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2016

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Quintavalle: The Quandary In Bioethics, Lisa Cherkassky Dec 2016

Quintavalle: The Quandary In Bioethics, Lisa Cherkassky

Journal of Law and Health

The case of R. (Quintavalle) v. Human Fertilisation Embryology Authority (and Secretary of State for Health) presents a handful of legal problems. The biggest legal query to arise from the case is the inevitable harvest of babies, toddlers and very young children for their bone marrow. This article unpacks the judicial story behind Quintavalle to reveal how the strict provisions of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 - namely ‘suitable condition’ under schedule 2 paragraph 1(1)(a) and ‘treatment services’ and ‘assisting’ under section 2(1) - were widely misinterpreted to introduce the social selection of embryos into law. The legal …


The Challenge Of Regulatory Excellence, Cary Coglianese Dec 2016

The Challenge Of Regulatory Excellence, Cary Coglianese

All Faculty Scholarship

Regulation is a high-stakes enterprise marked by tremendous challenges and relentless public pressure. Regulators are expected to protect the public from harms associated with economic activity and technological change without unduly impeding economic growth or efficiency. Regulators today also face new demands, such as adapting to rapidly changing and complex financial instruments, the emergence of the sharing economy, and the potential hazards of synthetic biology and other innovations. Faced with these challenges, regulators need a lodestar for what constitutes high-quality regulation and guidance on how to improve their organizations’ performance. In the book Achieving Regulatory Excellence, leading regulatory experts …


Et Tu, Android?: Regulating Dangerous And Dishonest Robots, Woodrow Hartzog Dec 2016

Et Tu, Android?: Regulating Dangerous And Dishonest Robots, Woodrow Hartzog

Faculty Scholarship

Consumer robots like personal digital assistants, automated cars, robot companions, chore-bots, and personal drones raise common consumer protection issues, such as fraud, privacy, data security, and risks to health, physical safety, and finances. They also raise new consumer protection issues, or at least call into question how existing consumer protection regimes might be applied to such emerging technologies. Yet it is unclear which legal regimes should govern these robots and what consumer protection rules for robots should look like.

This paper argues that the FTC's grant of authority and existing jurisprudence are well-suited for protecting consumers who buy and interact …


The Skeleton Of A Data Breach: The Ethical And Legal Concerns, Hilary G. Buttrick, Jason Davidson, Richard J. Mcgowan Dec 2016

The Skeleton Of A Data Breach: The Ethical And Legal Concerns, Hilary G. Buttrick, Jason Davidson, Richard J. Mcgowan

Richmond Journal of Law & Technology

After over thirty data breaches spanning the third and fourth quarter of 2012, Forbes magazine labeled the summer of 2012 as “The Summer of the Data Breach.” Four years later, businesses across multiple industries have suffered brand-image damage and paid millions of dollars in remedial expenses; we are living in the era of the mega breach. In 2014, companies such as Target, Home Depot, JP Morgan Chase, Anthem, Sony, UPS, Jimmy John’s, Kmart, Neiman Marcus, Community Health Systems, and the White House suffered data breaches. The Home Depot breach alone resulted in the loss of “56 million credit card accounts,” …


R-Egg-Ulation: A Call For Greater Regulation Of The Big Business Of Human Egg Harvesting, Danielle A. Vera Dec 2016

R-Egg-Ulation: A Call For Greater Regulation Of The Big Business Of Human Egg Harvesting, Danielle A. Vera

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

When it comes to young healthy women “donating” their eggs, America has a regulation problem. This Note explains the science behind the harvesting of human eggs, focusing on potential egg donors, and describes the specific factors that make egg donation a unique type of transaction. It describes the current regulatory status of the assisted reproductive technology industry in the United States and highlights the ways in which this scheme fails to protect egg “donors.” This Note concludes with a call for comprehensive regulation of the assisted reproductive technology industry.


Preserving Human Agency In Automated Compliance, Onnig H. Dombalagian Dec 2016

Preserving Human Agency In Automated Compliance, Onnig H. Dombalagian

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

As technology transforms financial services, so too must it transform the regulation of financial markets and intermediaries. The imperative of real-time, prophylactic regulation increasingly compels reallocation of regulatory and compliance budgets to surveillance and enforcement technology. At the same time, in light of the well-known weaknesses of automated systems, securities firms (and their regulators) must temper investment in automation with efforts to augment the agency of compliance professionals. This symposium contribution considers how investment in the professional development of compliance personnel can better integrate automated tools within established compliance and supervisory structures and thereby advance regulatory and operational objectives.


Mitigating Cyber Risk In It Supply Chains, Maureen Wallace Dec 2016

Mitigating Cyber Risk In It Supply Chains, Maureen Wallace

Global Business Law Review

This note argues that the United States needs to utilize current federal agencies to begin introducing cyber supply chain risk management regulation for IT supply chains. Cyber supply chain risk management is a critical area of cybersecurity that has barely been recognized by the United States government. The globalization of the digital world has introduced a new spectrum of risk management issues that affect the products exchanged by businesses and consumed by individuals and government agencies. While there have been some initiatives toward the promotion of tighter cybersecurity regulation, most initiatives only concern the public sector, leaving the private sector …


“Hello…It’S Me. [Please Don’T Sue Me!]” Examining The Fcc’S Overbroad Calling Regulations Under The Tcpa, Marissa A. Potts Dec 2016

“Hello…It’S Me. [Please Don’T Sue Me!]” Examining The Fcc’S Overbroad Calling Regulations Under The Tcpa, Marissa A. Potts

Brooklyn Law Review

Americans have received unwanted telemarketing calls for decades. In response to a rapid increase in pre-recorded calls made using autodialer devices, Congress enacted the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) in 1992. The TCPA imposes restrictions on calls made to consumers’ residences and wireless phones using autodialer devices, even if they are not telemarketing calls. Congress appointed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to prescribe rules and regulations to enforce the TCPA. In 2015, the FCC released an order that defined autodialer more broadly under the statute. Consequently, devices that have the potential to become autodialers in the future, even if they …


Playing Off-Key: Trans-Atlantic Data Regulation In A Discordant World, Jennifer L. Bauer Dec 2016

Playing Off-Key: Trans-Atlantic Data Regulation In A Discordant World, Jennifer L. Bauer

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


2016 – A Tumultuous Year Of The Revolt Against The Elites, Tan K. B. Eugene Dec 2016

2016 – A Tumultuous Year Of The Revolt Against The Elites, Tan K. B. Eugene

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In a commentary, SMU Associate Professor of Law Eugene Tan noted that 2016 will probably be remembered as the year of the populist revolt against the elites, against the backdrop of bewildering disruptions and an abiding sense of displacement and control accentuated by technological advancements. He highlighted that the critical challenge is to bring trust back into the core of the relationship between those in power and the masses, adding that governments need to purposively deal with people's resentments, fury and fears.


The Question Concerning Technology In Compliance, Sean J. Griffith Dec 2016

The Question Concerning Technology In Compliance, Sean J. Griffith

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

In this symposium Essay, I apply insights from philosophy and psychology to argue that modes of achieving compliance that focus on technology undermine, and are undermined by, modes of achieving compliance that focus on culture. Insisting on both may mean succeeding at neither. How an organization resolves this apparent contradiction in program design, like the broader question of optimal corporate governance arrangements, is highly idiosyncratic. Firms should therefore be accorded maximum freedom in designing their compliance programs, rather than being forced by enforcement authorities into a set of de facto mandatory compliance structures.


Compliance, Technology, And Modern Finance, Tom C.W. Lin Dec 2016

Compliance, Technology, And Modern Finance, Tom C.W. Lin

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

An important transformation is happening in the financial industry. The rise of new technology and compliance has dramatically altered many of the key functions and functionaries of modern finance. Artificial intelligence, algorithmic programs, and supercomputers, instead of human actors, now constitute the core of many financial operations. Compliance officers have become just as critical to financial institutions as traders, bankers, and analysts. Finance as we knew it has changed and continues to change. This symposium Article offers a studied commentary on these unfolding changes, the crosscutting developments in compliance, technology, and modern finance. It examines the concurrent and intersecting ascents …


Like A Bad Neighbor, Hackers Are There: The Need For Data Security Legislation And Cyber Insurance In Light Of Increasing Ftc Enforcement Actions, Jennifer Gordon Dec 2016

Like A Bad Neighbor, Hackers Are There: The Need For Data Security Legislation And Cyber Insurance In Light Of Increasing Ftc Enforcement Actions, Jennifer Gordon

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Privacy has come to the forefront of the technology world as third party hackers are constantly attacking companies for their customers’ data. With increasing instances of compromised customer information, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has been bringing suit against companies for inadequate data security procedures. The FTC’s newfound authority to bring suit regarding cybersecurity breaches, based on the Third Circuit’s decision in FTC v. Wyndham Worldwide Corp., is a result of inaction—Congress has been unable to pass sufficient cybersecurity legislation, causing the FTC to step in and fill the void in regulation. In the absence of congressional action, this self-proclaimed …


Spaceways: Airspace In Outer Space, Scott Haeffelin Nov 2016

Spaceways: Airspace In Outer Space, Scott Haeffelin

Space Traffic Management Conference

Forecasted future demand in space travel is driving the need for the development of space traffic management. Currently, orbital space traffic is mostly unregulated with internationally agreed upon best practices and self-interest driving space operators to avoid collisions with other spacecraft. This paper explores the future of space travel by presenting a concept of creating “airspace in space” or spaceways to manage the ever growing volumes of space traffic. Spaceways are analogous to airspace for aircraft with the goal of increasing levels of safety and reducing probabilities of collision. These goals can be achieved by creating traffic rules, defining valuable …


A Novel Approach For Controlled Deorbiting And Reentry Of Small Spacecraft, Larry H. Fineberg, Justin Treptow, Timothy Bass, Scott Clark, Yusef Johnson, Bradley Poffenberger Nov 2016

A Novel Approach For Controlled Deorbiting And Reentry Of Small Spacecraft, Larry H. Fineberg, Justin Treptow, Timothy Bass, Scott Clark, Yusef Johnson, Bradley Poffenberger

Space Traffic Management Conference

No abstract provided.


Open Source, Modular Platforms, And The Challenge Of Fragmentation, Christopher S. Yoo Nov 2016

Open Source, Modular Platforms, And The Challenge Of Fragmentation, Christopher S. Yoo

All Faculty Scholarship

Open source and modular platforms represent two powerful conceptual paradigms that have fundamentally transformed the software industry. While generally regarded complementary, the freedom inherent in open source rests in uneasy tension with the strict structural requirements required by modularity theory. In particular, third party providers can produce noncompliant components, and excessive experimentation can fragment the platform in ways that reduce its economic benefits for end users and app providers and force app providers to spend resources customizing their code for each variant. The classic solutions to these problems are to rely on some form of testing to ensure that the …


Optimal Property Rights For Emerging Natural Resources: A Case Study On Owning Atmospheric Moisture, Jianlin Chen Nov 2016

Optimal Property Rights For Emerging Natural Resources: A Case Study On Owning Atmospheric Moisture, Jianlin Chen

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article critically examines the design of property rights for emerging natural resources—naturally occurring substances that humans have only recently come to be able to exploit viably—through a case study of how the fifty states allocate ownership in, and regulate the use of, atmospheric moisture, an issue that has emerged in the context of weather modification (particularly cloud seeding). Building on the surprising finding that legislative declarations of state ownership have not resulted in greater regulatory control or other substantial restrictions on private use, this Article highlights a dimension of property rights design that has yet to receive concerted scholarly …


Unconventional Methods For A Traditional Setting: The Use Of Virtual Reality To Reduce Implicit Racial Bias In The Courtroom, Natalie Salmanowitz Nov 2016

Unconventional Methods For A Traditional Setting: The Use Of Virtual Reality To Reduce Implicit Racial Bias In The Courtroom, Natalie Salmanowitz

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

The presumption of innocence and the right to a fair trial lie at the core of the United States justice system. While existing rules and practices serve to uphold these principles, the administration of justice is significantly compromised by a covert but influential factor: namely, implicit racial biases. These biases can lead to automatic associations between race and guilt, as well as impact the way in which judges and jurors interpret information throughout a trial. Despite the well-documented presence of implicit racial biases, few steps have been taken to ameliorate the problem in the courtroom setting. This Article discusses the …


Information Technology And Learning On-The-Job, James Bessen Nov 2016

Information Technology And Learning On-The-Job, James Bessen

Faculty Scholarship

Economists disagree how much technology raises demand for workers with pre-existing skills. But technology might affect wages another way: through skills learned on the job. Using instrumental variables on 9 panels of workers from 1989 to 2013, this paper estimates that workers who use information technology (IT) have wage growth that is about 2% greater than non-IT workers, all else equal, implying substantial learning. This effect persists over time, implying sustained productivity growth from IT. Also, it benefits workers both with and without college degrees. Because many more college-educated workers use IT, college wages grow faster, contributing to economic inequality.


The New Pcast Report To The President Of The United States On Forensic Science, Robert M. Sanger Oct 2016

The New Pcast Report To The President Of The United States On Forensic Science, Robert M. Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

The President of the United States requested an in-depth report from the President’s Council of Advisors
on Science and Technology (known as PCAST) in 2015 to “consider whether there are additional steps that
could usefully be taken on the scientific side to strengthen the forensic science disciplines and ensure the validity of forensic evidence used in the Nation’s legal system.” The PCAST Report was issued September 20, 2016, specifically referring to criminal court applications of forensic science. The report has implications for civil
litigators as well as criminal. It also has implications for judges, particularly those at the trial level. …


Privatization Of The Judiciary, Eldar Haber Oct 2016

Privatization Of The Judiciary, Eldar Haber

Seattle University Law Review

The digital era invoked new challenges to judicial systems. The Internet enabled violation of privacy and intellectual property rights and enhanced the magnitude of criminal activity. Recognizing the inability of courts to handle a high magnitude of lawsuits, along with enforcement difficulties, policymakers worldwide chose to delegate quasi-judicial powers to online intermediaries that facilitate or enable such potential violations or infringements of rights. Search engines were first tasked to perform a quasi-judicial role under a notice-and-takedown regime to combat copyright infringement around the world. Recently, the European Union (EU) decided to delegate judicial authority to search engines by granting rights …


Newsroom: The Legal Impact Of Marine Debris 10-21-2016, Roger Williams University School Of Law Oct 2016

Newsroom: The Legal Impact Of Marine Debris 10-21-2016, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


The Internet Of Things: Where Privacy And Copyright Collide, Lidiya Mishchenko Oct 2016

The Internet Of Things: Where Privacy And Copyright Collide, Lidiya Mishchenko

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

The Internet of Things: Where Privacy and Copyright Collide


A Genre Theory Of Copyright, Omri Rachum-Twaig Oct 2016

A Genre Theory Of Copyright, Omri Rachum-Twaig

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

A Genre Theory of Copyright


Technological Neutrality: Recalibrating Copyright In The Information Age, Carys Craig Oct 2016

Technological Neutrality: Recalibrating Copyright In The Information Age, Carys Craig

Carys Craig

This article aims to draw the connection between how we conceptualize legal rights over information resources and our capacity to develop technologically neutral legal norms in the information age. More specifically, it identifies and critically examines three competing approaches to the idea of technological neutrality apparent in copyright jurisprudence. Ultimately, it is argued that true technological neutrality requires not simply the seamless expansion of legal rights into new technological contexts, but the careful, contextual recalibration of rights and interests in light of shifting values and changing circumstances. As a normative principle, technological neutrality in copyright law thus demands a nuanced …


Indifference And Secondary Liability For Copyright Infringement, Richard G. Kunkel Oct 2016

Indifference And Secondary Liability For Copyright Infringement, Richard G. Kunkel

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Indifference and Secondary Liability for Copyright Infringement


Apple Watch-Ing You: Why Wearable Technology Should Be Federally Regulated, Grant Arnow Oct 2016

Apple Watch-Ing You: Why Wearable Technology Should Be Federally Regulated, Grant Arnow

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

No abstract provided.


Tightening The Ooda Loop: Police Militarization, Race, And Algorithmic Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle Oct 2016

Tightening The Ooda Loop: Police Militarization, Race, And Algorithmic Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

This Article examines how military automated surveillance and intelligence systems and techniques, when used by civilian police departments to enhance predictive policing programs, have reinforced racial bias in policing. I will focus on two facets of this problem. First, I investigate the role played by advanced military technologies and methods within civilian police departments. These approaches have enabled a new focus on deterrence and crime prevention by creating a system of structural surveillance where decision support relies increasingly upon algorithms and automated data analysis tools and automates de facto penalization and containment based on race. Second, I will explore these …


Siri-Ously? Free Speech Rights And Artificial Intelligence, Toni M. Massaro, Helen Norton Oct 2016

Siri-Ously? Free Speech Rights And Artificial Intelligence, Toni M. Massaro, Helen Norton

Northwestern University Law Review

Computers with communicative artificial intelligence (AI) are pushing First Amendment theory and doctrine in profound and novel ways. They are becoming increasingly self-directed and corporal in ways that may one day make it difficult to call the communication ours versus theirs. This, in turn, invites questions about whether the First Amendment ever will (or ever should) cover AI speech or speakers even absent a locatable and accountable human creator. In this Article, we explain why current free speech theory and doctrine pose surprisingly few barriers to this counterintuitive result; their elasticity suggests that speaker humanness no longer may be …


Change In Regulation Is Necessary For Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes, Insung Hwang Oct 2016

Change In Regulation Is Necessary For Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes, Insung Hwang

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Millions of genetically engineered (GE) mosquitoes could soon be released in Key West, Florida as an effort to eradicate wild mosquitoes that are transmitters of diseases such as malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Both international and domestic regulations fail to provide effective regulatory schemes that can facilitate the application of this technology while ensuring all safety and environmental aspects are properly addressed. The Food and Drug Administration’s assertion of jurisdiction is based on its assessment that the GE mosquitoes are “animal drugs” under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This is especially troublesome because the end goal of using these …