in the affairs of the strata corporation is a duty to accept its governing …


Remedies In Canadian Administrative Law: A Roadmap To A Parallel Legal Universe, Cristie Ford Nov 2018

Remedies In Canadian Administrative Law: A Roadmap To A Parallel Legal Universe, Cristie Ford

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Administrative law in Canada, as in many other common law countries, centres around judicial review doctrine. Sometimes, one may even get the sense that administrative law and administrative law remedies begin at the point at which a party to an administrative action seeks judicial review of that action through the courts. Yet an overly tight focus on court action misses the hugely important first step in real-life administrative action: the varied and sometimes creative, purpose-built remedies that a tribunal itself may impose.

This chapter, which has been revised and updated for the third edition of this leading text on Canadian …


Interactive Strategies For Advancing Marginalized Actors In Transnational Governance Contests: Labour And The Making Of Iso 26000, Stepan Wood Nov 2018

Interactive Strategies For Advancing Marginalized Actors In Transnational Governance Contests: Labour And The Making Of Iso 26000, Stepan Wood

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This chapter explores the role of organized labour in drafting the ISO 26000 guidance standard on social responsibility (SR) as a case study of the circumstances in which weaker actors can take advantage of transnational business governance interactions (TBGIs) to achieve regulatory outcomes that advance their interests. Organized labour initially opposed the development of an ISO standard on SR and was vastly outnumbered when it joined this project in a defensive posture. Yet it achieved remarkably wide and strong protection for workers in ISO 26000 compared to other leading SR initiatives. Integrating theories of legitimation and regulatory enrolment, I theorize …


The Digital Services Tax: A Conceptual Defense, Wei Cui Oct 2018

The Digital Services Tax: A Conceptual Defense, Wei Cui

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As 2018 nears its end, a digital service tax (DST) seems imminent in Europe, yet elaborations of the DST’s motivations have so far come primarily from the European Commission and the UK Treasury: academic and practitioner commentators remain largely skeptical. This paper offers a new conceptual defense of the DST that is independent of the existing government positions. I argue that a clear case can be made for the DST as a way of taxing location-specific rent earned by digital platforms. While the DST may also be partially motivated by other, potentially conflicting visions for reforming international taxation, such as …


Tax Treaty Abuse And The Principal Purpose Test: Part Ii, David G. Duff Oct 2018

Tax Treaty Abuse And The Principal Purpose Test: Part Ii, David G. Duff

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The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting or Multilateral Instrument (MLI) has been described as “an historical turning point in the area of international taxation” which introduces a third layer of tax rules for the taxation of cross-border transactions in addition to domestic tax law and bilateral tax treaties. Of the many provisions of the MLI, the most important are the preamble text in Article 6(1) and the so-called principal purpose test (PPT) in Article 7(1), both of which have been adopted by all signatories to the MLI in order to satisfy …


Tax Treaty Abuse And The Principal Purpose Test - Part I, David G. Duff Oct 2018

Tax Treaty Abuse And The Principal Purpose Test - Part I, David G. Duff

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The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (MLI) has been described as “an historical turning point in the area of international taxation” which introduces a third layer of tax rules for the taxation of cross-border transactions in addition to domestic tax law and bilateral tax treaties. Of the many provisions of the MLI, the most important are the preamble text in Article 6(1) and the so-called principal purpose test (PPT) in Article 7(1), both of which have been adopted by all signatories to the MLI in order to satisfy the OECD’s minimum …


Residence-Based Formulary Apportionment: (In-)Feasibility And Implications, Wei Cui Oct 2018

Residence-Based Formulary Apportionment: (In-)Feasibility And Implications, Wei Cui

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I examine one way of taxing international corporate income that has not previously been studied, “residence-based formulary apportionment” or RBFA. I first offer a new taxonomy of different ways of taxing corporate income by reference to individual shareholders, and distinguish what I call the “shareholder attribution” approach from integration, pass-through, and other approaches. I then argue that although traditional international legal norms had led international tax design to avoid taxing foreign corporations “unconnected” with the taxing jurisdiction (e.g. foreign corporations earning only foreign income), these legal norms have gone through substantial transformations in recent years. The exercise of jurisdiction over …


Judicial Review Of Government Actions In China, Wei Cui, Jie Cheng, Dominika Wiesner May 2018

Judicial Review Of Government Actions In China, Wei Cui, Jie Cheng, Dominika Wiesner

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China’s laws and policies on the judicial review of government actions are often used as a bellwether of the government’s attitude towards the rule of law. Accordingly, in gauging the direction of legal reform in the Xi Jinping era, recent media reports have highlighted changes in litigation against government agencies as evidence of positive movement towards the greater rule of law, albeit only contradicted by other evidence of political repression and increasing authoritarianism. We provide a selective review of changes in China’s administrative litigation system in the last few years, including the amendment in 2014 of the Administrative Litigation Law …


Legislated Interpretation And Tax Avoidance In Canadian Income Tax Law, David G. Duff, Benjamin Alarie May 2018

Legislated Interpretation And Tax Avoidance In Canadian Income Tax Law, David G. Duff, Benjamin Alarie

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Predictable statutory interpretation helps ensure the reliable operation of contemporary systems of taxation. Tax liabilities that are not clearly expressed and articulated by legislatures lead to over-reliance on litigation as a means to enforce and clarify legislative intent. For this reason, modern legislatures continually amend and draft new tax provisions, reformulating existing rules and introducing new ones to address ever-changing social and economic environments. Moreover, legislatures also respond with amendments directed at judicial decisions with which they disagree, as well as the transactions and arrangements at issue in these cases. As these amended and new rules are then subject to …


An Error Of Law And The Credibility Of The Civil Resolution Tribunal, Douglas C. Harris, Sophie Marshall Apr 2018

An Error Of Law And The Credibility Of The Civil Resolution Tribunal, Douglas C. Harris, Sophie Marshall

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No abstract provided.


Access To Justice Online: Are Canadian Court Websites Accessible For Users With Visual Impairments?, Cody Rei-Anderson, Graham Reynolds, Jayde Wood, Natasha Wood Apr 2018

Access To Justice Online: Are Canadian Court Websites Accessible For Users With Visual Impairments?, Cody Rei-Anderson, Graham Reynolds, Jayde Wood, Natasha Wood

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Steps taken to make legal information available online have resulted in access to justice benefits for many. However, these benefits may not extend to everyone equally. As scholars have cautioned, the adoption of new technologies that purport to improve access to justice may perpetuate the exclusion of vulnerable and marginalized individuals and groups from the justice system. This article applies this insight to legal information made available online by Canadian court websites and CanLII. It does so through a two-part study. First, we used an automated testing tool to determine whether the websites noted above comply with accessibility standards. Second, …


Why Does Lord Denning's Lead Balloon Intrigue Us Still? The Prospects Of Finding A Unifying Principle For Duress, Undue Influence And Unconscionability, Marcus Moore Apr 2018

Why Does Lord Denning's Lead Balloon Intrigue Us Still? The Prospects Of Finding A Unifying Principle For Duress, Undue Influence And Unconscionability, Marcus Moore

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To this day, Lord Denning’s opinion in Lloyds Bank v Bundy remains a staple of first-year Contracts courses in law faculties across the common law world. After surveying doctrines such as duress, undue influence, and unconscionable bargains, Denning posited that they were instances of an underlying principle permitting avoidance of a contract for “inequality of bargaining power”. Although rejected by the House of Lords, Denning’s proposition has intrigued Contract scholars for more than four decades. Subsequent attempts to “fix” Denning’s thesis have fallen short. Yet, authors of Contract textbooks persist in asking whether the doctrines might yet be unified in …


The Marital Wealth Gap, Erez Aloni Mar 2018

The Marital Wealth Gap, Erez Aloni

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Married couples are wealthier than people in all other family structures. The top 10% of wealth holders are, in great proportion, married. Even among the wealthiest households, married couples hold significantly more wealth than others. The Article identifies this phenomenon as the “Marital Wealth Gap,” and critiques the role of diverse legal mechanisms in creating and maintaining it. Marriage also contributes to the concentration of wealth because marriage patterns are increasingly assortative: wealth marries wealth. The law entrenches or even exacerbates these class-based marriage patterns by erecting structural barriers that hinder people from meeting across economic strata.


How can the …


The Role Of Section 718.2(A)(Ii) In Sentencing For Male Intimate Partner Violence Against Women, Isabel Grant Jan 2018

The Role Of Section 718.2(A)(Ii) In Sentencing For Male Intimate Partner Violence Against Women, Isabel Grant

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This article examines sentencing for male intimate partner violence against women since the 1996 enactment of s 718.2(a)(ii) of the Criminal Code, which requires that a spousal/common-law relationship between an offender and victim be considered an aggravating factor in sentencing. The article argues that, while in general appellate courts in Canada are taking this violence seriously, cases involving level I sexual assaults still demonstrate the longstanding tendency to treat the intimate relationship as mitigating. Further appellate guidance is necessary on how courts should reconcile s 718.2(a)(ii) with s 718.2(e), which requires that all options other than incarceration be considered when …


Justice As Harmony: The Distinct Resonance Of Chief Justice Beverley Mclachlin's Juridical Genius, Marcus Moore Jan 2018

Justice As Harmony: The Distinct Resonance Of Chief Justice Beverley Mclachlin's Juridical Genius, Marcus Moore

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Chief Justice McLachlin’s juridical work has earned special praise, but what specifically distinguishes it among the work of other leading jurists has proven elusive for lawyers and social scientists to identify. My experience as a law clerk to McLachlin CJC suggested a distinct approach never comprehensively articulated, but intuitively well-known and widely-emulated among those in her sphere of influence. Drawing on the Chief Justice’s public lectures—where she often explained and offered deeper reflection on the McLachlin Court’s defining jurisprudence—I make the case in this article that at the heart of that approach is a quality best described as the pursuit …


A Bridge Over Troubled Waters - Resolving Bank Financial Distress In Canada, Janis P. Sarra Jan 2018

A Bridge Over Troubled Waters - Resolving Bank Financial Distress In Canada, Janis P. Sarra

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Effective June 2017, Canada formalized its new resolution regime for “domestic systemically important banks”. This article examines the new resolution regime in the context of the early intervention program by the financial services regulator. The system offers a complex but integrated set of mechanisms to monitor the financial health of financial institutions, to intervene at an early stage of financial distress, and to resolve the financially distressed bank in a timely manner. Resolution is the restructuring of a financially distressed or insolvent bank by a designated authority. To “resolve” a bank is to use a series of tools under banking …


When Deciding Whether To Allow A Taking Of Property We Need To Ask What We Want Property Rights To Do, Douglas C. Harris Jan 2018

When Deciding Whether To Allow A Taking Of Property We Need To Ask What We Want Property Rights To Do, Douglas C. Harris

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In recognition of the dangers inherent to a regime that enables a majority of owners to terminate the individual property interests of a dissenting minority, the Strata Property Act requires that strata corporations secure court confirmation of dissolution votes. Not surprisingly, the shift to a lower dissolution threshold, the rapidly rising land values in British Columbia’s urban centres, and the increased costs of maintaining aging buildings, have precipitated a growing number of dissolution votes and a steady flow of applications to the British Columbia Supreme Court (BCSC) to confirm the votes.


R. V. K.R.J.: Shifting The Balance Of The Oakes Test From Minimal Impairment To Proportionality Of Effects, Marcus Moore Jan 2018

R. V. K.R.J.: Shifting The Balance Of The Oakes Test From Minimal Impairment To Proportionality Of Effects, Marcus Moore

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The judgment of the Supreme Court in R. v. K.R.J. reflects an important potential change in the way proportionality analysis is conducted in the review of constitutional rights limitations under Canada’s Oakes test. Previously, most cases came down to the “Minimal Impairment” stage of Oakes. Its dominant role is challenged by KRJ, which places new weight on the subsequent and final “Proportionality of Effects” step. A permanent shift in the focus of the test to the Proportionality of Effects inquiry would be a landmark change in the thirty-year history of proportionality in Canada. The shift does not appear crafted to …


Vulnerability, Canadian Disaster Law And The Beast, Jocelyn Stacey Jan 2018

Vulnerability, Canadian Disaster Law And The Beast, Jocelyn Stacey

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This article is the first step in a major research project on Canadian disaster law. As such, the article's first objective is to map the terrain of the law in Canada that governs disasters. To provide context for this exercise in mapping, the article focuses on the circumstances surrounding the 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire ('the Beast'). Focusing on the 'the Beast' also gives rise to the article's second objective: a critical examination of the ways in which Canadian disaster law fails to reflect foundational social science research on disaster harm. The article argues that the current framework of Canadian law …


Beyond Airspace Safety: A Feminist Perspective On Drone Privacy Regulation, Kristen Thomasen Jan 2018

Beyond Airspace Safety: A Feminist Perspective On Drone Privacy Regulation, Kristen Thomasen

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The impact of drones on women’s privacy has recently garnered sensational attention in media and popular discussions. Media headlines splash stories about drones spying on sunbathing or naked women and girls, drones being used to stalk women through public spaces, and drones delivering abortion pills to women who might otherwise lack access. Yet despite this popular attention, and the immense literature that has emerged analyzing the privacy implications of drone technology, questions about how the drone might enhance or undermine women’s privacy in particular have not yet been the subject of significant academic analysis. This paper contributes to the growing …


Enforcing A Holding Deposit Agreement, Samuel Beswick Jan 2018

Enforcing A Holding Deposit Agreement, Samuel Beswick

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Prospective tenants in England are often asked to put down a holding deposit as a condition of signing a tenancy agreement. A holding deposit is an up-front payment given to the landlord or the landlord’s agent to place a “hold” on the property from being rented to anyone else while the applicant’s references are checked. It is paid after the key terms of the tenancy (for example, the rent amount and move-in date) have been agreed. Its purpose is to give both parties peace-of-mind that the applicant is “locked in” to renting the property.

In a previous contribution to the …


Local Tax Incentives And Behavior Of Foreign Enterprises: Evidence From A Large Developing Country, Jing Xing, Wei Cui, Xi Qu Jan 2018

Local Tax Incentives And Behavior Of Foreign Enterprises: Evidence From A Large Developing Country, Jing Xing, Wei Cui, Xi Qu

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We analyze how profit reporting and investment behavior of foreign enterprises respond to local tax incentives in China, a large developing country. Using firm-level data between 2000 and 2013 from China’s industrial enterprise survey, we first provide strong evidence for tax competition among Chinese cities (especially cities within the same province) over the average effective income tax rate. We then find that, despite stringent capital controls, both reported pre-tax profits and investment of foreign firms respond strongly to local tax incentives, suggesting that subnational tax competition in China is oriented towards both mobile profits and real resources.


Devalued Liberty And Undue Deference: The Tort Of False Imprisonment And The Law Of Solitary Confinement, Efrat Arbel Jan 2018

Devalued Liberty And Undue Deference: The Tort Of False Imprisonment And The Law Of Solitary Confinement, Efrat Arbel

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Despite numerous calls for reform and restraint, solitary confinement continues to be both misused and overused in Canadian prisons. This paper charts a path through which to address such misuse, but analyzing solitary confinement through the tort of false imprisonment. This analysis is new: while some scholars have examined how other branches of tort law can address harms caused by solitary confinement, none have examined the application of this tort. I argue that the tort of false imprisonment provides segregated prisoners with an effective means through which to seek compensation for individual harm. As an intentional tort that is actionable …


A Tale Of Two Casinos: Unequal Spaces Of Local Governance, Alexandra Flynn Jan 2018

A Tale Of Two Casinos: Unequal Spaces Of Local Governance, Alexandra Flynn

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Local actors, including resident and business associations, do not simply influence decision-makers, but can also reshape the purportedly neutral governance model within which decision-making takes place. In big cities like Toronto, this reshaping exacerbates the existing geographic and socio-economic unevenness. The work of James Scott, Mariana Valverde, and Cheryl Teelucksingh helps to explain how local actors interface with seemingly neutral governance bodies to have their interests heard, particularly in relation to locally undesirable land uses. The paper considers two case studies detailing the governance practices at work in differing decisions about casinos in the City of Toronto. A 2012-2013 debate …


Recognizing The Relevance Of Human Rights: The Application Of The Presumption Of Conformity In The Context Of Copyright, Graham Reynolds Jan 2018

Recognizing The Relevance Of Human Rights: The Application Of The Presumption Of Conformity In The Context Of Copyright, Graham Reynolds

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This article discusses the application of the presumption of conformity with international law in the context of copyright. Although Canadian courts have applied the presumption of conformity in a number of copyright cases, no Canadian court has explicitly considered, under the presumption of conformity, whether interpretations of provisions of the Copyright Act are consistent with, or reflect the values and principles of, international human rights treaties that Canada has signed and ratified. In this article, I will argue that Canadian courts applying the presumption of conformity in the context of copyright should do so with reference to Canada’s obligations under …


Corporate Law Federalism In Historical Context: Comparing Canada And The United States, Camden Hutchison Jan 2018

Corporate Law Federalism In Historical Context: Comparing Canada And The United States, Camden Hutchison

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Although American and Canadian corporate law share many similarities, they are also marked by important institutional differences. Among the most notable are the differing roles of federal versus state/provincial policymaking in the two countries: While American corporate law has been deeply influenced by jurisdictional competition among the states, Canadian law has instead been shaped by federal legislative activity, as seen today in the standardizing influence of the Canada Business Corporations Act. These different institutional histories have led to distinct evolutionary paths, with important substantive consequences for contemporary corporate law. Despite considerable academic attention to the subject of corporate law federalism, …


Pluralism And Regulatory Response To The Sharing Economy, Erez Aloni Jan 2018

Pluralism And Regulatory Response To The Sharing Economy, Erez Aloni

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Providers use platforms in dissimilar ways. Some providers create new capacity and designate it for exclusively commercial use via platforms. For example, a provider buys a car that serves predominantly for driving paying passengers, converts a standard residential rental to a short-term rental, or works full-time via a platform. Conversely, other providers leverage their idle capacity and monetize it (e.g., a provider uses the family car to drive platform passengers in the evenings). This chapter argues that the distinction between new and idle capacity is a fundamental concept that should guide regulation of activities in the platform economy. Creating new …


Introduction: Canada's Chief Justice: Beverley Mclachlin's Legacy Of Law And Leadership, Marcus Moore Jan 2018

Introduction: Canada's Chief Justice: Beverley Mclachlin's Legacy Of Law And Leadership, Marcus Moore

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Summarizes the legacy of law and leadership of Beverley McLachlin, the longest-serving Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada (2000-2017), and first female Chief Justice.


The Past, Present, And Future Of Law Reform In Canada, Marcus Moore Jan 2018

The Past, Present, And Future Of Law Reform In Canada, Marcus Moore

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The story of institutional law reform in Canada has been described by one veteran as ‘somewhat troubling.’ It is a story not without significant successes: In Québec civil law, the codifications were remarkable achievements which realised sweeping and highly-esteemed reforms. Among Canadian common law provinces, Ontario founded the Commonwealth’s first law reform commission in 1964, and as early as 1967 Alberta innovated the now internationally-influential joint venture design of its commission. Further, Canada’s original national commission was notable for its ambitious pursuit of social issues, and the second national commission challenged conventional legal paradigms at unparalleled depth. Across the country, …