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2015

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Environmental Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Climate Change And Forest Governance: Lessons From Indonesia, Birkah Latif Dec 2015

Climate Change And Forest Governance: Lessons From Indonesia, Birkah Latif

Indonesia Law Review

Climate change and forest governance have always been discussed between scholars, governments and all stakeholders who engage in the issues. Discussions have been arisen from time to time on how devastating the impacts of environment loss caused by the acts of people. These impacts have brought people and countries to see the problems more seriously and attentively.


Kings County, Et Al., Petitioners, V. Surface Transportation Board And United States Of America, Et Al., Proposed Amicus Curiae Brief Of Center For Biological Diversity In Support Of Neither Party For Abstention Or Reversal Of The Surface Transportation Board’S Decision, Helen H. Kang, Et Al. Dec 2015

Kings County, Et Al., Petitioners, V. Surface Transportation Board And United States Of America, Et Al., Proposed Amicus Curiae Brief Of Center For Biological Diversity In Support Of Neither Party For Abstention Or Reversal Of The Surface Transportation Board’S Decision, Helen H. Kang, Et Al.

Publications

IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT

No. 15-71780 KINGS COUNTY, et al., Petitioners, v. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD and UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Respondents, and CALIFORNIA HIGH-SPEED RAIL AUTHORITY Intervenor and Respondent.

No. 15-72570 DIGNITY HEALTH, Petitioner, v. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD and UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Respondents, and CALIFORNIA HIGH-SPEED RAIL AUTHORITY Intervenor and Respondent. _______________________________________________________________ PROPOSED AMICUS CURIAE BRIEF OF CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN SUPPORT OF NEITHER PARTY FOR ABSTENTION OR REVERSAL OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD’S DECISION


Which Came First, People Or Pollution? A Review Of Theory And Evidence From Longitudinal Environmental Justice Studies, Paul Mohai, Robin Saha Dec 2015

Which Came First, People Or Pollution? A Review Of Theory And Evidence From Longitudinal Environmental Justice Studies, Paul Mohai, Robin Saha

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies …


Natural Resources Defense Council V. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Erick A. Valencia Dec 2015

Natural Resources Defense Council V. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Erick A. Valencia

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In Natural Resources Defense Council v. United States Environmental Protection Agency, the court was asked to review the EPA’s Vessel General Permit that set limits on the discharge of pollutants in a ship’s ballast water. Ballast water discharge has become one of the major contributors to the spread of invasive species, especially in the Great Lakes where short voyages allow organisms to easily survive in ballast water. The EPA’s lack of information was a problem of its own making because it prohibited the Science Advisory Board and National Academy of Sciences from adequately exploring available technology before setting the effluent …


The Role Of The State, Multinational Oil Companies, International Law & The International Community: Intersection Of Human Rights & Environmental Degradation Climate Change In The 21st Century Caused By Traditional Extractive Practices, The Amazon Rainforest, Indigenous People And Universal Jurisdiction To Resolve The Accountability Issue, Marcela Cabrera Luna Dec 2015

The Role Of The State, Multinational Oil Companies, International Law & The International Community: Intersection Of Human Rights & Environmental Degradation Climate Change In The 21st Century Caused By Traditional Extractive Practices, The Amazon Rainforest, Indigenous People And Universal Jurisdiction To Resolve The Accountability Issue, Marcela Cabrera Luna

Master's Theses

Local, national and international conventions that protect indigenous sovereignty and their territories, where many of the resources are extracted from by multinational corporations (MNCs) particularly oil, the number one commodity of the world and cause of climate change, continue to be jeopardized because of the lack of a clear international legal framework that can protect them and potentially hold multinationals accountable for their actions. These practices are causing not only environmental issues to the indigenous and surrounding communities, but climate change is in fact, the real human rights issue of the 21st century and it affects everyone. By using …


Paris Climate Change Accord Is Just The Beginning, Lauren Carasik Dec 2015

Paris Climate Change Accord Is Just The Beginning, Lauren Carasik

Media Presence

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Executive Order 13211 On Environmental Regulation: An Empirical Study, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman Dec 2015

Impact Of Executive Order 13211 On Environmental Regulation: An Empirical Study, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman

Publications and Research

A great deal has been written about the Energy Policy Act of 2005 exempting oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing from the purview of certain federal environmental laws. Far less attention has been paid to George W. Bush’s Executive Order 13211 (EO 13211), entitled “Actions Concerning Regulations that Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution or Use.” The executive order requires federal agencies to evaluate the impact of federal regulations on “supply, distribution and use of energy.” This study examined the impact of EO 13211 on United States environmental and conservation regulations proposed and promulgated by federal agencies. The study found …


‘We Are The Monitors Now’: Experiential Knowledge, Transcorporeality And Environmental Justice, Dayna Scott Dec 2015

‘We Are The Monitors Now’: Experiential Knowledge, Transcorporeality And Environmental Justice, Dayna Scott

Articles & Book Chapters

Residents of pollution hotspots often take on projects in ‘citizen science’, or popularepidemiology, in an effort to marshal the data that can prove their experience of the pollution to the relevant authorities. Sometimes these tactics, such as pollution logs or bucket brigades, take advantage of residents’ spatially ordered and finely honed experiential and sensory knowledge of the places they inhabit. But putting that knowledge into conversation with law requires them to mobilize a new, ‘foreign’ set of tools, primarily oriented to the observation, measurement and sampling of pollution according to conventional scientific standards. Here, I employ qualitative empirical methods in …


No Ordinary Fish Tale: Working Toward A Transnational Solution To The Cod Crisis In The Gulf Of Maine, Michael Ruderman Dec 2015

No Ordinary Fish Tale: Working Toward A Transnational Solution To The Cod Crisis In The Gulf Of Maine, Michael Ruderman

Indiana Law Journal

In response to a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) survey that showed “record-low levels of abundance” of groundfish in the Gulf of Maine (“Gulf”), local fisherman Brian Pearce asserted: “It concerns [me] that what [NOAA is] saying and what we [the local fishermen] are seeing is such a contrast . . . . Who sees more fish in the ocean than the fishermen?” Despite Mr. Pearce’s skepticism, the state of the cod fishery in the Gulf of Maine—home to “critical” and “legendary" fishing grounds in Canadian and American territories—is, in fact, dire. According to the NOAA survey, conducted in …


Indigenous Women, Water Justice And Zaagidowin (Love), Deborah Mcgregor Dec 2015

Indigenous Women, Water Justice And Zaagidowin (Love), Deborah Mcgregor

Articles & Book Chapters

I would like to open by saying Chi-miigwech (a big thank-you) to those Elders/Grandmothers who have shared their stories and teachings with me over the years. Some have since passed on and I hope that through my words, their love and generosity will continue the process of healing the people and waters upon which they so integrally depend.

The paper which follows contains many references to notions of love, mutual respect, and responsibility towards the natural world, and water in particular. These ideas may seem a little tenuous for a serious paper on a critical environmental justice issue, but concepts …


Endangered Species, Endangered Treaties: Protecting Treaty Rights, Economic Development, And Tribal Consultation Under Secretarial Order 3206, Jeremy Wood Dec 2015

Endangered Species, Endangered Treaties: Protecting Treaty Rights, Economic Development, And Tribal Consultation Under Secretarial Order 3206, Jeremy Wood

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Tierra Y Libertad: The Social Function Doctrine And Land Reform In Latin America, Thomas T. Ankersen, Thomas Ruppert Dec 2015

Tierra Y Libertad: The Social Function Doctrine And Land Reform In Latin America, Thomas T. Ankersen, Thomas Ruppert

Thomas T Ankersen

Latin America has been caught for centuries in a vicious cycle of land consolidation and land reform; the issue perennially resurfaces since concentration of land and associated resources results in conflict.' Latin American nations are among the world's leaders when it comes to the inequality of land distribution. Land reform, or agrarian reform, as it is more commonly referred to in Latin America, is hardly a new phenomenon. As we will show, the need to develop a policy to redress the consolidation of lands by a powerful few and redistribute it in the name of equity and development has its …


Tierra Y Libertad: The Social Function Doctrine And Land Reform In Latin America, Thomas T. Ankersen, Thomas Ruppert Dec 2015

Tierra Y Libertad: The Social Function Doctrine And Land Reform In Latin America, Thomas T. Ankersen, Thomas Ruppert

Thomas T Ankersen

Latin America has been caught for centuries in a vicious cycle of land consolidation and land reform; the issue perennially resurfaces since concentration of land and associated resources results in conflict.' Latin American nations are among the world's leaders when it comes to the inequality of land distribution. Land reform, or agrarian reform, as it is more commonly referred to in Latin America, is hardly a new phenomenon. As we will show, the need to develop a policy to redress the consolidation of lands by a powerful few and redistribute it in the name of equity and development has its …


Agdaagux Tribe Of King Cove V. Jewell, Taylor R. Thompson Dec 2015

Agdaagux Tribe Of King Cove V. Jewell, Taylor R. Thompson

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In a lengthy opinion by the Alaska District Court, the battle for a proposed medical emergency road through the Izembek National Refuge stalled. The court held that the Department of the Interior’s No Action Alternative blocked the construction of the road was decided in accordance within the Department’s authority. It is not the end of the battle over the road, as the court alluded that Congress may be able to change this decision.


The Private Causes Of Action Under Cercla: Navigating The Intersection Of Sections 107(A) And 113(F), Jeffrey M. Gaba Dec 2015

The Private Causes Of Action Under Cercla: Navigating The Intersection Of Sections 107(A) And 113(F), Jeffrey M. Gaba

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

The Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) provides three distinct “private” causes of action that allow parties to recover all or part of their cleanup costs from “potentially responsible parties.” Section 107(a)(4)(B) provides a “direct” right of cost recovery. Sections 113(f)(1) and 113(f)(3)(B) provide a right of contribution following a CERCLA civil action or certain judicial or administrative settlements. The relationship among these causes of action has been the source of considerable confusion. Two Supreme Court cases, Cooper Industries, Inc. v. Aviall Services, Inc. and United States v. Atlantic Research Corp. have identified certain situations in which the …


Minimization Criteria For Off-Road Vehicle Use, Louisa S. Eberle Dec 2015

Minimization Criteria For Off-Road Vehicle Use, Louisa S. Eberle

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

President Nixon recognized the controversy surrounding off-road vehicle (ORV) use on public lands when he signed Executive Order 11,644 in 1972. The Executive Order set out minimization criteria that bound federal land management agencies’ ORV area and trail designations. Forty years later, agencies are still struggling to implement the minimization criteria. Recent court opinions have struck down implementation attempts by the National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Forest Service. This note argues that agencies require additional guidance for ORV management, particularly in light of case law that sets a floor for achieving minimization. After examining how the mandate …


Uncloaking The Secrecy Behind Large-Scale Land Deals, Jesse Coleman Dec 2015

Uncloaking The Secrecy Behind Large-Scale Land Deals, Jesse Coleman

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Large-scale investments in agriculture and forestry have far-reaching implications for the lives of affected individuals and communities. They are also an integral part of efforts by national governments to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and improve the governance of land resources. Despite their significance, these “land deals” and the contracts that govern them are often cloaked in secrecy, removed from relevant spheres of public scrutiny and debate.


When Winning Means Losing: Why A State Takeover Of Public Lands May Leave States Without The Minerals They Covet, Robert B. Keiter, John C. Ruple Dec 2015

When Winning Means Losing: Why A State Takeover Of Public Lands May Leave States Without The Minerals They Covet, Robert B. Keiter, John C. Ruple

Wallace Stegner Center for Land, Resources, and the Environment publications

This White Paper, the third in a series assessing state efforts to take over federal public lands, addresses state claims to the minerals underlying those lands. Using Utah as an example, we argue here that even if states overcome extremely long odds to convince a court that the federal government is obligated to dispose of more public land, and that such a disposal obligation necessitates giving the public domain to the states, well established legal principles would prevent grants of most mineral lands to the states. Moreover, any mineral rights that states did obtain would be realized only after years …


Actions And Reactions: The Evolution Of Environmental Common Law And Judicial Activism In India And The United States, Elizabeth B. Fata Dec 2015

Actions And Reactions: The Evolution Of Environmental Common Law And Judicial Activism In India And The United States, Elizabeth B. Fata

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Commander In Chief's Authority To Combat Climate Change, Mark P. Nevitt Dec 2015

The Commander In Chief's Authority To Combat Climate Change, Mark P. Nevitt

Mark P Nevitt

Climate change is the world’s greatest environmental threat. And it is increasingly understood as a threat to domestic and international peace and security. In recognition of this threat, the President has taken the initiative to prepare for climate change’s impact – in some cases drawing sharp objections from Congress. While both the President and Congress have certain constitutional authorities to address the national security threat posed by climate change, the precise contours of their overlapping powers are unclear. As Commander in Chief, the President has the constitutional authority to repel sudden attacks and take care that the laws are faithfully …


Parallels In Public And Private Environmental Governance, Sarah E. Light, Eric W. Orts Dec 2015

Parallels In Public And Private Environmental Governance, Sarah E. Light, Eric W. Orts

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Private actors, including business firms and non-governmental organizations, play an essential role in addressing today’s most serious environmental challenges. Yet scholars have not fully recognized the parallels between public environmental law and the standard-setting and enforcement functions of private environmental governance. “Instrument choice” in environmental law scholarship is generally understood to refer to government actors choosing among options from the public law “toolkit,” which includes prescriptive rules, the creation of property rights, the leveraging of markets, and informational regulation. Each of these major public law tools, however, has a parallel in private environmental governance. This Article first provides a descriptive …


Revising International Law: A Liberal Account Of Natural Resources, Fernando R. Tesón Dec 2015

Revising International Law: A Liberal Account Of Natural Resources, Fernando R. Tesón

Scholarly Publications

In this Article, I defend the view that natural resources originally belong to individuals who have legitimately established private property claims over them. Natural resources do not belong to a collective entity such as the people or the state. My argument is simple. Relying on the Lockean contractarian tradition, I argue that individuals must delegate any resource controlled by the state. This is because all powers of the state are, morally, delegated powers. A group's claims over natural resources is entirely derivative of the original claims of its members. Only individuals can originally appropriate natural resources; only they have the …


Wind Power Growing Pains, K.K. Duvivier Dec 2015

Wind Power Growing Pains, K.K. Duvivier

Sturm College of Law: Faculty Scholarship

The United States loves wind power. Since 2004 alone, U.S. wind capacity has multiplied almost ten times — from about 6.7 gigawatts in 2004 to over 65.9 gigawatts by 2014. This growth in generation potential has been accompanied by a growth in the size of the turbines that deliver that power — from approximately 56 feet in the 1980s to over 300 feet in 2015. As the turbines and meterological or met towers push up into non-surface atmospheric weather layers and navigable airspace over 200 feet, new wake efficiency and competing legal concerns arise.


Legal Aspects Of Coastal Adaption & Resilience In Rhode Island: A Workshop For Municipal Solicitors And Staff, Roger Williams University School Of Law, Marine Affairs Institute, Sea Grant Rhode Island, Coastal Resources Management Council, University Of Rhode Island Graduate School Of Oceanography Dec 2015

Legal Aspects Of Coastal Adaption & Resilience In Rhode Island: A Workshop For Municipal Solicitors And Staff, Roger Williams University School Of Law, Marine Affairs Institute, Sea Grant Rhode Island, Coastal Resources Management Council, University Of Rhode Island Graduate School Of Oceanography

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Mitigating Climate Change By Zoning For Solar Energy Systems: Embracing Clean Energy Technology In Zoning’S Centennial Year, John R. Nolon Dec 2015

Mitigating Climate Change By Zoning For Solar Energy Systems: Embracing Clean Energy Technology In Zoning’S Centennial Year, John R. Nolon

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Adopting land use regulations that encourage solar and other clean energy systems is an essential strategy for promoting clean power and one that focuses on the essential role that local governments play in mitigating climate change. This article explores efforts at the state and local level to reform zoning and land use regulations to permit, encourage, require, and incentivize rapidly-evolving clean energy systems, particularly solar, that, in the aggregate, have the ability to significantly increase power generation and decrease carbon emissions. The article illustrates how zoning, as it approaches its 100th anniversary, is encrusted with provisions that prohibit or discourage …


Energy-Environment Policy Alignments, Todd S. Aagaarad Dec 2015

Energy-Environment Policy Alignments, Todd S. Aagaarad

Washington Law Review

Energy law focuses on making energy widely available at reasonable cost, and environmental law focuses on preventing pollution. As a result of these differences in their respective orientations, the two fields often work incoherently and even in conflict. Historically, federal energy law and environmental law have attempted to manage their interrelationships by imposing negative constraints on each other: Energy policies of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) must comply with requirements set forth in environmental statutes, and the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) statutes contain energy-related requirements and exemptions. More recently, however, FERC and EPA have begun developing policies that create …


Dealing With Ocean Acidification: The Problem, The Clean Water Act, And State And Regional Approaches, Robin Kundis Craig Dec 2015

Dealing With Ocean Acidification: The Problem, The Clean Water Act, And State And Regional Approaches, Robin Kundis Craig

Washington Law Review

Ocean acidification is often referred to as climate change’s “evil twin.” As the global ocean continually absorbs much of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide produced through the burning of fossil fuels, its pH is dropping, causing a plethora of chemical, biological, and ecological impacts. These impacts immediately threaten local and regional fisheries and marine aquaculture; over the long term, they pose the risk of a global mass extinction event. As with climate change itself, the ultimate solution to ocean acidification is a worldwide reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In the interim, however, environmental groups such as the Center for Biological Diversity …


Coping With Uncertainty: Cost-Benefit Analysis, The Precautionary Principle, And Climate Change, Daniel A. Farber Dec 2015

Coping With Uncertainty: Cost-Benefit Analysis, The Precautionary Principle, And Climate Change, Daniel A. Farber

Washington Law Review

Climate scientists are confident that greenhouse gases are causing climate change, but it is difficult to predict the severity of future climate change or its local impacts. Unfortunately, we cannot wait for these uncertainties to be resolved before addressing the issue of climate change. Policymakers use two different strategies for setting climate policy in the face of this uncertainty: cost-benefit analysis and the precautionary principle. Although there has been much discussion of these strategies in the abstract, there has been less effort to assess them in operation. This Article analyzes these strategies and considers their application to climate risks in …


Water, Water, Everywhere: Surface Water Liability, Jill M. Fraley Dec 2015

Water, Water, Everywhere: Surface Water Liability, Jill M. Fraley

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

By 2030 the U.S. will lose around $520 billion annually from its gross domestic product due to flooding. New risks resulting from climate change arise not only from swelling rivers and lakes, but also from stormwater runoff. According to the World Bank, coastal cities risk flooding more from their poor management of surface water than they do from rising sea levels. Surface water liability governs when a landowner is responsible for diverting the flow of water to a neighboring parcel of land. Steep increases in urban flooding will make surface water an enormous source of litigation in the coming decades. …


Rating The Cities: Constructing A City Resilience Index For Assessing The Effect Of State And Local Laws On Long-Term Recovery From Crisis And Disaster, John Travis Marshall Nov 2015

Rating The Cities: Constructing A City Resilience Index For Assessing The Effect Of State And Local Laws On Long-Term Recovery From Crisis And Disaster, John Travis Marshall

John Travis Marshall

Superstorm Sandy, the 2008 Iowa floods, and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita all supply recent reminders that U.S. cities can no longer adopt an ad hoc approach to threats presented by climate change and natural hazards. The stories detailing long-term recovery from these disasters underscore that federal, state, and local governments are struggling to appreciate the legal tools and institutions necessary to implement the large-scale infrastructure, housing, and community development programs that climate change and more frequent natural disasters demand. This Article calls for development of a tool allowing succinct evaluation of the range of community capacities that will figure critically …