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2017

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Tit For Tat: How Will Other Countries React To The Tax Cuts And Jobs Act?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Gianluca Mazzoni Dec 2017

Tit For Tat: How Will Other Countries React To The Tax Cuts And Jobs Act?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Gianluca Mazzoni

Law & Economics Working Papers

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TRA17) represents the most comprehensive reform of US international tax rules since 1962. An important question in evaluating TRA17 is how US trading partners will respond to its provisions. In general, US trading partners may take steps to negate the competitive advantage gained by the US from the lower rate of corporate tax, expensing and the “patent box”. They may also take advantage of the participation exemption and the cross-crediting feature of GILTI to increase taxes on US multinationals. Finally, they are likely to copy the BEAT and apply it to US ...


Something's Gotta Give: Origin-Based E-Commerce Sales Tax, Juliana Frenkel Dec 2017

Something's Gotta Give: Origin-Based E-Commerce Sales Tax, Juliana Frenkel

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

How to tax interstate online purchases is a frequently debated and contentious topic in the business and tax arena. There are numerous parties affected when a transaction occurs and each affected party would like a taxation policy that benefits its own economic interests, without regard for others. Neither the legislative nor the judicial branch has successfully resolved this e-commerce taxation issue. With the growing need for tax revenue, it is prudent for Congress to finally resolve this circuit split and agree on a unifying Online Sales Tax Law. As opposed to the vast majority of proposals pending in Congress, this ...


Sovereign Debt Restructuring And English Governing Law, Steven L. Schwarcz Dec 2017

Sovereign Debt Restructuring And English Governing Law, Steven L. Schwarcz

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The problem of sovereign indebtedness is becoming a worldwide crisis because nations, unlike individuals and corporations, lack access to bankruptcy laws to restructure unsustainable debt. Decades of international efforts to solve this problem through contracting and attempted treaty-making have failed to provide an adequate debt-restructuring framework. A significant amount of outstanding sovereign debt is governed, however, by English law. This Article argues that the U.K. Parliament has the extraordinary power to help solve the problem of unsustainable country debt by changing English law to facilitate fair and consensual debt restructuring. This Article also proposes modifications to English law that ...


Promesa And The Bankruptcy Clause: A Reminder About Uniformity, Stephen J. Lubben Dec 2017

Promesa And The Bankruptcy Clause: A Reminder About Uniformity, Stephen J. Lubben

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The Bankruptcy Clause—Article I, Section 8, Clause 4—provides that “The Congress shall have power . . . [t]o establish . . . uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States . . . .”[1] But Congress has just enacted a bankruptcy law that applies to a single American territory. In early May 2017, Puerto Rico and one affiliated entity filed a petition under this new law. In late May, the Employees Retirement System commenced a case, along with the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority. Other Puerto Rican sub-entities are expected to follow. I use this short paper to examine the Puerto Rico ...


Decision-Making And The Shaky Property Foundations Of Municipal Bankruptcy Law, Juliet M. Moringiello Dec 2017

Decision-Making And The Shaky Property Foundations Of Municipal Bankruptcy Law, Juliet M. Moringiello

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Municipal bankruptcies are unpredictable. There are several reasons for this statement— municipal bankruptcies are rare, involvement of the state itself in the process varies according to the governing state law, and chapter 9, the Bankruptcy Code chapter governing the municipal bankruptcy process, has many gaps. Congress constructed the modern chapter 9 on a foundation of corporate bankruptcy law, a foundation whose roots—corporate finance—are significantly different from the rules governing municipal finance. In this Article, Professor Moringiello aims a spotlight on the property roots of private bankruptcy law and compares them to the promissory and statutory roots of municipal ...


Towards A Jurisprudence Of Public Law Bankruptcy Judging, Edward J. Janger Dec 2017

Towards A Jurisprudence Of Public Law Bankruptcy Judging, Edward J. Janger

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

In this essay Professor Janger considers the role of bankruptcy judges in Chapter 9 cases in light of the scholarly literature on public law judging. He explores the extent to which bankruptcy judges engaged in the fiscal restructuring of a municipality use tools, and face constraints, similar to those utilized by federal district court judges in structural reform cases, where constitutional norms are at issue.


Should I Stay Or Should I Go? Gender Gaps In The Lateral Market For Sec Lawyers, Stephen J. Choi, G. Mitu Gulati, Adam C. Pritchard Dec 2017

Should I Stay Or Should I Go? Gender Gaps In The Lateral Market For Sec Lawyers, Stephen J. Choi, G. Mitu Gulati, Adam C. Pritchard

Law & Economics Working Papers

This article examines the gender gap in the lateral market for government lawyers. Using data on lawyers from the Enforcement Division of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), from 2004 to 2016, we find the following: First, gender gaps in pay and promotion appear to be minimal. Second, and confounding the first finding, we find significant gaps in assignments, with men receiving the more challenging and career-enhancing projects. Third, men are more likely than women to move laterally; and when they do, are more likely than the women to move to lucrative private sector jobs.


The Triumph Of Beps: Us Tax Reform And The Single Tax Principle, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Dec 2017

The Triumph Of Beps: Us Tax Reform And The Single Tax Principle, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

The Tax Cut and Jobs Act (TRA17) as passed by the House on November 16 and by the Senate on December 2, 2017, contains multiple provisions that incorporate the principles of the OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) into domestic US tax law. Together with the changes in the 2016 model US tax treaty, these provisions mean that the US is following the EU and China in implementing BEPS and in particular its underlying principle, the single tax principle (i.e., all income should be subject to tax once: passive income at the residence state rate and active ...


Were The 1982 Merger Guidelines Old News?, Alan J. Meese, Sarah L. Stafford Dec 2017

Were The 1982 Merger Guidelines Old News?, Alan J. Meese, Sarah L. Stafford

Faculty Publications

This paper examines the impact of the 1982 Department of Justice Merger Guidelines on the stock market prices of publicly traded firms in the United States. We argue that those Guidelines were perceived by the market as a real change in enforcement policy that would result in substantial deregulation of mergers throughout the economy. We conduct an event study of S&P 500 firms to test this hypothesis and find evidence of a significant positive effect on the stock prices of firms in moderately concentrated industries subject to antitrust regulation, the firms for which the 1982 Guidelines articulate a substantially ...


Macroeconomic Modeling Of Tax Policy: A Comparison Of Current Methodologies, Itai Grinberg, Alan J. Auerbach, Thomas A. Barthold, Nicholas Bull, W. Gavin Elkins, Pamela J. Moomau, Rachel Moore, Benjamin Page, Brandon Pecoraro, Kyle Pomerleau Dec 2017

Macroeconomic Modeling Of Tax Policy: A Comparison Of Current Methodologies, Itai Grinberg, Alan J. Auerbach, Thomas A. Barthold, Nicholas Bull, W. Gavin Elkins, Pamela J. Moomau, Rachel Moore, Benjamin Page, Brandon Pecoraro, Kyle Pomerleau

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The macroeconomic effects of tax reform are a subject of significant discussion and controversy. In 2015, the House of Representatives adopted a new “dynamic scoring” rule requiring a point estimate within the budget window of the deficit effect due to the macroeconomic response to certain proposed tax legislation. The revenue estimates provided by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) for major tax bills often play a critical role in Congressional deliberations and public discussion of those bills. The JCT has long had macroeconomic analytic capability, and in recent years, responding to Congress’ interest in macrodynamic estimates for ...


A Destination-Based Cash Flow Tax Can Be Structured To Comply With World Trade Organization Rules, Itai Grinberg Dec 2017

A Destination-Based Cash Flow Tax Can Be Structured To Comply With World Trade Organization Rules, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This paper briefly outlines alternative approaches to enacting a destination-based cash flow tax that are more clearly compatible with the World Trade Organization rules than the approach that has previously been described in the literature. The first structural alternative involves expanding the universe of businesses subject to the tax by clearly defining both the base of the new U.S. business tax and its tax nexus requirement as domestic consumption, and thereafter treating foreign importers and other sellers equivalently, rather than imposing a deduction disallowance or an import tax. The second alternative involves adopting a business activities tax, and then ...


Information Technology And Industry Concentration, James Bessen Dec 2017

Information Technology And Industry Concentration, James Bessen

Faculty Scholarship

Industry concentration has been rising in the US since 1980. Firm operating margins have also been rising. Are these signs of declining competition that call for a new antitrust policy? This paper explores the role of proprietary information technology systems (IT), which could increase industry concentration and margins by raising the productivity of top firms relative to others. Using instrumental variable estimates, this paper finds that IT system use is strongly associated with the level and growth of industry concentration and firm operating margins. The paper also finds that IT system use is associated with relatively larger establishment size and ...


Stereotypes And Affirmative Action In Higher Education Admissions, Prasad Krishnamurthy, Aaron Edlin Nov 2017

Stereotypes And Affirmative Action In Higher Education Admissions, Prasad Krishnamurthy, Aaron Edlin

Prasad Krishnamurthy

No abstract provided.


If Not A Commercial Republic? Political Economy In The United States After Citizens United, David A. Westbrook Nov 2017

If Not A Commercial Republic? Political Economy In The United States After Citizens United, David A. Westbrook

David A. Westbrook

In Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission , a majority of the Supreme Court conceived the United States to be an oligarchy and ruled accordingly. What this decision might come to mean for political economy in the United States is explored through three interrelated responses to the decision. In the first, Citizens United is a turning point for constitutional law scholarship, and by extension, for what is expected from our legal system. After Citizens United , legal scholars may abandon the idea that the Court takes legal argument seriously, and that law thereby constrains, as well as expresses, social privilege. In a ...


Rethinking The "Less As More" Thesis: Supranational Litigation Of Economic, Social And Cultural Rights In The Americas, Tara J. Melish Nov 2017

Rethinking The "Less As More" Thesis: Supranational Litigation Of Economic, Social And Cultural Rights In The Americas, Tara J. Melish

Tara Melish

In their 2005 law review article Less as More: Rethinking Supranational Litigation of Economic and Social Rights in the Americas, James Cavallaro and Emily Schaffer argue for a "rethinking" of strategies to advance economic, social and cultural rights in the Americas. They posit that to achieve higher rates of real-world protection for such rights, social rights advocates should do two things: first, bring less litigation and, second, frame any marginal litigation that is pursued as violations of classic civil and political rights. According to the authors, this recommended course will increase the "legitimacy" of the litigation and lead to higher ...


Framing Middle-Class Insecurity: Tax And The Ideology Of Unequal Economic Growth, Martha T. Mccluskey Nov 2017

Framing Middle-Class Insecurity: Tax And The Ideology Of Unequal Economic Growth, Martha T. Mccluskey

Martha T. McCluskey

Prevailing tax discourse rationalizes growing economic inequality. Using the example of state and local economic development “subsidy wars,” this article explores how conventional tax ideas present unequal sacrifice and risk as a public responsibility, driven by economic fact rather than unjust politics. Over the last several decades, one contributing cause of inequality has been the escalating tax and spending incentives offered by local governments to attract private business investment. This competition operates to favor wealthy corporations over small businesses, without producing broad or lasting economic gains to communities, and it erodes resources for public education, infrastructure, social services, health care ...


An Unsung Success Story: A Forty-Year Retrospective On U.S. Communications Policy, Christopher S. Yoo Nov 2017

An Unsung Success Story: A Forty-Year Retrospective On U.S. Communications Policy, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Looking backwards on the occasion of Telecommunications Policy’s fortieth anniversary reveals just how far U.S. communications policy has come. All of the major challenges of 1976, such as promoting competition in customer premises equipment, long distance, and television networking, have largely been overcome. Moreover, new issues that emerged later, such as competition in local telephone service and multichannel video program distribution, have also largely been solved. More often than not, the solution has been the result of structural changes that enhanced facilities-based competition rather than agency-imposed behavioral requirements. Moreover, close inspection reveals that in most cases, prodding by ...


Once More, With Feeling: The 'Tax Cuts And Jobs' Act And The Original Intent Of Subpart F, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Nir Fishbien Nov 2017

Once More, With Feeling: The 'Tax Cuts And Jobs' Act And The Original Intent Of Subpart F, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Nir Fishbien

Law & Economics Working Papers

For the first time since 1913, Congress is considering abandoning the principle that US residents should be subject to tax on all income “from whatever source derived.” Specifically, the House proposed tax reform legislation, the so-called “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”, would completely exempt from US taxation dividends from “Controlled Foreign Corporations”. This is therefore a good occasion for considering the reasons we tax such dividends in the first place.

In the course of investigating the Stanley Surrey papers at the Harvard Law School Library, we discovered a remarkable report that support the view that the main impetus behind Subpart ...


What A Difference Thirty Years Make: A Comparison Of The Tax Reforms Of 1986, 2014 And 2017, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Nov 2017

What A Difference Thirty Years Make: A Comparison Of The Tax Reforms Of 1986, 2014 And 2017, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

This paper compares the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, as passed by the House (TRA17H) and under consideration by the Senate (TRA17S) with two major previous efforts at comprehensive tax reform: The Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) and the draft tax reform proposed by former Ways and Means Chair David Camp (R-MI) (TRA14). It shows that TRA14 was quite similar to TRA86, but that TRA17 is very different than both. Congress should abandon TRA17 and go back to considering TRA14 on a bipartisan basis.


Law-And-Economics Approaches To Labour And Employment Law, Stewart J. Schwab Nov 2017

Law-And-Economics Approaches To Labour And Employment Law, Stewart J. Schwab

Stewart J Schwab

This article describes the distinctive approaches that law and economics takes to labour and employment law. The article distinguishes between ‘economic analysis of law’ and ‘law and economics’, with the former applying economic models to generally simple legal rules while the latter blends messier institutional detail with legal and economic thought. The article describes three eras of law-and-economics scholarship, recognizing that economics teaches that markets work and markets fail. Era One emphasizes that labour laws and mandatory employment rules might reduce overall social welfare by preventing a benefit or term from going to the party that values it most highly ...


Putting Distribution First, Robert C. Hockett Nov 2017

Putting Distribution First, Robert C. Hockett

Robert C. Hockett

It is common for normative legal theorists, economists and other policy analysts to conduct and communicate their work mainly in maximizing terms. They take the maximization of welfare, for example, or of wealth or utility, to be primary objectives of legislation and public policy. Few if any of these theorists seem to notice, however, that any time we speak explicitly of maximizing one thing, we speak implicitly of distributing other things and of equalizing yet other things. Fewer still seem to recognize that we effectively define ourselves by reference to that which we distribute and equalize. For it is in ...


Inside The Arbitrator's Mind, Susan D. Franck, Anne Van Aaken, James Freda, Chris Guthrie, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Nov 2017

Inside The Arbitrator's Mind, Susan D. Franck, Anne Van Aaken, James Freda, Chris Guthrie, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Arbitrators are lead actors in global dispute resolution. They are to global dispute resolution what judges are to domestic dispute resolution. Despite its global significance, arbitral decision making is a black box. This Article is the first to use original experimental research to explore how international arbitrators decide cases. We find that arbitrators often make intuitive and impressionistic decisions, rather than fully deliberative decisions. We also find evidence that casts doubt on the conventional wisdom that arbitrators render “split the baby” decisions. Although direct comparisons are difficult, we find that arbitrators generally perform at least as well as, but never ...


Collaborative Gatekeepers, Stavros Gadinis Nov 2017

Collaborative Gatekeepers, Stavros Gadinis

Stavros Gadinis

No abstract provided.


Resurrecting Labor, Rick Bales Nov 2017

Resurrecting Labor, Rick Bales

Maryland Law Review

Participation in American labor unions has changed radically, albeit incrementally, over the last fifty years. Private-sector union density has declined five-fold, whereas public-sector density has increased almost as significantly. Today, unions rarely strike, and in much of the country, they are politically impotent. As traditional manufacturing declines and is replaced by on-demand work, unions risk becoming a historical footnote.

This Article ties the decline in union density and power to macroeconomic trends that are highly troubling in an advanced democracy, such as rising income inequality and the failure of wage growth to keep pace with gross domestic product (“GDP”) growth ...


A Primer On Able Accounts, Christopher T. Mcgee, G. Alisa Ferguson Nov 2017

A Primer On Able Accounts, Christopher T. Mcgee, G. Alisa Ferguson

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


International Investment Law Through The Lens Of Global Justice, Steven Ratner Nov 2017

International Investment Law Through The Lens Of Global Justice, Steven Ratner

Law & Economics Working Papers

The last decade has witnessed a series of criticisms from states, NGOs, and scholars of international investment law’s rules and procedures. Running in parallel, and for a longer period, political philosophers have developed theories about what would constitute a just international economic order. Yet international law and philosophy have not directly engaged with one another regarding the justice of international investment law. This article attempts to breach that gap by analyzing the key critiques of investment law from the perspective of theories of global justice. Philosophical approaches are useful for appraising investment law because they offer a rigorous framework ...


Rationing Criminal Justice, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas Nov 2017

Rationing Criminal Justice, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas

Michigan Law Review

Of the many diagnoses of American criminal justice’s ills, few focus on externalities. Yet American criminal justice systematically overpunishes in large part because few mechanisms exist to force consideration of the full social costs of criminal justice interventions. Actors often lack good information or incentives to minimize the harms they impose. Part of the problem is structural: criminal justice is fragmented vertically among governments, horizontally among agencies, and individually among self-interested actors. Part is a matter of focus: doctrinally and pragmatically, actors overwhelmingly view each case as an isolated, short-term transaction to the exclusion of broader, long-term, and aggregate ...


Social Value Orientation And The Law, Rebecca Hollander-Blumoff Nov 2017

Social Value Orientation And The Law, Rebecca Hollander-Blumoff

William & Mary Law Review

Social value orientation is a psychological trait defined as an individual’s natural preference with respect to the allocation of resources. Law and economics scholarship takes as its starting point the rational actor, who is by definition interested solely in maximizing her own personal utility. But social psychology research demonstrates that, in study after study, approximately half of individuals demonstrate a “prosocial” orientation, meaning that they are interested in maximizing the total outcome of the group and are dedicated to an equal split of resources. Only around a quarter of individuals identify as “proself” individualists who prefer to maximize their ...


Stereotypes And Affirmative Action In Higher Education Admissions, Prasad Krishnamurthy, Aaron Edlin Oct 2017

Stereotypes And Affirmative Action In Higher Education Admissions, Prasad Krishnamurthy, Aaron Edlin

Aaron Edlin

No abstract provided.


Is Say On Pay All About Pay? The Impact Of Firm Performance, Jill E. Fisch, Darius Palia, Steven Davidoff Solomon Oct 2017

Is Say On Pay All About Pay? The Impact Of Firm Performance, Jill E. Fisch, Darius Palia, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Steven M. Davidoff Solomon

The Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 mandated a number of regulatory reforms including a requirement that large U.S. public companies provide their shareholders with the opportunity to cast a non-binding vote on executive compensation. The “say on pay” vote was designed to rein in excessive levels of executive compensation and to encourage boards to adopt compensation structures that tie executive pay more closely to performance. Although the literature is mixed, many studies question whether the statute has had the desired effect. Shareholders at most companies overwhelmingly approve the compensation packages, and pay levels continue to be high. Although a lack ...