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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Bankruptcy Of Refusing To Hire Persons Who Have Filed Bankruptcy, Terrence Cain Oct 2017

The Bankruptcy Of Refusing To Hire Persons Who Have Filed Bankruptcy, Terrence Cain

Faculty Scholarship

In 1978, Congress made it illegal for government employers to deny employment to, terminate the employment of, or discriminate with respect to employment against a person who has filed bankruptcy. In 1984, Congress extended this prohibition to private employers by making it illegal for such employers to terminate the employment of, or discriminate with respect to employment against a person who has filed bankruptcy. Under the law as it currently exists, private employers can refuse to hire a person who has filed bankruptcy solely because that person has filed for bankruptcy. Meanwhile, employers have substantially increased their use of credit …


Do Economic Conditions Drive Dip Lending?: Evidence From The Financial Crisis, Frederick Tung Sep 2017

Do Economic Conditions Drive Dip Lending?: Evidence From The Financial Crisis, Frederick Tung

Faculty Scholarship

When contemplating Chapter 11, the first step for many firms is to seek financing for their continuing operations in bankruptcy. Because such financing would otherwise be hard to find, the Bankruptcy Code authorizes debtors to offer sweeteners to debtor-in-possession (DIP) lenders. These inducements can be highly effective in attracting financing. But because these sweeteners are thought to come at the expense of other stakeholders, the Code permits these inducements only if the judge determines that no less generous a package would have been sufficient to obtain the loan.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the use of certain controversial inducements—I focus on …


Ln Mgmt. Llc Series 5105 Portraits Place V. Green Tree Loan Servicing Llc, 133 Nev. Adv. Op. 55 (Aug. 03, 2017), Wesley Lemay Jr. Aug 2017

Ln Mgmt. Llc Series 5105 Portraits Place V. Green Tree Loan Servicing Llc, 133 Nev. Adv. Op. 55 (Aug. 03, 2017), Wesley Lemay Jr.

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

If a homeowner that owns property in Nevada but declares bankruptcy in Texas and fails to list the Home Owners Association (HOA) as a creditor, the HOA cannot violate the automatic stay imposed by the bankruptcy and sell the property. If the property is sold in violation of the automatic stay, the sale is invalid. Under Ninth Circuit law, the sale is void ab initio while the Fifth Circuit holds that these types of sales are voidable, but can be approved by the bankruptcy court.


Rethinking Criminal Contempt, John A.E. Pottow, Jason S. Levin May 2017

Rethinking Criminal Contempt, John A.E. Pottow, Jason S. Levin

Articles

It is of course too early to tell whether we are in a new era of bankruptcy judge (dis)respectability. Only time will tell. But this Article performs a specific case study, on one discrete area of bankruptcy court authority, based upon a particular assumption in that regard. The assumption is this: certain high-salience judicial events-here, the recent Supreme Court bankruptcy judge decisions, coupled with earlier constitutional precedents involving the limits of Article III-can trigger overreaction and hysteria. Lower courts may read these Supreme Court decisions as calling into question the permissibility of certain bankruptcy court practices under the Constitution, and …


Sports Authority: Another (Private Equity Owned) Retail Giant Caught Off Guard!, Matthew Homonnay, Katie Yoches, Luke S. Smith Apr 2017

Sports Authority: Another (Private Equity Owned) Retail Giant Caught Off Guard!, Matthew Homonnay, Katie Yoches, Luke S. Smith

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Case Studies

No abstract provided.


The Reorganization Of Erickson, Incorporated Et Al., Taylor Grills, Ben Tarpley Apr 2017

The Reorganization Of Erickson, Incorporated Et Al., Taylor Grills, Ben Tarpley

Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Case Studies

No abstract provided.


Rethinking Criminal Contempt In The Bankruptcy Courts, John A. E. Pottow, Jason S. Levin Mar 2017

Rethinking Criminal Contempt In The Bankruptcy Courts, John A. E. Pottow, Jason S. Levin

Law & Economics Working Papers

A surprising number of courts believe that bankruptcy judges lack authority to impose criminal contempt sanctions. We attempt to rectify this misunderstanding with a march through the historical treatment of contempt-like powers in bankruptcy, the painful statutory history of the 1978 Bankruptcy Code (including the exciting history of likely repealed 28 U.S.C. § 1481), and the various apposite rules of procedure. (Fans of the All Writs Act will delight in its inclusion.) But the principal service we offer to the bankruptcy community is dismantling the ubiquitous and persistent belief that there is some form of constitutional infirmity with "mere" bankruptcy …


Martin Luther King, Jr. Celebration Keynote Speaker: Don Graves, Deputy Assistant To President Obama And Counselor To Vice President Biden: January 24, 2017, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jan 2017

Martin Luther King, Jr. Celebration Keynote Speaker: Don Graves, Deputy Assistant To President Obama And Counselor To Vice President Biden: January 24, 2017, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Lender Discrimination, Black Churches And Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey Jan 2017

Lender Discrimination, Black Churches And Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Based on my original empirical research, in this Article, I expose a disparity between the demographics of the roughly 650 religious congregations that have filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy during part of the last decade and congregations nationwide. Churches with predominately black membership — Black Churches — appeared in chapter 11 more than three times as often as they appear among churches across the country. A conservative estimate of the percentage of Black Churches among religious congregation chapter 11 debtors is 60%. The likely percentage is upward of 75%. Black Churches account for 21% of congregations nationwide.

Why are Black …


When Social Enterprises Fail, Jonathan Brown Jan 2017

When Social Enterprises Fail, Jonathan Brown

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article identifies the conflicts between social enterprise legislation and bankruptcy law and presents a normative argument for a legal regime that would harmonize the two. Focusing on benefit corporations, the most widely adopted social enterprise form, this Article observes that existing law leaves uncertainty as to the role of directors at a time of financial distress and will produce outcomes that are at odds with the core goals of social enterprise legislation. Then, drawing on academic proposals for contract-based systems of bankruptcy, this Article argues that just as a firm may opt out of a corporate governance norm of …


"No Money Down" Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Robert M. Lawless, Katherine Porter, Deborah Thorne Jan 2017

"No Money Down" Bankruptcy, Pamela Foohey, Robert M. Lawless, Katherine Porter, Deborah Thorne

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This Article reports on a breakdown in access to justice in bankruptcy, a system from which one million Americans will seek help this year. A crucial decision for these consumers will be whether to file a chapter 7 or chapter 13 bankruptcy. Nearly every aspect of their bankruptcies — both the benefits and the burdens of debt relief — will be different in chapter 7 versus chapter 13. Almost all consumers will hire a bankruptcy attorney. Because they must pay their attorneys, many consumers will file chapter 13 to finance their access to the law, rather than because they prefer …


Property Of The Estate And Creditors Rights To Bring Individual Suits, Ryan Dolan Jan 2017

Property Of The Estate And Creditors Rights To Bring Individual Suits, Ryan Dolan

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Once bankruptcy proceedings begin, section 541 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) defines the scope of a debtor’s property as including all legal and equitable interests of the debtor. Courts have adopted an expansive interpretation of this section, noting that “every conceivable interest of the debtor, future, nonpossessory, contingent, speculative, and derivative, is within reach of the bankruptcy estate.” As a result, a trustee of the debtor’s estate, or a debtor-in-possession, obtains standing to assert general claims which are common to the creditors, and creditors are thus bound by the outcome of the trustee’s actions.

If …


Chapter 11 Liquidation And Its Effect On Collective Bargaining Agreements, Dylan Coyne Jan 2017

Chapter 11 Liquidation And Its Effect On Collective Bargaining Agreements, Dylan Coyne

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Sections 1113 and 1114 of title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) allow a debtor to reject its collective bargaining agreements and payment of retiree benefits, subject to certain statutory conditions being met. These provisions apply to companies that employ unionized workers who receive compensation and benefits pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement. Both sections, however, only apply to a debtor that is “reorganizing.” Moreover, courts have held that section 1114, which governs the payment of insurance benefits to retirees, permits modification of obligations under a statute, such as the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act …


A Lender’S Knowledge Of Alleged Breaches Of Fiduciary Duties Shall Not Be Imputed Upon Debtors In A Statute Of Limitations Analysis, Michael Derosa Jan 2017

A Lender’S Knowledge Of Alleged Breaches Of Fiduciary Duties Shall Not Be Imputed Upon Debtors In A Statute Of Limitations Analysis, Michael Derosa

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Section 541 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Code”) provides in part that the debtor’s estate includes “all legal or equitable interests of the debtor in property as of the commencement of the case.” The debtor’s interests include “whatever causes of action the debtor may have possessed prior to the petition date.” In certain circumstances, a creditor may obtain the right to bring claims of the debtor. In such a case, generally the creditor is stepping into the shoes of the debtor, and the creditor is subject to all defenses proffered by the defendant that would apply had …


Effects Of Veil Piercing, Alter Ego And Substantive Consolidation On Bankruptcy, Lauren Gross Jan 2017

Effects Of Veil Piercing, Alter Ego And Substantive Consolidation On Bankruptcy, Lauren Gross

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

At times, bankruptcy can seem like a game of cat and mouse between debtors and creditors. By filing for bankruptcy in the first place, debtors change the rules of the game with various bankruptcy mechanisms, such as the automatic stay provision set forth in section 361 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”). An important inquiry exists in what creditors can to do promote their interests in bankruptcy. An even more important inquiry lies in determining what doctrines may satisfy generally recognized principles of equity for all.

One option for creditors who deal with corporate entities is …


Creditors Cannot Contract Around Their Fiduciary Duties And Withhold Their Consent From A Debtor To File For Bankruptcy, Samantha Guido Jan 2017

Creditors Cannot Contract Around Their Fiduciary Duties And Withhold Their Consent From A Debtor To File For Bankruptcy, Samantha Guido

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Many courts have found that a debtor may not contract away their right to voluntarily file for bankruptcy. However, debtors and creditors have implemented creative measures to avoid this principle. For example, a creditor may seek the appointment of a so-called “blocking director” on a company’s board of directors, who would control the company’s bankruptcy filing. Additionally, some creditors seek a “golden share” in order to have veto power over changes to the company’s charter, including veto power over whether the company can file for bankruptcy. In determining whether these mechanisms are void under public policy, courts will consider …


A Dragnet Clause And A Future Advances Clause Can Reach The Collateral Of A Loan That Has Already Been Repaid, Stephanie Hung Jan 2017

A Dragnet Clause And A Future Advances Clause Can Reach The Collateral Of A Loan That Has Already Been Repaid, Stephanie Hung

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

This memorandum will explore the secured transactions issues that arose in In re Omni Enterprises. In that case, the Bankruptcy Court in Alaska held that a bank may enforce the security interest of a prior loan that has already been repaid to cure a new loan that was in default. The prior loan was secured by the debtor’s deposit accounts, and contained a cross-collateralization clause and future advances clause; however, the new loan did not mention the deposit accounts at all. When the debtor defaulted on the new loan, the bank argued, among other things, that it continued …


Delaware Bankruptcy Court Creates Vendor-Friendly Forum By Preserving Reclamation Rights In The Face Of Dip Lenders’ Liens, Dean Katsionis Jan 2017

Delaware Bankruptcy Court Creates Vendor-Friendly Forum By Preserving Reclamation Rights In The Face Of Dip Lenders’ Liens, Dean Katsionis

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Reclamation is the right of a vendor “to recover possession of goods delivered to an insolvent buyer.” This right is codified in section 2-702 of the Uniform Commercial Code as adopted in each of the several states. Where an insolvent buyer has filed for bankruptcy after receiving goods on credit, section 546(c) of title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) affords the vendor of those goods a remedy in reclamation. In the event an insolvent buyer in bankruptcy has disposed of the goods subject to reclamation, the bankruptcy court may grant the vendor a lien or …


When Are Debtors And Creditors Bound To The Provisions Of Confirmed Reorganization Plans?, Gabriella Labita Jan 2017

When Are Debtors And Creditors Bound To The Provisions Of Confirmed Reorganization Plans?, Gabriella Labita

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Generally, when a debtor files for protection under chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”), a plan of reorganization is filed at some point with the bankruptcy court. The court then holds a hearing to determine whether the judge will confirm the reorganization plan. The judge will confirm the plan if it meets the criteria of Section 1129 of the Bankruptcy Code, which requires, among other things, that any payments made in connection with the plan are reasonable. A plan of reorganization is a significant component of a debtor’s emergence from bankruptcy, as it affects …


Forum Non Conveniens And Chapter 15 Bankruptcy, Tyler Levine Jan 2017

Forum Non Conveniens And Chapter 15 Bankruptcy, Tyler Levine

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Exceprt)

When pursuing a case under Chapter 15 of Title 11 in the United States, Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) a plaintiff can litigate all claims in a single forum or in certain cases they may be able to pursue additional claims stemming from the same case in a foreign forum. Many parties will want to litigate all of the claims in a single forum and will file a forum non conveniens motion when their adversary tries to pursue claims in multiple forums. Forum non conveniens is a discretionary power that allows courts to dismiss a case where another court, or …


Federal Preemption And The Bankruptcy Code: At What Point Does State Law Cease To Apply During The Claims Allowance Process?, Dylan Lackowitz Jan 2017

Federal Preemption And The Bankruptcy Code: At What Point Does State Law Cease To Apply During The Claims Allowance Process?, Dylan Lackowitz

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Anything you do in bankruptcy can and will be used against you in bankruptcy. Prior to the commencement of a bankruptcy case, perhaps courts should issue this Miranda-esque warning to the parties. At least, if the bankruptcy court had, Plymouth LLC (“Plymouth”) might have saved approximately $800,000 that it spent acquiring a lien against Princeton LP’s (“Princeton”) vacant office park in the Township of Lawrence, New Jersey. Recently, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit held that Plymouth’s claim against Princeton in Princeton’s bankruptcy case was disallowed for violating New Jersey’s tax sale law pursuant to …


Ability To Avoid Successor Liability Pursuant To A §363 Sale In Bankruptcy, Julie Lavoie Jan 2017

Ability To Avoid Successor Liability Pursuant To A §363 Sale In Bankruptcy, Julie Lavoie

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

In a case filed under chapter 11 of title 11 of the United States Code (“the Bankruptcy Code”), the company entering bankruptcy, the debtor, usually files a reorganization plan that articulates how the debtor’s assets will be addressed and creditors will be treated. Once a plan is confirmed and becomes effective, the debtor “emerges from bankruptcy with its liabilities restructured along certain parameters.” This process, however, can take years. Conversely, a sale of substantially all of the debtor’s assets, pursuant to 11 U.S.C. § 363, will often “occur on a very expedited basis.” In the case of the GM …


All Talk, But No Action Leads To The Loss Of Ground Breaking Cancer Research, Nicholas Marcello Jan 2017

All Talk, But No Action Leads To The Loss Of Ground Breaking Cancer Research, Nicholas Marcello

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Each year, the government awards millions of dollars in federal grants to fund scientific research. Despite this huge allocation of resources, the government’s claim in such funded research may be limited should the receiving institution become a debtor in bankruptcy. Last year, the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Massachusetts allowed the destruction of government funded research to benefit the debtor estate.


Creditor’S Failure To File A Proof Of Claim Is Inexcusable Where Potential Danger Of Prejudice To Debtor Exists, Meghan Lombardo Jan 2017

Creditor’S Failure To File A Proof Of Claim Is Inexcusable Where Potential Danger Of Prejudice To Debtor Exists, Meghan Lombardo

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

The Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure provide that when an act is required … to be done at or within a specified period … the court for cause shown may at any time in its discretion… on motion made after the expiration of the specified period permit the act to be done where the failure to act was the result of excusable neglect. Rule 9006 grants a pardon for late filings that were caused by neglect. The Supreme Court has defined neglect as “‘giv[ing] little attention or respect’ to a matter or… ‘to leave undone or unattended to especially …


The Nondischargeability Of Government Cleanup Orders, Christina Mavrikis Jan 2017

The Nondischargeability Of Government Cleanup Orders, Christina Mavrikis

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

One of the primary purposes of title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) is to provide debtors with a financial fresh start. Upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition by or against the debtor, section 362(a) of the Bankruptcy Code provides that all entities are barred from actions to collect, assess, or recover any pre-petition claims against the debtor. In general, the automatic stay serves to halt any pending legal proceedings against the debtor so that the pre-petition claims can be managed and discharged by the bankruptcy court. There are, however, exceptions to the automatic stay. …


Confirmed Bankruptcy Plan Supersedes Applicable Finra Rules, Derek Piersiak Jan 2017

Confirmed Bankruptcy Plan Supersedes Applicable Finra Rules, Derek Piersiak

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

In the United States, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) is authorized by the SEC to adopt and administer the Uniform Practice Code (“UPC”), the rules governing secondary market securities transactions. UPC Rule 1140 determines which unitholders are entitled to a distribution by setting a record date and an ex-date. The record date is the date fixed by the issuer for the purpose of determining which holders of securities are entitled to receive dividends or other distributions. A debtor can also set a record date in their bankruptcy plan. The ex-date is set by FINRA and is “the date …


Not My Client, Not My Problem: The Duty Of Attorneys To Non-Clients, Daniel Quinn Jan 2017

Not My Client, Not My Problem: The Duty Of Attorneys To Non-Clients, Daniel Quinn

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Pursuant to the Professional Code of Responsibility, lawyers owe a certain legal duty to their clients throughout the span of their representation. In certain circumstances this duty can be extended to non-clients. The issue of liability to non-clients was recently addressed following the actions of Mayer Brown, LLP (“Mayer Brown”), and the resulting malpractice suit filed against Mayer Brown which was based upon Mayer Brown’s inadvertent termination of certain liens granted by General Motors (“GM”) in favor of J.P. Morgan Chase (“JPM”). Specifically, the allegations of misconduct arose form actions in connection with a loan and the related “Term …


Substantive Consolidation Of Debtor And Non-Debtor Entities, Eileen Ornousky Jan 2017

Substantive Consolidation Of Debtor And Non-Debtor Entities, Eileen Ornousky

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Based on section 105’s grant of equitable powers, bankruptcy courts have the power to substantively consolidate debtors. Substantive consolidation pools the assets of separate legal entities and treats them as one, allowing each entity’s liability to be satisfied out of the common pool. Although it has been accepted that courts have the power to consolidate a debtor with other related debtors, it its less clear when courts can consolidate a debtor with a non-debtor, or if courts have the authority to do so at all.

Even though most courts have determined that they do have the power to substantively …


Do Foreign Representatives Need To Satisfy The Recognition Requirement?, Parm Partik Singh Jan 2017

Do Foreign Representatives Need To Satisfy The Recognition Requirement?, Parm Partik Singh

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

A foreign representative must obtain recognition of a foreign proceeding pursuant to section 1517 of title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) prior to applying directly to a court in the United States for any relief such as operating the debtor’s business operations in the U.S. or seeking assets and discovery from U.S. entities. However, under section 1509(f), a foreign representative may sue in a United States court to collect or recover a claim which is the property of the debtor without first obtaining recognition. The scope of this exception, though, remains unclear.

This memorandum explores …


Critical Differences Between Key Employee Retention Plans And Key Employee Incentive Plans, Sumaya Ullah Restagno Jan 2017

Critical Differences Between Key Employee Retention Plans And Key Employee Incentive Plans, Sumaya Ullah Restagno

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

Section 503(c) of the United States Bankruptcy Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) imposes strict limitations on companies in chapter 11 who want to make bonus payments to retain employees. In particular, section 503(c) limits a chapter 11 debtor’s ability to favor employees over the interests of the estate to ensure that any bonus payment is designed for the overall benefit of the bankrupt estate. This memo details the differences between bonus payments under sections 503(c)(1) and 503(c)(3) and explains how a chapter 11 debtor should design bonus payments to employees to ensure those payments pass scrutiny under these provisions.