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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Sunshine, Stakeholders, And Executive Pay: A Regression-Discontinuity Approach, Brian D. Galle, David I. Walker Dec 2013

Sunshine, Stakeholders, And Executive Pay: A Regression-Discontinuity Approach, Brian D. Galle, David I. Walker

Faculty Scholarship

We evaluate the effect of highly salient disclosure of private college and university president compensation on subsequent donations using a quasi-experimental research design. Using a differences-in-discontinuities approach to compare institutions that are highlighted in the Chronicle of Higher Education’s annual "top 10" list of most highly-compensated presidents against similar others, we find that appearing on a top 10 list is associated with reduced average donations of approximately 4.5 million dollars in the first full fiscal year following disclosure, despite greater fundraising efforts at "top 10" schools. We also find some evidence that top 10 appearances slow the growth of compensation, …


E-Commerce And Electronic Payment System Risks: Lessons From Paypal, Lawrence J. Trautman Oct 2013

E-Commerce And Electronic Payment System Risks: Lessons From Paypal, Lawrence J. Trautman

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

What are the major risks perceived by those engaged in e-commerce and electronic payment systems? What development risks, if they become reality, may cause substantial increases in operating costs or threaten the very survival of the enterprise? This article utilizes the relevant annual report disclosures from eBay (parent of PayPal), along with other eBay and PayPal documents, as a potentially powerful teaching device. Most of the descriptive language to follow is excerpted directly from eBay’s regulatory filings. My additions include weaving these materials into a logical presentation and providing supplemental sources for those who desire a deeper look (usually in …


Hedge Fund Manager Registration Under The Dodd-Frank Act, Wulf A. Kaal Jun 2013

Hedge Fund Manager Registration Under The Dodd-Frank Act, Wulf A. Kaal

San Diego Law Review

Part I of this Article introduces the issue of hedge fund registration and the tension between regulators and the hedge fund industry regarding the appropriate level of regulatory oversight. After a short introduction of historical attempts to register hedge fund managers, Part II describes the legal requirements in the Dodd-Frank Act pertaining to hedge fund managers. Over fifty years of low-level regulatory oversight for the hedge fund industry came to an end with the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act. Part III outlines the methodological approach of the survey study. It introduces the survey instrument, data sources, sampling, coding, and coding …


The Cost Of Securities Fraud, Urska Velikonja May 2013

The Cost Of Securities Fraud, Urska Velikonja

William & Mary Law Review

Under the dominant account, fraudulent financial reporting by public firms harms the firms' shareholders and, more generally, capital markets. This Article contends that the account is incomplete. In addition to undermining investor confidence, misreporting distorts economic decision making by all firms, both those committing fraud and those not. False information impairs risk assessment by those who provide human or financial capital to fraudulent firms, the firms' suppliers and customers, and thus misdirects capital and labor to subpar projects. Efforts to hide fraud and avoid detection further distort fraudulent firms' business decisions, as well as decisions by their rivals, who mimic …


Limits Of Disclosure, Steven M. Davidoff, Claire A. Hill Mar 2013

Limits Of Disclosure, Steven M. Davidoff, Claire A. Hill

Seattle University Law Review

One big focus of attention, criticism, and proposals for reform in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis has been securities disclosure. Many commentators have emphasized the complexity of the securities being sold, arguing that no one could understand the disclosure. Some observers have noted that disclosures were sometimes false or incomplete. What follows these issues, to some commentators, is that, whatever other lessons we may learn from the crisis, we need to improve disclosure. How should it be improved? Commentators often lament the frailties of human understanding, notably including those of everyday retail investors—people who do not understand or …


Truman V. Thomas: The Rise Of Informed Refusal, Thomas M. O'Neil Feb 2013

Truman V. Thomas: The Rise Of Informed Refusal, Thomas M. O'Neil

Pepperdine Law Review

Truman v. Thomas addresses the issue of whether or not a physician must inform a patient of the possible consequences of her refusal to submit to a diagnostic test. The California Supreme Court has determined that a physician has such a duty, and the author provides an examination of this decision and a view of previous case law in the area of informed consent. Although increasing the physician's burden of disclosure, the decision can be seen as a continuation of the trend of cases allowing patients more control over the care of their own bodies.


The Politics Of Privacy In The Criminal Justice System: Information Disclosure, The Fourth Amendment, And Statutory Law Enforcement Exemptions, Erin Murphy Feb 2013

The Politics Of Privacy In The Criminal Justice System: Information Disclosure, The Fourth Amendment, And Statutory Law Enforcement Exemptions, Erin Murphy

Michigan Law Review

When criminal justice scholars think of privacy, they think of the Fourth Amendment. But lately its domain has become far less absolute. The United States Code currently contains over twenty separate statutes that restrict both the acquisition and release of covered information. Largely enacted in the latter part of the twentieth century, these statutes address matters vital to modern existence. They control police access to driver's licenses, educational records, health histories, telephone calls, email messages, and even video rentals. They conform to no common template, but rather enlist a variety of procedural tools to serve as safeguards - ranging from …


Fracking Patents: The Emergence Of Patents As Information-Containment Tools In Shale Drilling, Daniel R. Cahoy, Joel Gehman, Zhen Lei Jan 2013

Fracking Patents: The Emergence Of Patents As Information-Containment Tools In Shale Drilling, Daniel R. Cahoy, Joel Gehman, Zhen Lei

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The advantages of new sources of energy must be weighed against environmental, health, and safety concerns related to new production technology. The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas fields, such as the Barnett and Marcellus Shales, provide an excellent context for these contrasting goals. Information about extraction hazards is an extremely important issue. In general, patents are viewed as a positive force in this regard, providing a vehicle for disseminating information in exchange for a limited property right over an invention. However, by limiting the evaluation of an invention by third parties, patents might also be used to control …


Disclosure As Distribution, Jeremy N. Sheff Jan 2013

Disclosure As Distribution, Jeremy N. Sheff

Faculty Publications

This brief response to the work of Professors Omri Ben-Shahr and Carl Schneider on mandated disclosure regimes investigates the normative criteria underlying their claim that those regimes are failures. Specifically, it unpacks the pieces of those authors' implicit cost-benefit analysis, revealing inherently normative judgments about desert and responsibility at the core of their (or any) critique of disclosure regimes. Disclosure regimes may aim to improve human decisionmaking behaviors, but those behaviors are influenced in non-deterministic ways by cognitive capacities that are heterogeneously distributed among subjects of the regimes. Accordingly, any claim regarding the normative desirability of disclosure regimes (or any …


Dead People Don’T Eat: Food Governmentenomics And Conflicts-Of-Interest In The Usda And Fda, Gabriela Steier Jan 2013

Dead People Don’T Eat: Food Governmentenomics And Conflicts-Of-Interest In The Usda And Fda, Gabriela Steier

Gabriela Steier

Conflicts of interest permeate the governance of the federal advisory committees that issue recommendations to consumer protection agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and, therefore, American consumers need a federal solution to protect their health from biased recommendations. In order to promote a business-friendly food pyramid, agribusinesses and food industrialists lobby for dietary guidelines to adapt the dietary guidelines illustrated by the food pyramid to boos their sales. The resulting guidelines cause great damage to public health, environmental pollution, and loss of democratic freedoms. As a result, the FDA …


Arbitration Clauses In Fee Retainer Agreements., Chrissy L. Schwennsen Jan 2013

Arbitration Clauses In Fee Retainer Agreements., Chrissy L. Schwennsen

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

Due to the variety of approaches jurisdictions employ when determining the legal ramifications of arbitration clauses in fee retainer agreements, it’s best to include an explanation of the legal consequences of arbitration in the agreements. The attorney can, and should, fully explain the potential benefits of arbitration to clients. State courts take various viewpoints on the issue, and most stand contrary to the position of the American Bar Association (ABA) and state ethics committees on the subject. Consequently, attorneys must disclose truthful and accurate information regarding arbitration agreements when engaged in multijurisdictional practice in order to ensure protection from malpractice …


Confidentiality: The Illusion And The Reality— Affirmative Steps For Lawyers And Mediators To Help Safeguard Their Mediation Communications, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2013

Confidentiality: The Illusion And The Reality— Affirmative Steps For Lawyers And Mediators To Help Safeguard Their Mediation Communications, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Confidentiality is one promise of mediation that is increasingly broken, even though judges, lawyers and mediators frequently extol the sacredness of mediation confidentiality as a primary benefit for considering mediation as a settlement forum. We observe that legal challenges to any aspect of the mediation have caused judges to scrutinize mediation communications in a way that renders mediation confidentiality vulnerable at a minimum and violated at the worst. We are finding it a chronic challenge to decipher the precise and appropriate boundaries of mediation confidentiality. Moreover, we are increasingly discomforted to see that even unsuccessful legal challenges to mediation …


Revisiting Securities Regulation In The Aftermath Of The Global Financial Crisis: Disclosure – Panacea Or Pandora’S Box?, S M. Solaiman Jan 2013

Revisiting Securities Regulation In The Aftermath Of The Global Financial Crisis: Disclosure – Panacea Or Pandora’S Box?, S M. Solaiman

Faculty of Law, Humanities and the Arts - Papers (Archive)

The United States introduced federal securities regulation by adopting the Disclosure-Based Regulation (DBR) in 1933 resembling the doctrine of caveat venditor (DCV) as a substitute for the doctrine of caveat emptor (DCE) in the securities market. The overarching objective of the DBR was to protect investors by enabling them to make 'informed decisions'. Although the change aimed to protect investors, the causes of the GFC suggest that the DCV exists only in theory, while issuers of securities are still enjoying the benefits of the DCE in practice. Financial innovations that intend to camouflage the risks inherent in the complex derivative …


The System Of Campaign Finance Disclosure, Anthony Johnstone Jan 2013

The System Of Campaign Finance Disclosure, Anthony Johnstone

Faculty Law Review Articles

This Essay considers Professor Gilbert’s model as the core element in a dynamic system of campaign finance disclosure. First, it recognizes several useful contributions of the model’s framework of informational costs and benefits. In the simplest analysis, disclosure increases the information available to voters by adding source revelation to campaign speech. However, the reality is more complicated. Disclosure can have a chilling effect that decreases the amount of campaign speech by imposing administrative and exposure burdens on speakers. As Professor Gilbert shows, this cannot end the analysis. What matters is not just the magnitude of the chilling effect on speech, …


Brady, Arkansas Rule 17.1, And Disclosure Of Scientific Evidence And Expert Opinion, J. Thomas Sullivan Jan 2013

Brady, Arkansas Rule 17.1, And Disclosure Of Scientific Evidence And Expert Opinion, J. Thomas Sullivan

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

The United States Constitution as well as state procedural rules require prosecutorial authorities to disclose evidence to the defense as a means for ensuring fairness in the prosecution of individuals charged with criminal offenses. When prosecutorial authorities fail to disclose evidence as required, the integrity of the criminal justice system is threatened and the defense is unable to adequately prepare for trial. This threat is illustrated and magnified by the substantiation of prosecutorial misconduct claims in high profile trials where prosecutors have been unable to resist the temptation not to disclose evidence that could damage the prosecution's case, or, where …


Mandating Precontractual Disclosure, Eric Franklin Amarante Jan 2013

Mandating Precontractual Disclosure, Eric Franklin Amarante

Scholarly Works

Parties negotiating an arm’s length contract are generally not required to disclose facts to one another. Although this default rule is supported by both centuries of common law and freedom of contract principles, courts and legislatures treat certain transactions differently. This is particularly true in circumstances in which the default rule results in an unacceptable harm suffered by a broad group of persons. In such cases, lawmakers have acted to impose precontractual disclosure obligations. These decisions and statutes are largely reactive: a harm is identified in a certain transaction’s precontractual period and disclosure is mandated to rectify the harm. These …


Voting Rights Disclosure, Spencer A. Overton Jan 2013

Voting Rights Disclosure, Spencer A. Overton

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In "Beyond the Discrimination Model On Voting," 127 Harvard Law Review 95 (2013), Professor Samuel Issacharoff proposes that Congress turn away from what he considers the outdated and “limited race-driven use” of the Fifteenth Amendment and instead protect all types of voters from partisan manipulation using a “non-civil rights” Elections Clause approach. Specifically, Issacharoff proposes that jurisdictions disclose changes to voting rules for federal elections. This Essay argues that Issacharoff’s approach is incomplete. Contemporary discrimination exists and warrants attention — particularly where fast-growing minority populations threaten the status quo. This discrimination differs from simple partisan manipulation, as the discrimination reduces …


Revisiting 'Truth In Securities Revisited': Abolishing Ipos And Harnessing Private Markets In The Public Good, Adam C. Pritchard Jan 2013

Revisiting 'Truth In Securities Revisited': Abolishing Ipos And Harnessing Private Markets In The Public Good, Adam C. Pritchard

Articles

My thesis is that the transition between private- and public-company status could be less bumpy if we unify the public-private dividing line under the Securities Act and Exchange Act. The insight builds on Cohen's thought experiment where Congress first enacted the Exchange Act. My proposed public-private standard would take the company-registration model to its logical conclusion. The customary path to public-company status is through an IPO, typically with simultaneous listing of the shares on an exchange. There is nothing about public offerings, however, that makes them inherently antecedent to public-company status. What if companies became public, with required periodic disclosures …


Making Corporate Governance Codes More Effective: A Response To The European Commission's Action Plan Of December 2012, Peter Böckli, Paul L. Davies, Eilis Ferran, Guido Ferrarini, José M. Garrido Garcia, Klaus J. Hopt, Alain Pietrancosta, Katharina Pistor, Markus Roth, Rolf Skog, Stanislaw Soltysinski, Jaap W. Winter, Eddy Wymeersch Jan 2013

Making Corporate Governance Codes More Effective: A Response To The European Commission's Action Plan Of December 2012, Peter Böckli, Paul L. Davies, Eilis Ferran, Guido Ferrarini, José M. Garrido Garcia, Klaus J. Hopt, Alain Pietrancosta, Katharina Pistor, Markus Roth, Rolf Skog, Stanislaw Soltysinski, Jaap W. Winter, Eddy Wymeersch

Faculty Scholarship

This paper contains the European Company Law Experts' response to one of the main issues raised in the European Commission’s Action Plan of 12 December 2012, namely how to make corporate governance codes more effective. The concept of “codes’ effectiveness” has two meanings: effectiveness of the comply-explain mechanism (disclosure effectiveness) and level of adoption of the codes’ recommendations themselves (substantive effectiveness). The ECLE believes that it is of crucial importance to keep the advantages of regulation by codes while finding adequate improvements of the quality of the reports and the explanations. The relationship between the content of corporate governance codes …


The President's Enforcement Power, Kate Andrias Jan 2013

The President's Enforcement Power, Kate Andrias

Articles

Enforcement of law is at the core of the President’s constitutional duty to “take Care” that the laws are faithfully executed, and it is a primary mechanism for effecting national regulatory policy. Yet questions about how presidents oversee agency enforcement activity have received surprisingly little scholarly attention. This Article provides a positive account of the President’s role in administrative enforcement, explores why presidential enforcement has taken the shape it has, and examines the bounds of the President’s enforcement power. It demonstrates that presidential involvement in agency enforcement, though extensive, has been ad hoc, crisis-driven, and frequently opaque. The Article thus …


“Publicness” In Contemporary Securities Regulation After The Jobs Act, Donald C. Langevoort, Robert B. Thompson Jan 2013

“Publicness” In Contemporary Securities Regulation After The Jobs Act, Donald C. Langevoort, Robert B. Thompson

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The JOBS Act of 2012 reflects the largest deregulatory change to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 over its more than 75 year history. It contracts the coverage of those companies subject to the obligations of ‘publicness” and it introduces an “on ramp” that will permit most newly-public companies to meet a lesser set of disclosure, internal control and governance obligations for up to five years. We set these changes against a larger discussion of when a private enterprise should be forced to take on public status in securities regulation, a topic that has been entirely under theorized. We conclude …


Skating Too Close To The Edge: A Cautionary Tale For Tax Practitioners About The Hazards Of Waiver, Claudine Pease-Wingenter Dec 2012

Skating Too Close To The Edge: A Cautionary Tale For Tax Practitioners About The Hazards Of Waiver, Claudine Pease-Wingenter

Claudine Pease-Wingenter

The Federal Rules of Evidence defer to common law in establishing the rules of attorney-client privilege. As a general matter, such an approach creates a fairly uncertain legal landscape as each court articulates the baseline rules somewhat differently. The varied judicial applications of those differing rules can then exacerbate the uncertainty even more.

Unfortunately, in the area of tax law, the rules and their application are particularly uncertain because attorneys and accountants have overlapping responsibilities to clients and the courts have historically refused to recognize an accountant-client privilege. During my approximately eight years practicing corporate tax law, I was acutely …