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2018

Cornell University Law School

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Gains, Losses, And Judges: Framing And The Judiciary, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Andrew J. Wistrich Dec 2018

Gains, Losses, And Judges: Framing And The Judiciary, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Andrew J. Wistrich

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Losses hurt more than foregone gains-an asymmetry that psychologists call "loss aversion." Losses cause more regret than foregone gains, and people struggle harder to avoid losses than to obtain equivalent gains. Loss aversion produces a variety of anomalous behaviors: people's preferences depend upon the initial reference point (reference-dependent choice); people are overly focused on maintaining the status quo (status quo bias); people attach more value to goods they own than to identical goods that they do not (endowment effect); and people take excessive risks to avoid sure losses (risk seeking in the face of losses). These phenomena are so pervasive …


Congressional Power To Strip State Courts Of Jurisdiction, Michael C. Dorf Nov 2018

Congressional Power To Strip State Courts Of Jurisdiction, Michael C. Dorf

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

The very substantial literature on the scope of congressional power to strip courts of jurisdiction contains a gap: it does not discuss the source of the affirmative power of Congress to strip state courts of their jurisdiction. Laws granting exclusive federal court jurisdiction over some category of cases are necessary and proper to the exercise of the power to ordain and establish lower federal courts, but what power does Congress exercise when it strips both state and federal courts of jurisdiction? The answer depends on the nature of the case. In stripping all courts of the power to hear federal …


Will Delaware Be Different? An Empirical Study Of Tc Heartland And The Shift To Defendant Choice Of Venue, Ofer Eldar, Neel U. Sukhatme Nov 2018

Will Delaware Be Different? An Empirical Study Of Tc Heartland And The Shift To Defendant Choice Of Venue, Ofer Eldar, Neel U. Sukhatme

Cornell Law Review

Why do some venues evolve into litigation havens while others do not? Venues might compete for litigation for various reasons, like enhancing their judges’ prestige and increasing revenues for the local bar. This competition is framed by the party that chooses the venue. Whether plaintiffs or defendants primarily choose venue is crucial because, we argue, the two scenarios are not symmetrical.

The Supreme Court’s recent decision in TC Heartland LLC v. Kraft Foods LLC illustrates this dynamic. There, the Court effectively shifted venue choice in many patent infringement cases from plaintiffs to corporate defendants. We use TC Heartland to empirically …


Remote Control: Treaty Requirements For Regulatory Procedures, Paul Mertenskotter, Richard B. Stewart Nov 2018

Remote Control: Treaty Requirements For Regulatory Procedures, Paul Mertenskotter, Richard B. Stewart

Cornell Law Review

Modern trade agreements have come to include many and varied obligations for domestic regulation and administration. These treaty-based commitments aim primarily to improve the freedom of firms to operate in the global economy by aligning the ways in which governments regulate markets and private actors engage governments through administrative law. They therefore strike at the core of how economies are ordered and entail important distributional questions. An increasingly prevalent and diverse—but hitherto largely neglected—type of treaty obligation prescribes specific procedures for domestic administrative decision-making. This Article frames such requirements as tools of powerful states to control regulatory decision-making by government …


Wrongful Termi(Gay)Tion: A Comparative Analysis Of Employment Non-Discrimination Laws And The Lgbtq+ Workplace Protections In South Africa And The United States, Jared Ham Nov 2018

Wrongful Termi(Gay)Tion: A Comparative Analysis Of Employment Non-Discrimination Laws And The Lgbtq+ Workplace Protections In South Africa And The United States, Jared Ham

Cornell Law Review

Although the United States has made great strides toward equality for its LGBTQ+ citizens in recent years, South Africa has demonstrated far greater progress concerning equal protection and employment non-discrimination of its LGBTQ+ citizens. The South African Constitution, South African Constitutional Court cases, and laws passed by the South African Parliament all mandate that LGBTQ+ South Africans be treated equally to their heterosexual counterparts. Discrimination against LGBTQ+ South Africans is expressly forbidden— including in the employment context. The United States still lacks comprehensive federal employment non-discrimination laws or workplace protections for LGBTQ+ individuals. Extending Title VII—either via court decision or …


Trade And Development In An Era Of Multipolarity And Reterritorialization, Chantal Thomas Nov 2018

Trade And Development In An Era Of Multipolarity And Reterritorialization, Chantal Thomas

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

This essay will consider two phenomena emergent within international trade law and policy: multipolarity (the emergence of new global powers alongside existing hegemons) and reterritorialization (the rise, sometimes in quite virulent form, of economic nationalism as a basis for asserting State controls over, and barriers to, cross-border trade). These new dynamics present serious challenges and dangers. This essay will consider whether they might also create opportunities for reshaping the international economic order to be more supportive of the longstanding concerns of developing States. In doing so, the essay will elucidate key aspects of both the global political economy and the …


You Are Not Cordially Invited: How Universities Maintain First Amendment Rights And Safety In The Midst Of Controversial On-Campus Speakers, Alyson R. Hamby Nov 2018

You Are Not Cordially Invited: How Universities Maintain First Amendment Rights And Safety In The Midst Of Controversial On-Campus Speakers, Alyson R. Hamby

Cornell Law Review

Against a backdrop of national political turmoil, universities have experienced volatile reactions from their student bodies and outsiders in protest of the inflammatory speakers that schools host on their campuses. This Note discusses the tension between First Amendment protections and tort liability in the context of higher education. Specifically, it focuses on the interplay between controversial, on-campus speakers and the violent protests that arise in reaction to them. While examining this interaction, this Note emphasizes the legal duties of academic institutions in facilitating these on-campus speakers while also protecting their students’ constitutional rights and safety. In examining these conflicts, the …


Vol. 104, No. 1 Table Of Contents Nov 2018

Vol. 104, No. 1 Table Of Contents

Cornell Law Review

No abstract provided.


Vol. 104, No. 1 Masthead Nov 2018

Vol. 104, No. 1 Masthead

Cornell Law Review

No abstract provided.


Making State Civil Procedure, Zachary D. Clopton Nov 2018

Making State Civil Procedure, Zachary D. Clopton

Cornell Law Review

State courts matter. Not only do state courts handle more than sixty times the number of civil cases as federal courts, but they also represent an important bulwark against the effects of federal procedural retrenchment. Yet state courts and state procedure are notably absent from the scholarly discourse.

In order to evaluate state procedure—and in order to understand the states’ relationship to federal procedural retrenchment— this Article presents the first comprehensive study of who makes state civil procedure. This project begins with a systematic review of the formal processes by which states make their rules of procedure. Many of the …


Lying About God (And Love?) To Get Laid: The Case Study Of Criminalizing Sex Under Religious False Pretense In Hong Kong, Jianlin Chen Oct 2018

Lying About God (And Love?) To Get Laid: The Case Study Of Criminalizing Sex Under Religious False Pretense In Hong Kong, Jianlin Chen

Cornell International Law Journal

Section 120 of the Hong Kong Crimes Ordinances— which traces its origin to the U.K. and which is replicated in several other English common law jurisdictions— criminalizes procurement of sexual acts through false representation. Recently, prosecutors used this provision to indict individuals who procured sexual acts on the pretext of performing luck-improving religious rituals. Beyond presenting the first-ever systematic examination of these intriguing fraudulent sex court cases, this Article makes two arguments. First, this Article explains how the strong skepticism, and at times, instinctive rejection by the judges of the purported religious proclamations not only confirm the scholarly concerns over …


Against Populist Isolationism: New Asian Regionalism And Global South Powers In International Economic Law, Pasha L. Hsieh Oct 2018

Against Populist Isolationism: New Asian Regionalism And Global South Powers In International Economic Law, Pasha L. Hsieh

Cornell International Law Journal

This Article provides the most up-to-date examination of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which is poised to become the world’s largest free trade agreement (FTA). It argues that the 16-country mega-FTA will galvanize the paradigm shift in Asian regionalism and build a normative foundation for the Global South in international economic law. Based on intertwined theoretical and substantive claims, this Article opens an inquiry into the assertive legalism of developing nations in the new regional economic order. It further manifests the pivotal force of emerging economies against populist isolationism in the Trump era that undermines the neoliberal foundation of …


A Christian Oasis: The Role Of Christianity And Custom In The Laws Of Ethiopia, Cyril A. Heron Oct 2018

A Christian Oasis: The Role Of Christianity And Custom In The Laws Of Ethiopia, Cyril A. Heron

Cornell International Law Journal

Part I of this Note will analyze the history of Ethiopia’s legal system.

Part II of this Note focuses on modern Ethiopia and seeks to scrutinize Ethiopia’s Civil Code, Constitution, and other legislation. Written into the new constitution of Ethiopia is a declaration of secularism, similar to the United States and South Africa. Yet, in a nation that has existed as a Christian state for at least a millennium, it is nigh on impossible for Ethiopia to fully divest itself of its cultural mores with mere constitutional edict. The question is, therefore, what is to be made of traditional beliefs …


Why And How Independent Agencies Should Conduct Regulatory Impact Analysis, Jerry Ellig Oct 2018

Why And How Independent Agencies Should Conduct Regulatory Impact Analysis, Jerry Ellig

Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy

Independent regulatory agencies face increasing pressure to conduct high-quality economic analysis of regulations, similar to the regulatory impact analysis conducted by executive branch agencies. Such analysis could be required by evolving judicial doctrines, regulatory reform statutes, or executive order. This article explains how regulatory impact analysis can contribute to smarter regulation, documents the current low quality of such analysis at many independent regulatory agencies, and offers a blueprint that independent agencies can use to build their capacity to conduct objective, high-quality analysis.


Trans-Cending The Medicalization Of Gender: Improving Legal Protections For People Who Are Transgender And Incarcerated, Lindsey Ruff Oct 2018

Trans-Cending The Medicalization Of Gender: Improving Legal Protections For People Who Are Transgender And Incarcerated, Lindsey Ruff

Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy

People who are transgender and incarcerated face a unique set of human rights challenges. Courts have made progress protecting transgender people who are incarcerated by relying on the psychiatric diagnosis, Gender Dysphoria (GD), as grounds for legal protections. However, reliance on a medical model of gender has practical limitations and adverse social consequences. This model fails to protect the most vulnerable people of trans experience and contributes to stigma against the transgender community overall. The social and legal interests of people who are transgender and incarcerated would be better served if their rights were protected on alternate legal grounds.

Part …


Vol. 51, No. 3 Table Of Contents Oct 2018

Vol. 51, No. 3 Table Of Contents

Cornell International Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Sustainable Finance & China’S Green Credit Reforms: A Test Case For Bank Monitoring Of Environmental Risk, Virginia Harper Ho Oct 2018

Sustainable Finance & China’S Green Credit Reforms: A Test Case For Bank Monitoring Of Environmental Risk, Virginia Harper Ho

Cornell International Law Journal

In the past few years, the focus of international organizations on sustainable finance— the integration of environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations into global financial systems— has intensified because of its potential to promote financial stability, better risk assessment, and more efficient allocation of capital. The success of these efforts depends in part on whether banks and other financial institutions can manage, price, and monitor environmental risk.

This Article offers new answers to this question from China— one of the most important global test sites for sustainable finance. Corporate governance theory suggests that creditor monitoring can promote managerial accountability and …


The Republic Of Virtue: The Republican Ideal In British And American Property Law, Maxwell M. Garnaat Oct 2018

The Republic Of Virtue: The Republican Ideal In British And American Property Law, Maxwell M. Garnaat

Cornell International Law Journal

As the estate tax comes under increasing pressure from all sides, it is important that we determine just how rooted in American ideals such a measure truly is. On the one hand, it is true that Lockean theories of private property remain a stalwart influence on the nation, one which may be used to argue against the estate tax. On the other hand, however, the equally venerable theory of republicanism— one adopted and developed by the Framers themselves— can justify its continuation. Applying the principles of republicanism to this specific context, one can see how closely its tenets align with …


Vol. 28, No. 1 Table Of Contents Oct 2018

Vol. 28, No. 1 Table Of Contents

Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Who Knows What, And When?: A Survey Of The Privacy Policies Proffered By U.S. Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Testing Companies, James W. Hazel, Christopher Slobogin Oct 2018

Who Knows What, And When?: A Survey Of The Privacy Policies Proffered By U.S. Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Testing Companies, James W. Hazel, Christopher Slobogin

Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy

Direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) companies have proliferated in the past several years. Based on an analysis of genetic material submitted by consumers, these companies offer a wide array of services, ranging from providing information about health and ancestry to identification of surreptitiously-gathered biological material sent in by suspicious spouses. Federal and state laws are ambiguous about the types of disclosures these companies must make about how the genetic information they obtain is collected, used, and shared. In an effort to assist in developing such laws, this Article reports a survey of the privacy policies these companies purport to follow. It …


Speaking Louder Than Words: Finding An Overt Act Requirement In The Hobbs Act, Matthew Ladew Oct 2018

Speaking Louder Than Words: Finding An Overt Act Requirement In The Hobbs Act, Matthew Ladew

Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy

Federal conspiracy law has a problem. It is sometimes easier to put someone in prison for twenty years than it is to put her away for five— for the very same crime. This situation stems from a bright-line rule to which the Supreme Court has long adhered: when Congress wants an overt act requirement, Congress will explicitly so specify. Consider the resulting status quo. The general federal conspiracy statute requires proof of an overt act. Its maximum sentence is five years. In contrast, the Hobbs Act contains no overt act requirement, yet it provides for a maximum sentence of twenty …


Do You Tru$T Your Children: A Parent’S Final Dilemma, J. Sam Rodgers Oct 2018

Do You Tru$T Your Children: A Parent’S Final Dilemma, J. Sam Rodgers

Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy

Incentive trusts developed out of unique American inheritance laws and have become a regarded estate planning tool. Policy, observation, and research suggest that they are inadequate, although still uncritically used. A Hidden Bonus Trust is an improved solution that builds on the shortcomings of incentive trusts. Hidden Bonus Trusts quench parents’ desires to leave legacies and motivate troubled beneficiaries.


A Structural Approach To Case Synthesis, Fact Application, And Persuasive Framing Of The Law, Lara Gelbwasser Freed, Joel Atlas Oct 2018

A Structural Approach To Case Synthesis, Fact Application, And Persuasive Framing Of The Law, Lara Gelbwasser Freed, Joel Atlas

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Lawyering-skills courses, although typically writing-focused, address a wide array of topics. Indeed, to prepare an effective legal document, students must not only write well but analyze well. And, although teaching the pure-writing aspects of the course is certainly a challenge, teaching the analysis-related skills is often the most difficult.

Among the thorniest of these skills are synthesizing cases, applying facts, and persuasively framing the law. Professors struggle to teach these skills, and students consistently struggle to understand and implement them. To lighten the burden for both professors and students, we have approached these skills structurally and, in doing so, have …


Economic Rationality And Ethical Values In Design-Defect Analysis: The Trolley Problem And Autonomous Vehicles, W. Bradley Wendel Oct 2018

Economic Rationality And Ethical Values In Design-Defect Analysis: The Trolley Problem And Autonomous Vehicles, W. Bradley Wendel

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

The trolley problem is a well-known thought experiment in moral philosophy, used to explore issues such as rights, deontological reasons, and intention and the doctrine of double effect. Recently it has featured prominently in popular discussions of decision making by autonomous vehicle systems. For example, a Mercedes-Benz executive stated that, if faced with the choice between running over a child that had unexpectedly darted into the road and steering suddenly, causing a rollover accident that would kill the driver, an automated Mercedes would opt to kill the child. This paper considers not the ethical issues raised by such dilemmas, but …


The Constitutional Politics Heller Launched, Michael C. Dorf Sep 2018

The Constitutional Politics Heller Launched, Michael C. Dorf

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Roger C. Cramton And The Legal Services Corporation, Charles W. Wolfram Sep 2018

Roger C. Cramton And The Legal Services Corporation, Charles W. Wolfram

Cornell Law Review

No abstract provided.


To All Government Lawyers, Roger Left You A Note: Tribute To Roger C. Cramton, Susan P. Koniak Sep 2018

To All Government Lawyers, Roger Left You A Note: Tribute To Roger C. Cramton, Susan P. Koniak

Cornell Law Review

No abstract provided.


Roger C. Cramton And The Availability Of Legal Services, Thomas D. Morgan Sep 2018

Roger C. Cramton And The Availability Of Legal Services, Thomas D. Morgan

Cornell Law Review

No abstract provided.


Preferencing Educational Choice: The Constitutional Limits, Derek W. Black Sep 2018

Preferencing Educational Choice: The Constitutional Limits, Derek W. Black

Cornell Law Review

Rapidly expanding charter and voucher programs are establishing a new education paradigm in which access to traditional public schools is no longer guaranteed. In some areas, charter and voucher programs are on a trajectory to phase out traditional public schools altogether. This Article argues that this trend and its effects violate the constitutional right to public education embedded in all fifty state constitutions.

Importantly, this Article departs from past constitutional arguments against charter and voucher programs. Past arguments have attempted to prohibit such programs entirely and have assumed, with little evidentiary support, that they endanger statewide education systems. Unsurprisingly, litigation …


Justiciability, Federalism, And The Administrative State, Zachary D. Clopton Sep 2018

Justiciability, Federalism, And The Administrative State, Zachary D. Clopton

Cornell Law Review

Article III provides that the judicial power of the United States extends to certain justiciable cases and controversies. So if a plaintiff bringing a federal claim lacks constitutional standing or her dispute is moot under Article III, then a federal court should dismiss. But this dismissal need not end the story. This Article suggests a simple, forward-looking reading of case-or-controversy dismissals: they should be understood as invitations to legislators to consider other pathways for adjudication. A case dismissed for lack of standing, for mootness, or for requesting an advisory opinion might be a candidate for resolution in a state court …