Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2017

Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 85

Full-Text Articles in Law

Recalibrating Nigeria’S Whistleblowing Policy: An Urgent Plea For A Comprehensive Whistleblower Protection Legislation, Olabisi Akinkugbe Oct 2017

Recalibrating Nigeria’S Whistleblowing Policy: An Urgent Plea For A Comprehensive Whistleblower Protection Legislation, Olabisi Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This short essay draws attention to the current gap in regulatory framework for the protection of whistleblowers in Nigeria and its potential to derail any meaningful sustained and long-term success of the country’s nascent whistleblower program. The other socio-political factors that would contribute to the effectiveness of the program in Nigeria are discussed in a forthcoming article by the author.


Medical Assistance In Dying: Lessons For Australia From Canada, Jocelyn Downie Oct 2017

Medical Assistance In Dying: Lessons For Australia From Canada, Jocelyn Downie

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Canada has recently witnessed dramatic changes in end-of-life law and policy. Most notably, we have moved from a prohibitive to a permissive regime with respect to medical assistance in dying (MAiD). As a number of Australian states are actively engaged in debates about whether to decriminalise MAiD, it is worth reviewing the Canadian experience and drawing out any lessons that might usefully inform the current processes in Australia.


Foreword, Michael Macdonald Oct 2017

Foreword, Michael Macdonald

Dalhousie Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Story Of Law Reform In Nova Scotia: A Perilous Enterprise, Bill Charles Oct 2017

The Story Of Law Reform In Nova Scotia: A Perilous Enterprise, Bill Charles

Dalhousie Law Journal

The basic or overarching question addressed by the author is why institutional law reform in Nova Scotia has experienced such operational difficulties and challenges, particularly in relation to funding, to the point where it can be described as a perilous enterprise. In the process of searching for an answer to this question, the author examines the origins and development of organized law reform in Nova Scotia over the last 65 years, with special attention paid to the experience of Nova Scotia's two statutory commissions. As a backdrop to the discussion, the author examines the complicated process of law reform itself …


Equality And The Defence Of Provocation: Irreconcilable Differences, Isabel Grant, Debra Parkes Oct 2017

Equality And The Defence Of Provocation: Irreconcilable Differences, Isabel Grant, Debra Parkes

Dalhousie Law Journal

Recent amendments to the defence of provocation have limited access to the defence to those who are provoked by conduct that, if prosecuted, would have been an indictable offence punishable by at least five years imprisonment. The paper argues that these amendments are both over- and under-inclusive and fail to confront the central problem surrounding provocation which is that it privileges loss-of-control rage often in the context of male violence against women or in response to same-sex advances. The paper supports the abolition of the defence of provocation but only if mandatory minimum sentences for murder are abolished providing trial …


Employing Older Prisoner Empirical Data To Test A Novel S. 7 Charter Claim, Adelina Iftene Oct 2017

Employing Older Prisoner Empirical Data To Test A Novel S. 7 Charter Claim, Adelina Iftene

Dalhousie Law Journal

This article builds the case for expanding s. 7 of the Charter of Canadian Rights and Freedoms to apply to prison regulations and decisions in the specific context of an aging prison population. As original empirical data shows, prisons are highly insensitive to age-related problems, and inappropriate or insufficient medical treatment receives official sanction from a wide range of correctional documents. The stark inadequacies of the current system endanger older prisoners' security of the person, and sometimes their lives, in ways that violate their rights under s. 7, since the deprivations they suffer result from legislative policies and state conduct …


Connexion: A Note On Praxis For Animal Advocates, John Enman-Beech Oct 2017

Connexion: A Note On Praxis For Animal Advocates, John Enman-Beech

Dalhousie Law Journal

Effective animal advocacy requires human-animal connexion. I apply a relational approach to unfold this insight into a praxis for animal advocates. Connexion grounds the affective relationships that so often motivate animal advocates. More importantly, it enables animal agency, the ability of animals to act and communicate in ways humans can experience and respond to. With connexion in mind, some weaknesses of previous reform efforts become apparent. I join these in the slogan "abolitionismas disconnexion." In so far as abolitionism draws humans and animals apart, it undermines the movement's social basis, limits its imaginative resources, and deprives animals of a deeper …


Hit Them Where It Hurts: State Responses To Biker Gangs In Canada, Graema Melcher Oct 2017

Hit Them Where It Hurts: State Responses To Biker Gangs In Canada, Graema Melcher

Dalhousie Law Journal

From civil and criminal forfeiture, to "gangsterism"offences in the Criminal Code, Canada does not lack for tools to address biker gangs. Yet attempts to stamp out bikers have met with little to no success. State responses to criminal organizations should use those organizations' own structures and symbols of power against them. A gang's reputation may be effectively used against a gang, but this strategy poses significant challenges to prosecution. Attempts to use a gang's internal hierarchy and administrative structure can succeed, but may only produce circumstantial findings if not supported by sufficient and substantial evidence. Attempts to combat gang violence …


The Phenomenology Of Medico-Legal Causation, Nicholas Hooper Oct 2017

The Phenomenology Of Medico-Legal Causation, Nicholas Hooper

Dalhousie Law Journal

The language of counterfactual causation employed from the bench obscures the analytical vacuity of the "butfor" test. This paper takes issue with the consistent recourse to "common sense" as a methodological tool for determining the deeply complex issue of causality. Despite manifestly empty gestures to, e.g., robust pragmatism, the current approach imposes the dominant values of the judiciary in a manner that perpetuates the current distribution of power. Whatever the merits of counterfactual inquiry, its legal iteration requires judges to construct a hypothetical narrative about "how things generally happen." This, in turn, impels a uniquely comprehensive brand ofjudicialcreativity. The results …


The Governance Of Indigenous Health, Constance Macintosh Aug 2017

The Governance Of Indigenous Health, Constance Macintosh

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This chapter explores these dynamics of Indigenous health governance in Canada. It opens by describing how Indigenous peoples have successfully used constitutional arguments to assert their own vision of well-being, within the broader context of colonial oppression and attempts to erase Indigenous knowledge and culture. The chapter then tracks federal initiatives on Indigenous health, in their design and outcomes, and how they evolved into the contemporary state governance regime. The next part turns to provincial and self-government initiatives that have expanded, but also complicated, Indigenous health governance in Canada. The chapter closes by considering different ways in which provinces, territories …


Epistemologies Of The South: Justice Against Epistemicide, Bonaventura De Sousa Santos (Boulder: Paradigm, 2014), Sara Gwendolyn Ross Jul 2017

Epistemologies Of The South: Justice Against Epistemicide, Bonaventura De Sousa Santos (Boulder: Paradigm, 2014), Sara Gwendolyn Ross

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

As injustice and discrimination persist across the globe and the socioeconomic gaps of access and privilege continue to widen the binary divide — or what Boaventura de Sousa Santos describes as an abyssal line — between the valued and un(under)valued, the recognized and un(under)recognized, the visible and invisible, and the groups and individuals that occupy these sides of the line, Santos outlines the epistemological basis for a decolonial ascendance beyond the line in order to achieve a good life or buen vivir for all.1 Santos’ richly theoretical contribution and call to action through a postcolonial or decolonial approach and legal …


The Virtue Of Process: Finding The Legitimacy Of Judicial Fact-Finding In Personal Injury Litigation, Nayha Acharya May 2017

The Virtue Of Process: Finding The Legitimacy Of Judicial Fact-Finding In Personal Injury Litigation, Nayha Acharya

PhD Dissertations

This thesis is an inquiry into the legitimacy of judicial fact-finding in civil litigation. Judges make authoritative factual findings in conditions of uncertainty and the decision-making process cannot, and does not, guarantee the accuracy of those outcomes. Given the inevitable risk of error, on what basis is the authority of judicial fact-finding legitimate? This project provides a framework of procedural legitimacy that bridges two unavoidable aspects of adjudication: factual indeterminacy and the need for justifiably authoritative dispute resolution. This work draws of the legal theories of Lon Fuller and Jurgen Habermas to substantiate the notion of procedural legitimacy in the …


Regional Human Rights Regimes And Environmental Protection: A Comparison Of European And American Human Rights Regimes’ Histories, Current Law, And Opportunities For Development, Don Mccrimmon May 2017

Regional Human Rights Regimes And Environmental Protection: A Comparison Of European And American Human Rights Regimes’ Histories, Current Law, And Opportunities For Development, Don Mccrimmon

PhD Dissertations

This work reviews the Inter-American and European human rights regimes and their abilities to respond to point-source pollution, climate change, and ecosystem conservation. It begins by reviewing leading human rights theories and the development of the relationship between human rights and the environment. It then focuses on European human rights, both under the ECHR and the CFREU, and highlights the ECHR’s ability to respond to instances of point-source-pollution though the right to privacy. The work then looks at the Inter-American human rights regime, its structure, history and ability to respond to environmental challenges. It reviews the regime’s tendency to use …


Towards An Effective Regime Against Online Copyright Infringement In India, Ashwin Ramakrishnan May 2017

Towards An Effective Regime Against Online Copyright Infringement In India, Ashwin Ramakrishnan

LLM Theses

With Internet usage on the rise, it is important for India to establish an effective regulatory regime to combat piracy and mass copyright infringement online. This thesis argues that, in the face of unique legal and cultural challenges specific to India, present laws in the country have failed to do so. Unless and until these challenges are met it will be difficult to have an effective mechanism that deals with online copyright infringement. Countries like the United States, Canada, Ireland, and France have all adopted different regulatory models. However, this thesis argues that each not only have significant limitations on …


The Canadian Country Visit Of The United Nations Working Group On Business And Human Rights, Sara Seck May 2017

The Canadian Country Visit Of The United Nations Working Group On Business And Human Rights, Sara Seck

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The United Nations Human Rights Council (HRC) unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy Framework” (UNGPs) in 2011. In May 2017, members of the United Nations Working Group on Business and Human Rights will conduct a country visit to Canada. This paper will introduce the UNGPs, examine the experience of other countries visited by the working group, including the United States, which was visited in 2013, and consider what to expect during the visit to Canada. It is likely that the working group will consider implementation of the state …


Social Membership: Animal Law Beyond The Property/Personhood Impasse, Will Kymlicka Apr 2017

Social Membership: Animal Law Beyond The Property/Personhood Impasse, Will Kymlicka

Dalhousie Law Journal

While animal law has been subject to frequent reform in Canada and abroad, the basic legal foundations of animal oppression are largely unchanged. There are many reasons for this impasse, but part of the explanation is that legal reforms are caught in what we might call the property/personhood dilemma. In most legal systems, domesticated animals are defined as property and so long as this remains true, reforms are likely to be marginal and ineffective. However the main alternative-to shift animals from the category of property to personhoodis politically unfeasible, particularly for the domesticated animals who are most intensively exploited in …


The Significance Of The Systemic Relative Autonomy Of Labour Law, Bruce P. Archibald Apr 2017

The Significance Of The Systemic Relative Autonomy Of Labour Law, Bruce P. Archibald

Dalhousie Law Journal

The extent to which labour and employment law form an autonomous subsystem within the legal order is a significant matter in labour relations scholarship. Human capability theory helps explain how open legal constructs for structuring personal work relations are emerging in a relatively autonomous manner Similarly concepts of relational rights and relational contract theory assist in understanding the relatively autonomous development of restorative labour market regulation, with both substantive and procedural dimensions. Moreover dramatic changes in freedom of association doctrine under the Charter, which now procedurally protect collective bargaining, the right to strike and the independence of unions from management, …


The Only Legitimate Rule: A Reply To Maclean's Critique Of Ecolawgic, Bruce Pardy Apr 2017

The Only Legitimate Rule: A Reply To Maclean's Critique Of Ecolawgic, Bruce Pardy

Dalhousie Law Journal

Is autonomy "natural"? In Ecolawgic: The Logic of Ecosystems and the Rule of Law, I argue that a legal system of intrinsic neutrality is one over which no political office or branch of government has control and in which individuals have the autonomy to pursue their own interests. In 'Autonomy in the Anthropocene," the preceding article in this issue, Jason MacLean challenges the thesis of Ecolawgic. MacLean argues that autonomy is not a feature of neutral legal systems but a product of cultural norms and regulation. He maintains that Ecolawgic's prescription provides neither optimal economic outcomes nor effective environmental protection. …


Betterment, Michael G. Pratt Apr 2017

Betterment, Michael G. Pratt

Dalhousie Law Journal

When property is wrongfully damaged the cost of reinstatement is often the appropriate measure of damages. Reinstatement by repair or replacement is, however often possible only by replacing old materials with new materials that enhance the value of the property, generating "betterment." In such cases courts are faced with a choice whether to abide the betterment and award the cost of reinstatement, or reduce damages to offset the betterment. Examples of both responses to betterment are found in the cases, but no clear principle has been articulated by Canadian courts as to when one is to be preferred over the …


Of Malls And Campuses: The Regulation Of University Campuses And Section 2(B) Of The Charter, Sarah E. Hamill Apr 2017

Of Malls And Campuses: The Regulation Of University Campuses And Section 2(B) Of The Charter, Sarah E. Hamill

Dalhousie Law Journal

There have been a number of recent cases from across Canada about whether the Charter applies to public universities. Courts in Alberta have suggested that the Charter will apply to public universities while courts in British Columbia and Ontario have refused to apply the Charter to such cases. In this article I focus on the cases that also involve a claim to use university space, that is, those cases where there is an argument that by failing to allow an event on campus the university has violated the free expression guarantee in the Charter. If the Charter does apply and …


R. V Comeau And Section 121 Of The Constitution Act, 1867: Freeing The Beer And Fortifying The Economic Union, Malcolm Lavoie Apr 2017

R. V Comeau And Section 121 Of The Constitution Act, 1867: Freeing The Beer And Fortifying The Economic Union, Malcolm Lavoie

Dalhousie Law Journal

A recent decision from the New Brunswick Provincial Court may have significant implications for Canada's constitutional structure. R. v. Comeau held that s. 121 of the Constitution Act, 1867, the constitution's internal free trade provision, prohibits both interprovincial tariffs as well as non-tariff trade barriers. In doing so, the court departed from a line of precedents holding that s. 121 prohibits only the erection of outright tariffs or duties on interprovincial trade. Ultimately the court held that s. 134(b) of New Brunswick's Liquor Control Act, which effectively prohibits the possession of all but small quantities of liquor purchased out of …


On Being A Second: Grace Wambolt, Legal Professionalism And 'Inter-Wave' Feminism In Nova Scotia, Elizabeth Legge Apr 2017

On Being A Second: Grace Wambolt, Legal Professionalism And 'Inter-Wave' Feminism In Nova Scotia, Elizabeth Legge

Dalhousie Law Journal

Grace Wambolt was the fifth female graduate of Dalhousie Law School and the second woman to practise law in Nova Scotia. She was one of the relatively few female lawyers in Canada (up to the influx of the nineteen-seventies) who practiced law following the push by the first female lawyers for the elimination of formal barriers to practice. This paper examines the similarities and differences between the "firsts" and those who followed them, primarily by looking at the life of Wambolt and her letters and speeches preserved in the Wambolt fonds located in the Nova Scotia Archives and donated by …


Autonomy In The Anthropocene? Libertarianism, Liberalism And The Legal Theory Of Environmental Regulation, Jason Maclean Apr 2017

Autonomy In The Anthropocene? Libertarianism, Liberalism And The Legal Theory Of Environmental Regulation, Jason Maclean

Dalhousie Law Journal

Can there be autonomy in the Anthropocene? Libertarian environmental law scholar Bruce Pardy's Ecolawgic: The Logic of Ecosystems and the Rule of Law argues that contemporary environmental law violates the right to autonomy and runs afoul of the rule of law. Pardyproposes an alternative model ofenvironmental law premised on the logic of ecosystems and free markets. Pardy's Ecolawgic suffers, however from the very same conceptual infirmities that substantially undermine the real-world application of the free market paradigm on which Ecolawgic is largely based. Notwithstanding this critical flaw, Ecolawgic may be read as an aspirational model of environmental law and policy …


Are All Charter Rights And Freedoms Really Non-Absolute?, Brian Bird Apr 2017

Are All Charter Rights And Freedoms Really Non-Absolute?, Brian Bird

Dalhousie Law Journal

This article challenges the conventional legal wisdom that no right or freedom in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is absolute. Section 1 of the Charter is the most commonly cited source of this wisdom, but this provision merely sets out the standard that the state must meet to justify a limit on a Charter right or freedom. Section 1 does not provide advance confirmation that limits satisfying this standard exist for all Charter rights and freedoms. This interpretation, if correct, does not automatically render any of the rights or freedoms in the Charter absolute. Indeed, the standard in …


The Intellectually Disabled Witness And The Requirement To Promise To Tell The Truth, Jonas-Sébastien Beaudry Apr 2017

The Intellectually Disabled Witness And The Requirement To Promise To Tell The Truth, Jonas-Sébastien Beaudry

Dalhousie Law Journal

Mentally disabled victims of sexual crimes may be prevented from acting as witnesses in a criminal trial if their mental capacity is challenged. They face an important obstacle to access justice if the case against their alleged aggressor mostly relies on their testimony In R. v. D.A.I., in 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada revisited the Canada Evidence Act's requirement of promising to tell the truth and lowered the previously ambiguous threshold of cognitive capacities required to satisfy this requirement. The Evidence Act has been amended in 2015 to reflect the Court's decision. While apparently facilitating people with mental disabilities' …


Indigenous Mental Health: Imagining A Future Where Action Follows Obligations And Promises, Constance Macintosh Mar 2017

Indigenous Mental Health: Imagining A Future Where Action Follows Obligations And Promises, Constance Macintosh

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article considers what it would mean if Canada fulfilled select existing commitments and obligations concerning the mental health needs of Indigenous peoples, as identified through current programs and recent jurisprudence: that is, where would we be if Canada carried through on existing commitments? After identifying the role of law in perpetuating poor mental well-being, it assesses programs for First Nations and Inuit peoples and determines they are unlikely to be effective without operational changes and responsive funding. The article then turns to the situation of Metis and non-status First Nations and the implications ofDaniels v. Canada for changing …


The Global Fight Against Base Erosion And Profit Shifting Under The Oecd’S Country-By-Country Reporting Rules: A Possible Solution?, Oladiwura Ayeyemi Eyitayo-Oyesode Jan 2017

The Global Fight Against Base Erosion And Profit Shifting Under The Oecd’S Country-By-Country Reporting Rules: A Possible Solution?, Oladiwura Ayeyemi Eyitayo-Oyesode

LLM Theses

The base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) phenomenon continues to create detrimental consequences in states. BEPS is engendered by two fundamental factors, namely, unhealthy fiscal policies of tax havens and preferential tax regimes, and transfer mispricing by multinational corporations (MNCs). The OECD, through its BEPS Project notes that the lack of transparency in the global activities of MNCs is a major cause of BEPS. To close this gap, the OECD released the CBCR Rules. This thesis discusses the severity of the BEPS phenomenon and assesses the anti-BEPS efforts of the OECD. Upon an assessment of these efforts, this thesis argues …


Background: Towards A Critical Assessment Of Canadian-Nigerian Bilateral Relations, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Jan 2017

Background: Towards A Critical Assessment Of Canadian-Nigerian Bilateral Relations, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Although the diplomatic relations between Canada and Nigeria is almost six decades old, the nature of this bilateral relationship has not been the subject of rigorous academic research. While a recent body of research by international relations scholars has taken up the broad critical study of Canadian-African relations, a significant gap exists with respect to studies that focus on the context of Canada’s engagement with individual African countries. Against this background, this paper briefly examines the bilateral trade and investment engagements between Nigeria and Canada. The modest aim is to highlight the existing framework that guides the relations of both …


Causing A Racket: Unpacking The Elements Of Cultural Capital In An Assessment Of Urban Noise Control, Live Music, And The Quiet Enjoyment Of Private Property, Sara Gwendolyn Ross Jan 2017

Causing A Racket: Unpacking The Elements Of Cultural Capital In An Assessment Of Urban Noise Control, Live Music, And The Quiet Enjoyment Of Private Property, Sara Gwendolyn Ross

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

I examine the tension between and the treatment of the elements of cultural capital within dynamic mixed-use spaces, and posit that Canada's current noise control and noise pollution legislation, by-laws, and case law demonstrate a hierarchical protection framework placing greater importance on the "quiet enjoyment of private property" over live music culture, where performances are often the subject of noise complaints. While the elements of cultural capital valued by those who favour the value of quiet enjoyment of private property is well represented throughout legislation, by-laws, and case law, the elements of cultural capital valued by those who favour the …


End-Of-Life In Prison Symposium Report, Adelina Iftene, Crystal Dieleman, Hanna Garson Jan 2017

End-Of-Life In Prison Symposium Report, Adelina Iftene, Crystal Dieleman, Hanna Garson

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In 2016, the Canadian Parliament passed “An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to make related amendments to other Acts (medical assistance in dying)” (S.C. 2016, c. 3). This statute decriminalized providing medical assistance to the dying in a defined set of circumstances. The Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) was also amended: section 19 now reads “(1.1) Subsection (1) does not apply to a death that results from an inmate receiving medical assistance in dying, as defined in section 241.1 that Act.”

Pursuant to these amendments, this meeting focused on issues that may arise in implementing MAiD in …