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2017

Bankruptcy

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Crisis In Corporate Governance: 2002 Style, Robert W. Hamilton Dec 2017

The Crisis In Corporate Governance: 2002 Style, Robert W. Hamilton

Maine Law Review

The period from November 1, 2001 to October 1, 2002 has been an astonishing period for corporate governance in many respects. It began with the completely unexpected collapse of Enron Corporation on November 1, 2001, followed almost immediately thereafter by widely publicized downward profit restatements and bankruptcy filings by a significant number of telecommunication companies. Since November 1, 2001, there have been numerous public reports of fraud, misconduct, and scandals by directors of other well-known corporations such as Lucent Technologies, Kmart, Merck & Co., and Rite Aid Corporation. There also have been disclosures of many instances in which corporate officers …


Cybergenics Ii: Precedent And Policy Vs. Plain Meaning, Nancy A. Haller Nov 2017

Cybergenics Ii: Precedent And Policy Vs. Plain Meaning, Nancy A. Haller

Maine Law Review

On September 20, 2002, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit issued a panel opinion concluding that a court may not authorize a creditors' committee to commence an avoidance action in the trustee's name, on behalf of a bankruptcy estate. The decision shocked the bankruptcy bar and raised such a stir that many commentators raised it to the status of one of the “top cases of the year.” Furthermore, within two months, the Second Circuit came down with a squarely contrary decision, reaffirming the validity of the practice within the Second Circuit and failing to even acknowledge recent …


Justice Scalia’S Bankruptcy Jurisprudence: The Right Judicial Philosophy For The Modern Bankruptcy Code?, Megan Mcdermott Nov 2017

Justice Scalia’S Bankruptcy Jurisprudence: The Right Judicial Philosophy For The Modern Bankruptcy Code?, Megan Mcdermott

Utah Law Review

This Article surveys an area of Justice Scalia’s legacy that is often overlooked by scholars who write broadly about the Supreme Court: his many contributions to the field of bankruptcy law. The Bankruptcy Code is rife with statutory interpretation questions that demand clear and predictable answers, due to the efficiency interests at stake and the absence of any intermediate interpretive forces, such as administrative agencies. Justice Scalia arrived on the high court at the outset of the modern bankruptcy era and this Article argues that his brand of rulebased textualism is a particularly good fit for bankruptcy law.

Specifically, four …


Bankruptcy On The Side, Kenneth Ayotte, Anthony J. Casey, David A. Skeel Jr. Nov 2017

Bankruptcy On The Side, Kenneth Ayotte, Anthony J. Casey, David A. Skeel Jr.

Northwestern University Law Review

This Article provides a framework for analyzing side agreements among stakeholders in corporate bankruptcy, such as intercreditor and “bad boy” agreements. These agreements are controversial because they commonly include a promise by a stakeholder to remain silent—to waive some procedural right they would otherwise have under the Bankruptcy Code—at potentially crucial points in the reorganization process.

Using simplified examples, we show that side agreements create benefits in some instances. But, in other cases, parties to a side agreement may attempt to extract value from nonparties to the agreement by contracting for specific performance or excessive stipulated damages that impose negative …


The Role Of Prosecutor In Collecting Payable And Receivable Debts Of The Insolvent Debtor, B. Xudaybergenov Oct 2017

The Role Of Prosecutor In Collecting Payable And Receivable Debts Of The Insolvent Debtor, B. Xudaybergenov

Review of law sciences

In this article, auther studies and analyzes the legislation on the participation of the prosecutor in collecting receivables and payables of the insolvent debtor. In addition to, recommendations related to the improvement of the prosecution activity in the bankruptcy case are developed


Tipping The Scales: Balancing The Weight Of Equity With Loan Rescissions In Bankruptcy, Corey Scott Hadley Oct 2017

Tipping The Scales: Balancing The Weight Of Equity With Loan Rescissions In Bankruptcy, Corey Scott Hadley

Maine Law Review

Prior to the passage of the Truth-in-Lending Act (TILA) in 1968, consumers were vulnerable to many deceptive practices employed by creditors when participating in loan transactions. Following the passage of TILA, it was the hope of Congress that consumers would now have the tools necessary to fend off predatory or deceptive credit terms buried within the fine print of a loan agreement. One of the options afforded to consumers facing a suspect loan agreement is the right to rescission. When lenders, creditors, and other parties in the credit transaction “fail to provide the consumer with proper disclosures about the loan …


The Bankruptcy Of Refusing To Hire Persons Who Have Filed Bankruptcy, Terrence Cain Oct 2017

The Bankruptcy Of Refusing To Hire Persons Who Have Filed Bankruptcy, Terrence Cain

Faculty Scholarship

In 1978, Congress made it illegal for government employers to deny employment to, terminate the employment of, or discriminate with respect to employment against a person who has filed bankruptcy. In 1984, Congress extended this prohibition to private employers by making it illegal for such employers to terminate the employment of, or discriminate with respect to employment against a person who has filed bankruptcy. Under the law as it currently exists, private employers can refuse to hire a person who has filed bankruptcy solely because that person has filed for bankruptcy. Meanwhile, employers have substantially increased their use of credit …


Do Economic Conditions Drive Dip Lending?: Evidence From The Financial Crisis, Frederick Tung Sep 2017

Do Economic Conditions Drive Dip Lending?: Evidence From The Financial Crisis, Frederick Tung

Faculty Scholarship

When contemplating Chapter 11, the first step for many firms is to seek financing for their continuing operations in bankruptcy. Because such financing would otherwise be hard to find, the Bankruptcy Code authorizes debtors to offer sweeteners to debtor-in-possession (DIP) lenders. These inducements can be highly effective in attracting financing. But because these sweeteners are thought to come at the expense of other stakeholders, the Code permits these inducements only if the judge determines that no less generous a package would have been sufficient to obtain the loan.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the use of certain controversial inducements—I focus on …


Ln Mgmt. Llc Series 5105 Portraits Place V. Green Tree Loan Servicing Llc, 133 Nev. Adv. Op. 55 (Aug. 03, 2017), Wesley Lemay Jr. Aug 2017

Ln Mgmt. Llc Series 5105 Portraits Place V. Green Tree Loan Servicing Llc, 133 Nev. Adv. Op. 55 (Aug. 03, 2017), Wesley Lemay Jr.

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

If a homeowner that owns property in Nevada but declares bankruptcy in Texas and fails to list the Home Owners Association (HOA) as a creditor, the HOA cannot violate the automatic stay imposed by the bankruptcy and sell the property. If the property is sold in violation of the automatic stay, the sale is invalid. Under Ninth Circuit law, the sale is void ab initio while the Fifth Circuit holds that these types of sales are voidable, but can be approved by the bankruptcy court.


Rethinking Criminal Contempt, John A.E. Pottow, Jason S. Levin May 2017

Rethinking Criminal Contempt, John A.E. Pottow, Jason S. Levin

Articles

It is of course too early to tell whether we are in a new era of bankruptcy judge (dis)respectability. Only time will tell. But this Article performs a specific case study, on one discrete area of bankruptcy court authority, based upon a particular assumption in that regard. The assumption is this: certain high-salience judicial events-here, the recent Supreme Court bankruptcy judge decisions, coupled with earlier constitutional precedents involving the limits of Article III-can trigger overreaction and hysteria. Lower courts may read these Supreme Court decisions as calling into question the permissibility of certain bankruptcy court practices under the Constitution, and …


How Absolute Is The Absolute Priority Rule In Bankruptcy? The Case For Structured Dismissals, Bruce Grohsgal Apr 2017

How Absolute Is The Absolute Priority Rule In Bankruptcy? The Case For Structured Dismissals, Bruce Grohsgal

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article challenges the view that the absolute priority rule applies to a “structured dismissal” in a chapter 11 bankruptcy case, namely a court-approved settlement of certain claims by or against the debtor followed by the dismissal of the case. Under that view, the bankruptcy court cannot approve a settlement that makes a distribution to holders of junior claims unless it also provides for payment of all senior claims in full. The Supreme Court considered the question in the fall of 2016 in Czyzewski v. Jevic Holding Corp. (In re Jevic Holding Corp.). The question before the Court is: “Whether …


Consumer Bankruptcy, Nondischargeability, And Penal Debt, Abbye Atkinson Apr 2017

Consumer Bankruptcy, Nondischargeability, And Penal Debt, Abbye Atkinson

Vanderbilt Law Review

This Article examines the issue of categorically nondischargeable debts in the Bankruptcy Code. These debts are excepted from discharge ostensibly because they indicate that the debtor incurred the debt through some misconduct, there is an important public policy at play that requires the debt to be excepted from discharge, or a discharge of certain state-imposed debts raises federalism concerns. Using penal debt as its lens, this Article critiques these analytical frames, arguing that they do not do much work to help explain why some debts are treated as categorically nondischargeable while others that seem to implicate the same concerns are …


The Reorganization Of Erickson, Incorporated Et Al., Taylor Grills, Ben Tarpley Apr 2017

The Reorganization Of Erickson, Incorporated Et Al., Taylor Grills, Ben Tarpley

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Case Studies

No abstract provided.


Sports Authority: Another (Private Equity Owned) Retail Giant Caught Off Guard!, Matthew Homonnay, Katie Yoches, Luke S. Smith Apr 2017

Sports Authority: Another (Private Equity Owned) Retail Giant Caught Off Guard!, Matthew Homonnay, Katie Yoches, Luke S. Smith

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Case Studies

No abstract provided.


How Many #Followers Do You Have?: Evaluating The Rise Of Social Media And Issues Concerning In Re Ctli’S Determination That Social Media Accounts Are Property Of The Estate, Patricia A. Leeson Mar 2017

How Many #Followers Do You Have?: Evaluating The Rise Of Social Media And Issues Concerning In Re Ctli’S Determination That Social Media Accounts Are Property Of The Estate, Patricia A. Leeson

Catholic University Law Review

With the rise of social media use, legal disputes have surfaced with litigants looking to the courts to determine issues of ownership and legal authority. As a matter of first impression, a U.S. Bankruptcy Court in Texas held that a Twitter and Facebook social media account were to be regarded as property of the estate pursuant to Section 541 of the Bankruptcy Code. The court analogized the social media accounts to subscriber lists because they provide valuable access to customers. Although the court addressed the question of whether social media applications are to be regarded as property in bankruptcy proceedings, …


Rethinking Criminal Contempt In The Bankruptcy Courts, John A. E. Pottow, Jason S. Levin Mar 2017

Rethinking Criminal Contempt In The Bankruptcy Courts, John A. E. Pottow, Jason S. Levin

Law & Economics Working Papers

A surprising number of courts believe that bankruptcy judges lack authority to impose criminal contempt sanctions. We attempt to rectify this misunderstanding with a march through the historical treatment of contempt-like powers in bankruptcy, the painful statutory history of the 1978 Bankruptcy Code (including the exciting history of likely repealed 28 U.S.C. § 1481), and the various apposite rules of procedure. (Fans of the All Writs Act will delight in its inclusion.) But the principal service we offer to the bankruptcy community is dismantling the ubiquitous and persistent belief that there is some form of constitutional infirmity with "mere" bankruptcy …


La Responsabilisation De L'Economie: What The United States Can Learn From The New French Law On Consumer Overindebtedness, Jason J. Kilborn Jan 2017

La Responsabilisation De L'Economie: What The United States Can Learn From The New French Law On Consumer Overindebtedness, Jason J. Kilborn

Jason Kilborn

This Article on the French law continues a study of European consumer debt-relief systems, which the author began previously in an article on the German system. With rapid legal and practical developments in consumer debt-relief law, Europe provides an excellent comparative legal laboratory for observing the potential benefits and pitfalls of consumer bankruptcy reforms. In particular, French and German experiences with long-term payment plans shed useful light on the great debate raging in the United States over similar plans.


Easy Credit And The Erosion Of Dischargeable Debt In Bankruptcy: Advocating For A Broad Interpretation Of 11 U.S.C. § 523(A)(2)(A) & (B)'S "Statement Respecting.. . Financial Condition", Tyler Sandifer Jan 2017

Easy Credit And The Erosion Of Dischargeable Debt In Bankruptcy: Advocating For A Broad Interpretation Of 11 U.S.C. § 523(A)(2)(A) & (B)'S "Statement Respecting.. . Financial Condition", Tyler Sandifer

Georgia Law Review

The Bankruptcy Code largely exists to provide a
"fresh start" to debtors. But not everyone gets a free
pass. If a debtor has intentionally lied in order to
obtain money, property, services, or an extension,
renewal, or refinancing of credit, he receives no
protection. However, there is an exception built into the
code to protect debtors from predatory lenders intent on
gaming the system in an effort to eliminate insolvency
risk. The size of this exception has become a matter of
judicial debate over the past thirty-eight years as a
circuit split has slowly developed over the
interpretation of 11 …


Nothing Left To Tax Or Cut, The Gate To Chapter 9 Is Shut: The Puerto Rico Debt Crisis, Bianca Ko Jan 2017

Nothing Left To Tax Or Cut, The Gate To Chapter 9 Is Shut: The Puerto Rico Debt Crisis, Bianca Ko

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

No abstract provided.


The “Undue Hardship” Test: The Dangers Of A Subjective Test In Determining The Dischargeability Of Student Loan Debt In Bankruptcy, Rebekah Keller Jan 2017

The “Undue Hardship” Test: The Dangers Of A Subjective Test In Determining The Dischargeability Of Student Loan Debt In Bankruptcy, Rebekah Keller

Missouri Law Review

In today’s culture of living life on credit, post-secondary education loans have become the most popular method for American students to pay for their college degrees. Further, “[t]he costs for a higher education are among the fastest-rising costs in American culture today. Since 1980, tuition costs at U.S. colleges and universities have risen 757 percent.” With $1.2 trillion in current outstanding student loan debt, approximately 43 percent of the 22 million Americans with federal student loan debt are not making payments on their loans. In 2014, 69 percent of college seniors at public and nonprofit colleges graduated with some student …


Property Of The Estate And Creditors Rights To Bring Individual Suits, Ryan Dolan Jan 2017

Property Of The Estate And Creditors Rights To Bring Individual Suits, Ryan Dolan

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Once bankruptcy proceedings begin, section 541 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) defines the scope of a debtor’s property as including all legal and equitable interests of the debtor. Courts have adopted an expansive interpretation of this section, noting that “every conceivable interest of the debtor, future, nonpossessory, contingent, speculative, and derivative, is within reach of the bankruptcy estate.” As a result, a trustee of the debtor’s estate, or a debtor-in-possession, obtains standing to assert general claims which are common to the creditors, and creditors are thus bound by the outcome of the trustee’s actions.

If …


Chapter 11 Liquidation And Its Effect On Collective Bargaining Agreements, Dylan Coyne Jan 2017

Chapter 11 Liquidation And Its Effect On Collective Bargaining Agreements, Dylan Coyne

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Sections 1113 and 1114 of title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) allow a debtor to reject its collective bargaining agreements and payment of retiree benefits, subject to certain statutory conditions being met. These provisions apply to companies that employ unionized workers who receive compensation and benefits pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement. Both sections, however, only apply to a debtor that is “reorganizing.” Moreover, courts have held that section 1114, which governs the payment of insurance benefits to retirees, permits modification of obligations under a statute, such as the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act …


A Lender’S Knowledge Of Alleged Breaches Of Fiduciary Duties Shall Not Be Imputed Upon Debtors In A Statute Of Limitations Analysis, Michael Derosa Jan 2017

A Lender’S Knowledge Of Alleged Breaches Of Fiduciary Duties Shall Not Be Imputed Upon Debtors In A Statute Of Limitations Analysis, Michael Derosa

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Section 541 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Code”) provides in part that the debtor’s estate includes “all legal or equitable interests of the debtor in property as of the commencement of the case.” The debtor’s interests include “whatever causes of action the debtor may have possessed prior to the petition date.” In certain circumstances, a creditor may obtain the right to bring claims of the debtor. In such a case, generally the creditor is stepping into the shoes of the debtor, and the creditor is subject to all defenses proffered by the defendant that would apply had …


Effects Of Veil Piercing, Alter Ego And Substantive Consolidation On Bankruptcy, Lauren Gross Jan 2017

Effects Of Veil Piercing, Alter Ego And Substantive Consolidation On Bankruptcy, Lauren Gross

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

At times, bankruptcy can seem like a game of cat and mouse between debtors and creditors. By filing for bankruptcy in the first place, debtors change the rules of the game with various bankruptcy mechanisms, such as the automatic stay provision set forth in section 361 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”). An important inquiry exists in what creditors can to do promote their interests in bankruptcy. An even more important inquiry lies in determining what doctrines may satisfy generally recognized principles of equity for all.

One option for creditors who deal with corporate entities is …


Creditors Cannot Contract Around Their Fiduciary Duties And Withhold Their Consent From A Debtor To File For Bankruptcy, Samantha Guido Jan 2017

Creditors Cannot Contract Around Their Fiduciary Duties And Withhold Their Consent From A Debtor To File For Bankruptcy, Samantha Guido

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Many courts have found that a debtor may not contract away their right to voluntarily file for bankruptcy. However, debtors and creditors have implemented creative measures to avoid this principle. For example, a creditor may seek the appointment of a so-called “blocking director” on a company’s board of directors, who would control the company’s bankruptcy filing. Additionally, some creditors seek a “golden share” in order to have veto power over changes to the company’s charter, including veto power over whether the company can file for bankruptcy. In determining whether these mechanisms are void under public policy, courts will consider …


A Dragnet Clause And A Future Advances Clause Can Reach The Collateral Of A Loan That Has Already Been Repaid, Stephanie Hung Jan 2017

A Dragnet Clause And A Future Advances Clause Can Reach The Collateral Of A Loan That Has Already Been Repaid, Stephanie Hung

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

This memorandum will explore the secured transactions issues that arose in In re Omni Enterprises. In that case, the Bankruptcy Court in Alaska held that a bank may enforce the security interest of a prior loan that has already been repaid to cure a new loan that was in default. The prior loan was secured by the debtor’s deposit accounts, and contained a cross-collateralization clause and future advances clause; however, the new loan did not mention the deposit accounts at all. When the debtor defaulted on the new loan, the bank argued, among other things, that it continued …


Delaware Bankruptcy Court Creates Vendor-Friendly Forum By Preserving Reclamation Rights In The Face Of Dip Lenders’ Liens, Dean Katsionis Jan 2017

Delaware Bankruptcy Court Creates Vendor-Friendly Forum By Preserving Reclamation Rights In The Face Of Dip Lenders’ Liens, Dean Katsionis

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Reclamation is the right of a vendor “to recover possession of goods delivered to an insolvent buyer.” This right is codified in section 2-702 of the Uniform Commercial Code as adopted in each of the several states. Where an insolvent buyer has filed for bankruptcy after receiving goods on credit, section 546(c) of title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) affords the vendor of those goods a remedy in reclamation. In the event an insolvent buyer in bankruptcy has disposed of the goods subject to reclamation, the bankruptcy court may grant the vendor a lien or …


When Are Debtors And Creditors Bound To The Provisions Of Confirmed Reorganization Plans?, Gabriella Labita Jan 2017

When Are Debtors And Creditors Bound To The Provisions Of Confirmed Reorganization Plans?, Gabriella Labita

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Generally, when a debtor files for protection under chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”), a plan of reorganization is filed at some point with the bankruptcy court. The court then holds a hearing to determine whether the judge will confirm the reorganization plan. The judge will confirm the plan if it meets the criteria of Section 1129 of the Bankruptcy Code, which requires, among other things, that any payments made in connection with the plan are reasonable. A plan of reorganization is a significant component of a debtor’s emergence from bankruptcy, as it affects …


Forum Non Conveniens And Chapter 15 Bankruptcy, Tyler Levine Jan 2017

Forum Non Conveniens And Chapter 15 Bankruptcy, Tyler Levine

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Exceprt)

When pursuing a case under Chapter 15 of Title 11 in the United States, Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) a plaintiff can litigate all claims in a single forum or in certain cases they may be able to pursue additional claims stemming from the same case in a foreign forum. Many parties will want to litigate all of the claims in a single forum and will file a forum non conveniens motion when their adversary tries to pursue claims in multiple forums. Forum non conveniens is a discretionary power that allows courts to dismiss a case where another court, or …


Federal Preemption And The Bankruptcy Code: At What Point Does State Law Cease To Apply During The Claims Allowance Process?, Dylan Lackowitz Jan 2017

Federal Preemption And The Bankruptcy Code: At What Point Does State Law Cease To Apply During The Claims Allowance Process?, Dylan Lackowitz

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Anything you do in bankruptcy can and will be used against you in bankruptcy. Prior to the commencement of a bankruptcy case, perhaps courts should issue this Miranda-esque warning to the parties. At least, if the bankruptcy court had, Plymouth LLC (“Plymouth”) might have saved approximately $800,000 that it spent acquiring a lien against Princeton LP’s (“Princeton”) vacant office park in the Township of Lawrence, New Jersey. Recently, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit held that Plymouth’s claim against Princeton in Princeton’s bankruptcy case was disallowed for violating New Jersey’s tax sale law pursuant to …